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of registered voters, without such person having made application in person under oath on a form provided for that purpose, or who knowingly registers any person more than once, or who knowingly enters a name upon the registration list as the name of a voter, without any one of that name applying to register, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

187. The Board of Registrars in each county shall, on or before the first day of February, nineteen hundred and three, or as soon thereafter as practicable. file in the office of the Judge of Probate in their county, a complete list, sworn to by them, of all persons registered in their county, showing the age of such person so registered, with the precinct or ward in which each of such persons resides set opposite the name of such person, and shall also file a like list in the office of the Secretary of State. The Judge of Probate shall, on or before the first day of March, nineteen hundred and three, or as soon thereafter as practicable, cause to be made from such list in duplicate, in the books furnished by the Secretary of State, an alphabetical list by precincts of the persons shown by the list of registrars to have been registered in the county, and shall file one of such alphabetical lists in the office of the Secretary of State; for which services by the Judge of Probate compensation shall be provided by the Legislature. The Judges of Probate shall keep both the original list filed by the registrars and the alphabetical list made therefrom as records in the office of the Judge of Probate of the county. Unless he shall become disqualified under the provisions of this article, any one who shall register prior to the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, shall remain an elector during life, and shall not be required to register again unless he changes his residence, in which event he may register again on production of his certificate. The certificate of the registrars or of the Judge of Probate or of the Secretary of State shall be sufficient evidence to establish the fact of such life registration. Such certificate shall be issued free of charge to the elector, and the Legislature shall provide by law for the renewal of such certificate when lost, mutilated or destroyed.

188. From and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, any applicant for registration may be required to state under oath, to be administered by the registrar or by any person authorized by law to ad- . minister oaths, where he lived during the five years next preceding the time at which he applies to register and the name or names by which he was known during that period, and the name of his employer or employers, if any, during such period. Any applicant for registration who refuses to state such facts, or any of them, shall not be entitled to register, and any person so offering to register, who wilfully makes a false statement in regard to such matters, or any of them, shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

189. In the trial of any contested election, and in proceedings to investigate any election, and in criminal prosecutions for violations of the election laws, no person other than a defendant in such criminal prosecutions shall be allowed to withhold his testimony on the ground that he may criminate himself or subject himself to public infamy; but such person shall not be prosecuted for any offense arising out of the transactions concerning which he testified, but may be prosecuted for perjury committed on such examination.

190. The Legislature shall pass laws not inconsistent with this Constitution to regulate and govern elections, and all such laws shall be uniform throughout the State; and shall provide by law for the manner of holding elections and of ascertaining the result of the same, and shall provide general registration laws not inconsistent with the provisions of this article, for the registration of all qualified electors from and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three. The Legislature shall also make provision by law, not inconsistent with this article, for the regulation of primary elections, and for punishing frauds at the same, but shall not make primary elections

compulsory. The Legislature shall by law provide for purging the registration list of the names of those who die, become insane, or convicted of crime, or otherwise disqualified as electors under the provisions of this Constitution, and of any names which may have been fraudulently enumerated on such list by the registrars; provided, that a trial by jury may be had on the demand of any person whose name is proposed to be stricken from the list.

191. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass adequate laws giving protection against the evils arising from the use of intoxicating liquors at all elections.

192. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, or while going to or returning therefrom.

193. Returns of elections for members of the Legislature and for all civil officers who are to be commissioned by the Governor, except the Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, shall be made to the Secretary of State.

194. The poll tax mentioned in this article shall be one dollar and fifty cents upon each male inhabitant of the State, over the age of twenty-one years, and under the age of forty-five years, who would not now be exempt by law; but the Legislature is authorized to increase the maximum age fixed in this section to not more than sixty years. Such poll tax shall become due and payable on the first day of October in each year, and become delinquent on the first day of the next succeeding February, but no legal process, nor any fee or commission shall be allowed for the collection thereof. The Tax Collector shall make returns of poll tax collections separate from other collections.

195. Any person who shall pay the poll tax of another, or advance him money for that purpose in order to influence his vote, shall be guilty of bribery, and upon conviction therefor shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

196. If any section or subdivision of this article shall for any reason be. or be held by any court of competent jurisdiction and of final resort to be, invalid, inoperative or void, the residue of this article shall not be thereby invalidated or affected.

ARTICLE IX.
REPRESENTATION.

197. The whole number of Senators shall be not less than one-fourth, or more than one-third of the whole number of Representatives.

