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SEC. 6. The district court shall be a court of law and equity, which shall be distinct and separate jurisdictions, and have jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 7. The judges of the supreme and district court shall be conservators of the peace throughout the state.

SEC. S. prosecutions

The style of all process shall be "The State of Iowa," and all shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the

same.

SEC. 9. The salary of each judge of the supreme court shall be two thousand dollars per annum; and that of each district judge one thousand six hundred dollars per annum, until the year eighteen hundred and sixty; after which time they shall severally receive such compensation as the general assembly may, by law, prescribe; which compensation shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected.

SEC. 10. The state shall be divided into eleven judicial districts; and after the year eighteen hundred and sixty, the general assembly may reorganize the judicial districts, and increase or diminish the number of districts, or the number of judges of the said court, and may increase the number of judges of the supreme court; but such increase or diminution shall not be more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session; and no reorganization of the districts, or diminution of the judges, shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. Such reorganization of the districts, or any change in the boundaries thereof, or any increase or diminution of the numher of judges, shall take place every four years thereafter, if necessary, and at no other time.

At any regular session of the general assembly, the state may be divided into the necessary judicial districts for district court purposes, or the said districts may be reorganized and the number of the districts and the judges of said courts increased or diminished; but no reorganization of the districts or diminution of the judges shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. 10

SEC. 11. The judges of the supreme and district courts shall be chosen at the general election; and the term of office of each judge shall commence on the first day of January next after his election.

SEC. 12. The general assembly shall provide, by law, for the election of an attorney-general by the people, whose term of office shall be two years. and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified.

SEC. 13. The qualified electors of each county shall, at the general election in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-six, and every two years there' after elect a county attorney, who shall be a resident of the county for which he is elected, and shall hold his office for two years, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified.11

SEC. 14. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to provide for the carrying into effect of this article, and to provide for a general system of practice in all the courts of this state.

[SEC. 15.] The grand jury may consist of any number of members not less than five. nor more than fifteen, as the general assembly may by law provide, or the general assembly may provide for holding persons to answer for any criminal offense without the intervention of the grand jury.12

The second paragraph of section 10 is an amendment; it was proposed by the general assembly of 1882; was re-adopted by the general assembly of 1884; was ratified at the election of November 4, 1884, and certified as adopted on December 19. 1884.

"Amendment proposed by the general assembly of 1882; re-adopted by the general assembly of 1884: ratified at the election of November 4, 1884, and certified adopted on December 10, 1884.

12Amendment proposed by the general assembly of 1882; re-adopted by the general assembly of 1884; ratified at the election of November 4, 1884, and certified adopted on December 10, 1884.

ARTICLE VI.

MILITIA.

SECTION 1. The militia of this state shall be composed of all able-bodied male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States, or of this state; and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the general assembly may provide by law.13

SEC. 2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to do military duty in time of peace; provided that such person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption in the same manner as other citizens.

SEC. 3. All commissioned officers of the militia (staff officers excepted) shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be commissioned by the governor.

ARTICLE VII.

STATE DEBTS.

SECTION 1. The credit of the state shall not in any manner be given or loaned to, or in aid of, any individual, association, or corporation; and the state shall never assume, or become responsible for the debts or liabilities of any individual, association, or corporation, unless incurred in time of war for the benefit of the state.

SEC. 2. The state may contract debts to supply casual deficits or failures in revenue; or to meet expenses not otherwise provided for; but the aggre gate amount of such debts, direct and contingent, whether contracted by virtue of one or more acts of the general assembly, or at different periods of time. shall never exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the money arising from the creation of such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which it was obtaained, or to repay the debts so contracted. and to no other purpose whatever.

SEC. 3. All losses to the permanent school, or university fund of this state, which shall have been occasioned by the defalcation, mismanagement. or fraud of the agents or officers controlling and managing the same, shall be audited by the proper authorities of the state. The amount so audited shall be a permanent funded debt against the state, in favor of the respective 'fund sustaining the loss, upon which not less than six per cent annual interest shall be paid. The amount of liability so created shall not be counted as a part of the indebtedness authorized by the second section of this article.

