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at the next general election for members of the House of Representatives, the vote to be taken thereon in such manner as the General Assembly may provide, and to be certified by the officers of election to the Secretary of State in such manner as shall be provided by law, which vote shall be compared and certified by the same board authorized by law to compare the polls and give certificates of election to officers for the State at large. If it shall appear that a majority of the votes cast for and against an amendment at said election was for the amendment, then the same shall become a part of the Constitution of this Commonewalth and shall be so proclaimed by the Governor and published in such manner as the General Assembly may direct. Said amendments shall not be submitted at an election which occurs less than ninety days from the final passage of such proposed amendment or amendments. Not more than two amendments shall be voted upon at any one time. Nor shall the same amendment be again submitted within five years after submission. Said amendments shall be so submitted as to allow a separate vote on each, and no amendment shall relate to more than one subject. But no amendment shall be proposed by the first General Assembly which convenes after the adoption of this Constitution, The approval of the Governor shall not be necessary to any bill, order, resolution or vote of the General Assembly, proposing an amendment or amendments to this Constitution.

SEC. 257. Before an amendment shall be submitted to a vote, the Secretary of State shall cause such proposed amendment, and the time that the same is to be voted upon, to be published at least ninety days before the vote is to be taken thereon in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 258. When a majority of all the members elected to each House of the General Assembly shall concur, by a yea and nay vote. to be entered upon their respective journals, in enacting a law to take the sense of the people of the State as to the necessity and expediency of calling a convention for the purpose of revising or amending this Constitution, and such amendments as may have been made to the same, such law shall be spread upon their respective journals. If the next General Assembly shall, in like manner, concur in such law, it shall provide for having a poll opened in each voting precinct in this State by the officers provided by law for holding general elections at the next ensuing regular election to be held for State officers or members of the House of Representatives, which does not occur within ninety. days from the final passage of such law, at which time and places the votes of the qualified voters shall be taken for and against calling the Convention, in the same manner provided by law for taking votes in other State elections. The vote for and against said proposition shall be certified to the Secretary of State by the same officers and in the same manner as in State elections. If it shall appear that a majority voting on the proposition was for calling a convention, and if the total number of votes cast for the calling of the convention is equal to one-fourth of the number of qualified voters who voted at the last preceding general election in this State, the Secretary of State shall certify the same to the General Assembly at its next regular session, at which session a law shall be enacted calling a convention to readopt, revise or amend this Constitution, and such amendments as may have been made thereto.

SEC. 259. The convention shall consist of as many delegates as there are members of the House of Representatives; and the delegates shall have the same qualifications and be elected from the same districts as said Representatives.

SEC. 260. Delegates to such convention shall be elected at the next general State election after the passage of the act calling the convention, which does not occur within less than ninety days; and they shall meet within ninety days after their election at the capital of the State, and continue in session until their work is completed.


SEC. 261. The General Assembly, in the act calling the convention, shall provide for comparing the polls and giving certificates of election to the delegates elected, and provide for their compensation.

SEC. 262. The convention, when assembled, shall be the judge of the election and qualification of its members, and shall determine contested elections. But the General Assembly shall, in the act calling the convention, provide for taking testimony in such cases, and for issuing a writ of election in case of a tie.

SEC. 263. Before a vote is taken upon the question of calling a convention, the Secretary of State shall cause notice of the election to be published in such manner as may, be provided by the act directing said vote to be




That no inconvenience may arise from the alterations and amendments made in this Constitution, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared and ordained:

First: That all laws of this Commonwealth in force at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force until altered or repealed by the General Assembly; and all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims and contracts of the State, counties, individuals or bodies corporate, not inconsistent therewith, shall continue as valid as if this Constitution had not been adopted. The provisions of all laws which are inconsistent with this Constitution shall cease upon its adoption, except that all laws which are inconsistent with such provisions as require legislation to enforce them shall remain in force until such legislation is had, but not longer than six years after the adoption of this Constitution, unless sooner amended or repealed by the General Assembly.

Second: That all recognizances, obligations and all other instruments entered into or executed before the adoption of this Constitution, to the State, or to any city, town, county or subdivision thereof, and all fines, taxes, penalties and forfeitures due or owing to this State, or to any city, town, county or subdivision thereof; and all writs, prosecutions, actions and causes of action, except as otherwise herein provided, shall continue and remain unaffected by the adoption of this Constitution. And all indictments which shall have been found, or may hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this Constitution takes effect, may be prosecuted as if no change had taken place, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Third: All circuit, chancery, criminal, law and equity. law, and Common Pleas Courts, as now constituted and organized by law, shall continue with their respective jurisdictions until the Judges of the Circuit Courts provided for in this Constitution shall have been elected and qualified, and shall then cease and determine; and the causes, actions and proceedings then pending in said first named courts, which are discontinued by this Constitution, shall be transferred to, and tried by, the Circuit Courts in the counties, respectively. in which said causes, actions and proceedings are pending.

Fourth: The Treasurer, Attorney-General, Auditor of Public Accounts, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Register of the Land Office, elected in eighteen hundred and ninety-one, shall hold their offices until the first Monday in January, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, and until the election and qualification of their successors. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor elected in eighteen hundred and ninety-one shall hold their offices until the sixth Tuesday after the first Monday in November, eighteen hundred and ninetyfive, and until their successors are elected and qualified. The Governor and Treasurer elected in eighteen hundred and ninety-one shall be ineligible to the succeeding term. The Governor elected in eighteen hundred and ninety-one may appoint a Secretary of State and a Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, as now provided, who shall hold their offices until their successors are elected and qualified, unless sooner removed by the Governor. The official bond of the present Treasurer shall be renewed at the expiration of two years from the time of his qualification.