198. The House of Representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred and five members unless new counties shall be created, in which event each new county shall be entitled to one Representative. The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned by the Legislature among the seyeral counties of the State, according to the number of inhabitants in them respectively, as ascertained by the decennial census of the United States, which apportionment when made shall not be subject to alteration until the next session of the Legislature after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken.

199. It shall be the duty of the Legislature at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Representatives, and apportion them among the several counties of the State. according to the number of inhabitants in them respectively; provided, that each county shall be entitled to at least one Representative.

200. It shall be the duty of the Legislature at its first session after taking the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Senators and to divide the State into as many Senatorial districts as there are Senators, which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other in the number of inhabitants as may be, and each shall be entitled to one Senator,

and no more; and such districts when formed, shall not be changed until the next apportioning session of the Legislature, after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken; provided, that counties created after the next preceding apportioning session of the Legislature may be attached to Senatorial districts. No county shall be divided between two districts, and no district shall be made up of two or more counties not contiguous to each other.

201. Should any decennial census of the United States not be taken, or if when taken, the same, as to this State, be not full and satisfactory, the Legislature shall have power at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this State, upon which it shall be the duty of the Legislature to make the apportionment of Representatives and Senators as provided for in this article.

202. Until the Legislature shall make an apportionment of Representatives among the several counties, as provided in the preceding section, the counties of Autauga, Baldwin. Bibb, Blount, Cherokee, Chilton, Choctaw, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dale, DeKalb, Escambia, Fayette, Franklin, Geneva, Greene, Lamar, Lawrence, Limestone. Macon, Marion, Marshall, Monroe, Pickens, Randolph, St. Clair, Shelby, Washington, and Winston, shall each have one Representative; the counties of Barbour. Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Clarke, Elmore, Etowah, Hale, Henry, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lee, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Russell, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Wilcox, shall each have two Representatives; the counties of Dallas and Mobile shall each have three Representatives; the county of Montgomery shall have four Representatives; and the county of Jefferson shall have seven Representatives.

203. Until the Legislature shall divide the State into Senatorial districts, as herein provided, the Senatorial districts shall be as follows:

First district. Lauderdale and Limestone; Second district, Lawrence and Morgan: Third district, Blount, Cullman, and Winston; Fourth district, Madison; Fifth district, Jackson and Marshall; Sixth district, Etowah and St. Clair; Seventh district, Calhoun; Eighth district, Talladega; Ninth District, Chambers and Randolph; Tenth district, Tallapoosa and Elmore: Eleventh district, Tuscaloosa; Twelfth district, Fayette, Lamar and Walker; Thirteenth district, Jefferson; Fourteenth district, Pickens and Sumter; Fifteenth district, Autauga, Chilton and Shelby; Sixteenth district. Lowndes: Seventeenth district. Butler, Cone. cuh and Covington; Eighteenth district, Bibb and Perry; Nineteenth district, Choctaw, Clarke, and Washington; Twentieth district, Marengo; Twenty-first district, Baldwin, Escambia and Monroe; Twenty-second district, Wilcox; Twenty-third district, Dale and Geneva; Twenty-fourth district, Barbour. Twenty-fifth district, Coffee, Crenshaw and Pike; Twenty-sixth district, Bullock and Macon; Twenty-seventh district, Lee and Russell; Twenty-eighth district. Montgomery; Twenty-ninth district. Cherokee and DeKalb; Thirtieth district. Dallas; Thirty-first district, Colbert, Franklin and Marion; Thirty-second district. Greene and Hale; Thirty-third district, Mobile; Thirty-fourth district, Cleburne, Clay and Coosa; Thirty-fifth district, Henry.

ARTICLE X.

EXEMPTIONS.

204. The personal property of any resident of this State, to the value of one thousand dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempt from sale on execution or other process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution.

205. Every homestead, not exceeding eighty acres, and the dwellings and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any city, town or village; or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale on execution, or any other process

from a court; for any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of said homestead by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the wife to the same.

206. The homestead of a family, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.

207. The provisions of Sections 204 and 205 of this Constitution shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborers' lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanics' lien for work done on the premises.

208. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, such homestead shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit.

209. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterwards be entitled by gift. graut, inheritance or devise, shall be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her, the same as if she were a feme sole.

210. The right of exemption hereinbefore secured may be waived by an instrument in writing, and when such waiver relates to realty, the instrument must be signed by both the husband and wife, and attested by one witness.

