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schools shall be distributed to the districts in proportion to the number of youths, between the ages of five and twenty-one years, in such manner as may be provided by the general assembly.

ARTICLE X.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION,

SECTION 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be proposed in either house of the general assembly; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the legislature to be chosen at the next general election, and shall be published, as provided by law, for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if, in the general assembly so next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the general assembly to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people in such manner, and at such time as the general assembly shall provide; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the general assembly, voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the constitution of this state.

SEC. 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at the same time. they shall be submitted in such manner that the electors shall vote for or against each of such amendments separately.

SEC. 3. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at such times as the general assembly may, by law, provide, the question, "Shall there be a convention to revise the constitution, and amend the same?" shall be decided by the electors qualified to vote for members of the general assembly; and in case a majority of the electors so qualified, voting at such election for and against such proposition, shall decide in favor of a convention for such purpose, the general assembly, at its next session, shall provide by law for the election of delegates to such convention.

ARTICLE XI.

MISCELLANEOUS.

SECTION 1. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend to all civil cases (except cases in chancery, and cases where the question of title to real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any amount not exceeding three hundred dollars.

SEC. 2. No new county shall be hereafter created containing less than four hundred and thirty-two square miles; nor shall the territory of any organized county be reduced below that area; except the county of Worth, and the counties west of it along the northern boundary of this state, may be organized without additional territory.

SEC. 3. No county, or other political or municipal corporation shall be allowed to become indebted in any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount in the aggregate, exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable property within such county or corporation-to be ascertained by the last state and county tax lists, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness.

SEC. 4. The boundaries of the state may be enlarged, with the consent of congress and the general assembly.

SEC. 5. Every person elected or appointed to any office, shall, before entering upon the duties thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the constitution of the United States, and of this state, and also an oath of office.

SEC. 6. In all cases of elections to fill vacancies in office occurring before the expiration of a full term, the person so elected shall hold for the residue of the unexpired term; and all persons appointed to fill vacancies in office, shall

hold until the next general election, and until their successors are elected and qualified.

SEC. 7. The general assembly shall not locate any of the public lands which have been, or may be granted by congress to this state, and the location of which may be given to the general assembly, upon lands actually settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim of such occupant so exempted, shall not exceed three hundred and twenty acres.

SEC. 8. The seat of government is hereby permanently established, as now fixed by law, at the city of Des Moines, in the county of Polk; and the state university at Iowa City, in the county of Johnson.

ARTICLE XII.

SCHEDULE.

SECTION 1. This constitution shall be the supreme law of the state, and any law inconsistent therewith shall be void. The general assembly shall pass all laws necessary to carry this constitution into effect.

SEC. 2. All laws now in force, and not inconsistent with this constitution, shall remain in force until they shall expire or be repealed.

SEC. 3. All indictments, prosecutions, suits, pleas, plaints, process, and other proceedings pending in any of the courts, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution; and all appeals, writs of error, certiorari, and injunctions, shall be carried on in the several courts, in the same manner as now provided by law, and all offenses, misdemeanors, and crimes that may have been committed before the taking effect of this constitution, shall be subject to indictment, trial, and punishment, in the same manner as they would have been had not this constitution been made.

SEC. 4. All fines, penalties, or forfeitures due, or to become due, or accruing to the state, or to any county therein, or to the school fund, shall inure to the state, county or school fund, in the manner prescribed by law.

SEC. 5. All bonds executed to the state, or to any officer in his official capacity, shall remain in force and inure to the use of those concerned.

SEC. 6. The first election under this constitution shall be held on the second Tuesday in October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, at which time the electors of the state shall elect the governor and lieutenantgovernor. There shall also be elected at such election, the successors of such state senators as were elected at the August election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, and members of the house of representatives, who shall be elected in accordance with the act of apportionment, enacted at the session of the general assembly which commenced on the first Monday of December, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six.

SEC. 7. The first election for secretary, auditor, and treasurer of state, attorney-general, district judges, members of the board of education, district attorneys, members of congress, and such state officers as shall be elected at the April election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven (except the superintendent of public instruction), and such county officers as were elected at the August election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, except prosecuting attorneys, shall be held on the second Tuesday of October. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight; provided that the time for which any district judge or other state or county officer elected at the April election in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight shall not extend beyond the time fixed for filling like offices at the October election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight.

SEC. 8. The first election for judges of the supreme court, and such county officers as shall be elected at the August election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, shall be held on the second Tuesday of October, in the year one thousand, eight hundred and fifty-nine.

SEC. 9. The first regular session of the general assembly shall be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, commencing on the second Monday of January of said year.

SEC. 10. Senators elected at the August election, in the year one thousand

eight hundred and fifty-six, shall continue in office until the second Tuesday of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, at which time their successors shall be elected as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 11. Every person elected by popular vote, by a vote of the general assembly, or who may hold office by executive appointment, which office is continued by this constitution, and every person who shall be so elected or appointed to any such office, before the taking effect of this constitution (except as in this constitution otherwise provided), shall continue in office until the term for which such person has been or may be elected or appointed shall expire; but no such person shall continue in office after the taking effect of this constitution, for a longer period than the term of such office, in this constitution prescribed.

SEC. 12. The general assembly, at the first session under this constitution. shall district the state into eleven judicial districts, for district court purposes; and shall also provide for the apportionment of the members of the general assembly in accordance with the provisions of this constitution.