Fifth All officers who may be in office at the adoption of this Constitution, or who may be elected before the election of their successors, as provided in this Constitution, shall hold their respective offices until their suc

cessors are elected or appointed and qualified as provided in this Constitution.

Sixth: The quarterly courts created by this Constitution shall be the successors of the present statutory Quarterly Courts in the several counties of this State; and suits, proceedings, prosecutions, records and judgments now pending or being in said last named courts, shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, be transferred to the Quarterly Courts created by this Constitution, and shall proceed as though the same had been therein instituted.


We, the representatives of the people of Kentucky, in convention assembled, in their name and by their authority and in virtue of the power vested in us as Delegates from the counties and districts respectively affixed to our names, do ordain and proclaim the foregoing to be the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Kentucky from and after this date.

Done at Frankfort this twenty-eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one, and in the one hundredth year of the Commonwealth.




We, the people of the State of Louisiana, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties we enjoy and desiring to secure the continuance of these blessings, do ordain and establish this Constitution.



ARTICLE 1. All government, of right, originates with the people, is founded on their will alone and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. only legitimate end is to secure justice to all, preserve peace and promote the interest and happiness of the people.

ART. 2. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, except by due process of law.

ART. 3. No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press; any person may speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

ART. 4. Every person has the natural right to worship God, according to the dictates of his conscience, and no law shall be passed respecting an establishment of religion.

ART. 5. The people have the right peaceably to assemble and apply to those vested with the powers of government for a redress of grievances by petition or remonstrance.

ART. 6. All courts shall be open, and every person for injury done him in his rights, lands, goods, person or reputation shall have adequate remedy by due process of law and justice administered without denial, partiality or unreasonable delay.

ART. 7. The right of the people to be secured in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated and no warrant shall issue except upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

ART. 8. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be abridged. This shall not prevent the passage of laws to punish those who carry weapons concealed.


ART. 9. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; provided, that cases in which the penalty is not necessarily imprisonment at hard labor, or death, shall be tried by the court without a jury or by a jury less than twelve in number, as provided elsewhere in this Constitution; provided further, that all trials shall take place in the parish in which the offense was committed, unless the venue be changed. The accused in every instance shall have the right to be confronted with the witnesses against him; he shall have the right to defend himself, to have the assistance of counsel, and to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. Prosecutions shall be by indietment or information; but the General Assembly may provide for the prosecution of misdemeanors on affidavits; provided, that no person shall be held to answer for a capital crime unless on a presentment or indictment by a

*The constitution of Louisiana was drafted by a convention which assembled at Baton Rouge on November 10, 1913, and adjourned on November 22, 1913. The constitution was not submitted to the electors but was promulgated by the convention itself and declared to be in force from and after November 22, 1913. The constitution is based largely on the constitution of 1898 and although manifestly complete in itself contains a provision in the Schedule that "the omission from this Constitution of any Article of the Constitution of 1898 and the amendments thereto or of any other existing Constitutional provision shall not amount to the repeal thereof, unless the same be inconsistent with this Constitution."

grand jury, except in cases arising in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be twice put in jeopardy of life or liberty for the same offense, except on his own application for a new trial, or where there is a mistrial, or a motion in arrest of judgment is sustained.

ART. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him; and when tried by jury shall have the right to challenge jurors peremptorily, the number of challenges to be fixed by law.

ART. 11. No person shall be compelled to give evidence against himself in a criminal case, or in any proceeding that may subject him to criminal prosecution, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

ART. 12. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses where the proof is evident or presumption great, or unless after conviction for any crime or offense punishable with death or imprisonment at hard labor.

ART. 13. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

ART. 14. The military shall be in subordination to the civil power. ART. 15. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to deny or impair other rights of the people not herein expressed.


ART. 16. The powers of the government of the State of Louisiana shali be divided into three distinct departments, each of them to be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to-wit: Those which are legislative to one, those which are executive to another, and those which are judicial to another.

ART. 17. No one of these departments, nor any person or collection of persons holding office in one of them, shall exercise power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.


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ART. 18. Representation in the House of Representatives shall be equal and uniform, and shall be based upon population. Each parish and each ward of the City of New Orleans shall have at least one representative. At its first regular session after the adoption of this Constitution, and at its first regular session after each United States census thereafter, the General Assembly shall and it is hereby directed to reapportion the representation among the several parishes and wards of the City of New Orleans on the basis of the total population shown by such census. A representative number shall be fixed and each parish and ward of the City of New Orleans shall have as many representatives as such representative number is contained in the total number of inhabitants of such parish or ward of the City of New Orleans, as shown by the last preceding United States census, and one additional representative for every fraction exceeding one-half the representative number. The num ber of representatives shall not be more than one hundred and twenty (120), provided that when a new parish or parishes is or are created as authorized by this Constitution, and the maximum number of representatives has been previously apportioned to other parishes, then such new parish or parishes shall be assigned a representative each in addition to the maximum one hundred and twenty fixed herein, and to that extent the maximum shall be increased, until the next apportionment of representatives is made by the General Assembly at which time the maximum of one hundred and twenty shall be restored. That if there is more than one representative in a parish from which the larger portion of the territory is taken for the purpose of creating a new parish, one of such representatives may be apportioned to the new parish in the same act which creates the parish.

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