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SEC. 4. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, this state may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the state in war; but the money arising from the debts so contracted shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts. and to no other purpose whatever.

SEC. 5. Except the debts hereinbefore specified in this article, no debt shall be hereafter contracted by, or on behalf of this state, unless such debt shall be authorized by some law for some single work or object, to be dis tinctly specified therein; and such law shall impose and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax, sufficient to pay the interest on such debt, as it falls due and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt. within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof; but no such law shall take effect until at a general election it shall have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election; and all money raised by authority of such law. shall be applied only to the specific object therein stated, or to the payment of the debt created thereby; and such law shall be published in at least one

13 Amendment proposed by the general assembly of 1866; re-adopted by the general assembly of 1868; ratified at the election of November 3, 1868, and proclaimed adopted on December 8, 1868.

newspaper in each county, if one is published therein, throughout the state, for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the people. SEC. 6. The legislature may, at any time, after the approval of such law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the same; and may at any time forbid the contracting of any further debt, or liability, under such law; but the tax imposed by such law, in proportion to the debt or liability which may have been contracted in pursuance thereof, shall remain in force and be irrepealable, and be annually collected, until the principal and interest are fully paid.

SEC. 7. Every law which imposes, continues, or revises a tax, shall distinctly state the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object.

ARTICLE VIII.

CORPORATIONS.

SECTION 1. No corporation shall be created by special laws; but the general assembly shall provide by general laws, for the organization of all corporations hereafter to be created, except as hereinafter provided.

SEC. 2. The property of all corporations for pecuniary profit shall be subject to taxation the same as that of individuals.

SEC. 3. The state shall not become a stockholder in any corporation, nor shall it assume or pay the debt or liability of any corporation, unless incurred in time of war for the benefit of the state.

SEC. 4. No political or municipal corporation shall become a stockholder in any banking corporation, directly or indirectly.

SEC. 5. No act of the general assembly, authorizing or creating corporations or associations with banking powers, nor amendments thereto, shall take effect, or in any manner be in force, until the same shall have been submitted, separately, to the people at a general or special election, as provided by law. to be held not less than three months after the passage of the act, and shall have been approved by a majority of all the electors voting for and against it at such election.

SEC. 6. Subject to the provisions of the foregoing section, the general assembly may also provide for the establishment of a state bank with branches.

SEC. 7. If a state bank be established, it shall be founded on an actual specie basis, and the branches shall be mutually responsible for each other's Hability upon all notes. bills and other issues intended for circulation as money.

SEC. 8. If a general banking law shall be enacted, it shall provide for the registry and countersigning, by an officer of state, of all bills, or paper credit designed to circulate as money, and require security to the full amount thereof, to be deposited with the state treasurer, in United States stocks, or in interestpaying stocks of states in good credit and standing, to be rated at ten per cent below their average value in the city of New York, for the thirty days next preceding their deposit; and in case of a depreciation of any portion of such stock, to the amount of ten per cent on the dollar, the bank or bank owning said stock shall be required to make up said deficiency by depositing 'additional stocks; and said law shall also provide for the recording of the names of all stockholders in such corporations, the amount of stock held by each, the time of any transfer, and to whom.

SEC. 9. Every stockholder in a banking corporation or institution shall be individually responsible and liable to its creditors, over and above the amount of stock by him or her held, to an amount equal to his or her respective shares so held, for all its liabilities accruing while he or she remains such stockholder. SEC. 10. In case of the insolvency of any banking institution, the billholders shall have a preference over its other creditors.

SEC. 11. The suspension of specie payments by banking institutions shall never be permitted or sanctioned.

SEC.. 12. Subject to the provisions of this article, the general assembly

shall have power to amend or repeal all laws for the organization or creation of corporations, or granting of special or exclusive privileges or immunities, by a vote of two-thirds of each branch of the general assembly; and no exclusive privileges, except as in this article provided, shall ever be granted.

ARTICLE IX.

EDUCATION AND SCHOOL LANDS.

1-Education.

SECTION 1. The educational interest of the state, including common schools and other educational institutions, shall be under the management of a board of education, which shall consist of the lieutenant-governor, who shall be the presiding officer of the board, and have the casting vote in case of a tie, and one member to be elected from each judicial district in the state.