SEC. 13. This constitution shall be submitted to the electors of the state at the August election. in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, in the several election districts in this state. The ballots at such election shall be written or printed as follows: Those in favor of the constitution, "new constitution-yes." Those against the constitution, "new constitution-no." The elections shall be conducted in the same manner as the general elections of the state, and the poll-books shall be returned and canvassed as provided in the twenty-fifth chapter of the code, and abstracts shall be forwarded to the secretary of state, which abstracts shall be canvassed in the manner provided for the canvass of state officers. And if it shall appear that a majority of all the votes cast at such election for and against this constitution are in favor of the same, the governor shall immediately issue his proclamation stating that fact, and such constitution shall be the constitution of the state of Iowa, and shall take effect from and after the publication of said proclamation.

SEC. 14. At the same election that this constitution is submitted to the people for its adoption or rejection, a proposition to amend the same by striking out the word "white," from the article on the "right of suffrage," shall be separately submitted to the electors of this state for adoption or rejection, in the manner following, viz. : A separate ballot may be given by every person having a right to vote at said election, to be deposited in a separate box. And those given for the adoption of such proposition shall have the words, "shall the word 'white' be stricken out of the article on the right of suffrage? yes.” And those given against the proposition shall have the words, "shall the word 'white' be stricken out of the article on the 'right of suffrage?' no." And if at said election the number of ballots cast in favor of said proposition, shall be equal to a majority of those cast for and against this constitution, then said word "white" shall be stricken from said article and be no part thereof.

SEC. 15. Until otherwise directed by law, the county of Mills shall be in and a part of the sixth judicial district of this state.

SEC. 16. The first general election after the adoption of this amendment shall be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November in the year one thousand nine hundred and six, and general elections shall be held biennially thereafter. In the year one thousand nine hundred and six there shall be elected a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state, attorney-general, two judges of the supreme court. the successors of the judges of the district court whose terms of office expire on December 31st, one thousand nine hundred and six, state senators who would otherwise be chosen in the year one thousand nine hundred and five, and members of the house of representatives. The terms of office of the judges of the supreme court which would otherwise expire on December 31st, in oddnumbered years, and all other elective state, county and township officers, whose terms of office would otherwise expire in January in the year one thousand nine hundred and six, and members of the general assembly whose successors would otherwise be chosen at the general election in the year one thousand nine hundred and five, are hereby extended one year and until their

successors are elected and qualified.

The terms of offices of senators whose successors would otherwise be chosen in the year one thousand nine hundred and seven are hereby extended one year and until their successors are elected and qualified. The general assembly shall make such changes in the law governing the time of election and terms of office of all other elective officers as shall be necessary to make the time of their election and terms of office conform to this amendment, and shall provide which of the judges of the supreme court shall serve as chief justice. The general assembly shall meet in regular session on the second Monday in January, in the year one thousand nine hundred and six, and also on the second Monday in January in the year one thousand nine hundred and seven, and biennially thereafter.15

Done in convention at Iowa City, this fifth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the eighty-first.

In testimony whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names: Attest:

FRANCIS STRINGER, President.

TH. J. SAUNDER, Secretary.

E. N. BATES, Assistant Secretary.

Section 16 is a new section; it was proposed by the general assembly of 1902; re-adopted by the general assembly of 1904; ratified at the general election of November 8, 1904, and certified adopted on November 29, 1904.

CONSTITUTION OF KANSAS-1859*

PREAMBLE.

We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious privileges, in order to insure the full enjoyment of our rights as American citizens, do ordain and establish this constitution of the state of Kansas, with the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at a point on the western boundary of the state of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence running west on said parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north on said meridian to the fortieth parallel of north latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the state of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said state to the place of beginning.

BILL OF RIGHTS.

SECTION 1. All men are possessed of equal and inalienable natural rights. among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

SEC. 2. All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and are instituted for their equal protection and benefit. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted by the legislature, which may not be altered, revoked or repealed by the same body; and this power shall be exercised by no other tribunal or agency.

SEC. 3. The people have the right to assemble, in a peaceable manner, to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the government, or any department thereof, for the redress of griev

ances.

SEC. 4. The people have the right to bear arms for their defense and security; but standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be tolerated, and the military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.

SEC. 5. The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate.

SEC. 6. There shall be no slavery in this state; and no involuntary servitude, except for the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

SEC. 7. The right to worship God according to the dictates of conscience shall never be infringed; nor shall any person be compelled to attend or support any form of worship; nor shall any control of or interference with the rights of conscience be permitted, nor any preference be given by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship. No religious test or property qualification shall be required for any office of public trust, nor for any vote at any election; nor shall any person be incompetent to testify on account of religious belief.

SEC. 8. The right to the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended. unless the public safety requires it in case of invasion or rebellion.

SEC. 9. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties except for capital offenses where proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted.

*The constitution of Kansas was drafted by a convention which assembled at Wyandotte on July 5, 1859, and adjourned on July 29, 1859. The constitution was submitted to the voters for ratification or rejection at an election held on October 4. 1859; at the same election each voter was permitted to vote on the question of the adoption or rejection of Section 9 of Article 15, relative to homestead exemptions. The constitution was adopted by a vote of 10,421 to 5,530, and the homestead provision by a vote of 8,758 to 4,772. The constitution became effective on January 29, 1861.

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