SEC. 2. No person shall be eligible as a member of said board who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and shall have been one year a citizen of the state.

SEC. 3. One member of said board shall be chosen by the qualified electors of each district, and shall hold the office for the term of four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. After the first election under this constitution, the board shall be divided, as nearly as practicable, into two equal classes, and the seats of the first class shall be vacated after the expiration of two years; and one-half of the board shall be chosen every two years thereafter.

SEC. 4. The first session of the board of education shall be held at the seat of government, on the first Monday of December, after their election; after which the general assembly may fix the time and place of meeting.

SEC. 5. The session of the board shall be limited to twenty days, and but one session shall be held in any one year, except upon extraordinary occasions. when, upon the recommendation of two-thirds of the board, the governor may order a special session.

SEC. 6. The board of education shall appoint a secretary, who shall be the executive officer of the board, and perform such duties as may be imposed upon him by the board, and the laws of the state. They shall keep a journal of their proceedings, which shall be published and distributed in the same manner as the journals of the general assembly.

SEC. 7. All rules and regulations made by the board shall be published and distributed to the several counties, townships, and school districts, as may be provided for by the board and when so made, published, and distributed. they shall have the force and effect of law.

SEC. 8. The board of education shall have full power and authority to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common schools, and other educational institutions, that are instituted, to receive aid from the school or university fund of this state; but all acts, rules and regulations of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the general assembly; and when so altered, amended, or repealed, they shall not be reenacted by the board of education.

SEC. 9. The governor of the state shall be, ex-officio, a member of said board.

SEC. 10. The board shall have no power to levy taxes, or make appropriations of money. Their contingent expenses shall be provided for by the general assembly.

SEC. 11. The state university shall be established at one place without branches at any other place, and the university fund shall be applied to that institution, and no other.

SEC. 12. The board of education shall provide for the education of all the youths of the state, through a system of common schools, and such schools shall be organized and kept in each school district at least three months in each year. Any district failing, for two consecutive years, to organize and keep up a school, as aforesaid, may be deprived of their portion of the school fund.

SEC. 13. The members of the board of education shall each receive the same per diem during the term of their session, and mileage going to and returning therefrom, as members of the general assembly.

SEC. 14. A majority of the board shall constitute à quorum for the transaction of business; but no rule, regulation, or law, for the government of common schools or other educational institutions shall pass without the concurrence of a majority of all the members of the board, which shall be expressed by the yeas and nays on the final passage. The style of all acts of the board shall be, "Be it enacted by the board of education of the state of Iowa."

SEC. 15. At any time after the year one thousand eight hundred and sixtythree, the general assembly shall have power to abolish or reorganize said board of education, and provide for the educational interest of the state in any other manner that to them shall seem best and proper.14

2-School Funds and School Lands.

SECTION 1. The educational and school fund and lands, shall be under the control and management of the general assembly of this state.

SEC. 2. The university lands, and the proceeds thereof, and all moneys belonging to said fund shall be a permanent fund for the sole use of the state university. The interest arising from the same shall be annually appropriated for the support and benefit of said university.

SEC. 3. The general assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral, and agricultural improvement, The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be, granted by the United States to this state, for the support of schools, which may have been or shall hereafter be sold, or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new states, under the act of Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several states of the Union, approved in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, and all estates of deceased persons who may have died without leaving a will or heir, and also such per cent as has been or may hereafter be granted by congress, on the sale of lands in this state, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with all rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the general assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the state.

SEC. 4. The money which may have been or shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied in the several counties in which such money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said counties, in proportion to the number of youths subject to enumeration in such districts, to the support of common schools, or the establishment of libraries, as the board of education shall from time to time provide.

SEC. 5. The general assembly shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be reserved, or granted by the United States, or any person or persons to this state, for the use of the university, and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source for the purpose aforesaid, shall be, and remain, a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said university, for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said university.

SEC. 6. The financial agents of the school funds shall be the same that, by law, receive and control the state and county revenue, for other civil purposes, under such regulations as may be provided by law.

SEC. 7. The money subject to the support and maintenance of common

The board of education was abolished by the general assembly of 1864, 10th G. A., Chapt. 52, Sec. 1.

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