ARTICLE XI.

TAXATION.

211. All taxes levied on property in this State shall be assessed in exact proportion to the value of such property, but no tax shall be assessed upon any debt for rent or hire of real or personal property, while owned by the landlord or hirer during the current year of such rental or hire, if such real or personal property be assessed at its full value.

212. The power to levy taxes shall not be delegated to individuals, or private corporations or associations.

213. After the ratification of this Constitution, no new debt shall be created against or incurred by this State, or its authority, except to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, and then only by a concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each House of the Legislature, and the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the Journals; and any act creating or incurring any new debt against this State, except as herein provided for, shall be absolutely void: provided, the Governor may be authorized to negotiate temporary loans, never to exceed three hundred thousand dollars, to meet the deficiencies in the treasury, and until the same is paid no new loan shall be negotiated; provided further, that this section shall not be so construed as to prevent the issuance of bonds for the purpose of refunding the existing bonded indebtedness of the State.

214. The Legislature shall not have the power to levy, in any one year, a greater rate of taxation than sixty-five one-hundredths of one per centum on the value of the taxation property within this State.

215. No county in this State shall be authorized to levy a greater rate of taxation, in any one year, on the value of the taxable property therein, than one-half of one per centum; provided, that to pay debts existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, an additional rate of onefourth of one per centum may be levied and collected, which shall be appropriated exclusively to the payment of such debts and the interest thereon; provided further, that to pay any debt or liability now existing against any county, incurred for the erection, construction or maintenance of the necessary public buildings or bridges, or that may hereafter be created for the erection of neces

sary public buildings, bridges or roads, any county may levy and collect such special taxes, not to exceed one-fourth of one per centum, as may have been or may hereafter be authorized by law, which taxes, so levied and collected, shall be applied exclusively to the purposes for which the same were so levied and collected.

216. No city, town, village, or other municipal corporation, other than as provided in this article. shall levy or collect a higher rate of taxation in any one year on the property situated therein than one-half per centum of the value of such property as assessed for State taxation during the preceding year: provided, that for the purpose of paying debts existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, and the interest thereon, a tax of one per centum may be levied and collected, to be applied exclusively to the payment of such indebtedness; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the city of Mobile, which city may from and after the ratification of this Constitution levy a tax not to exceed the rate of three-fourths of one per centum to pay the expenses of the city government, and may also levy a tax not to exceed three-fourths of one per centum to pay the debt existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, with interest thereon, or any renewal of such debt; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the cities of Birmingham, Huntsville and Bessemer, and the town of Andalusia, which cities and town may levy and collect a tax not to exceed one-half of one per centum, in addition to the tax of one-half of one per centum as hereinbefore allowed to be levied and collected, such special tax to be applied exclusively to the payment of interest on bonds of said cities of Birmingham, Huntsville and Bessemer and town of Andalusia, respectively, heretofore issued in pursuance of law, or now authorized by law to be issued, and for a sinking fund to pay off such bonds at the maturity thereof; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the city of Montgomery, which city shall have the right to levy and collect a tax of not exceeding onehalf of one per centum per annum upon the value of taxable property therein, as fixed for State taxation, for general purposes, and an additional tax of not exceeding three-fourths of one per centum per annum upon the value of the property therein, as fixed for State taxation, to be devoted exclusively to the payment of its public debt, interest thereon, and renewals thereof, and to the maintenance of its public schools, and public conveniences; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to Troy, Attalla, Gadsden. Woodlawn, Brewton, Pratt City. Ensley, Wylamı, and Avondale, which cities and towns may from and after the ratification of this Constitution, levy and collect an additional tax of not exceeding one-half of one per centum; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the cities of Decatur, New Decatur, and Cullman, which cities may from and after the ratification of this Constitution, levy and collect an additional tax of not exceeding three-tenths of one per centum per annum; such special tax of said city of Decatur to be applied exclusively for the public schools, public school buildings, and public improvements; and such special tax of New Decatur and Cullman to be applied exclusively for educational purposes, and to be expended under their respective boards of Public School Trustees: but this additional tax shall not be levied by Troy, Attalla, Gadsden. Woodlawn, Brewton, Pratt City. Ensley. Wylam, Avondale, Decatur. New Decatur, or Cullman unless authorized by a majority vote of the qualified electors voting at a special election held for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not said tax shall be levied; and ovided further, that the purposes for which such special tax is sought to be levied shall be stated in such election call, and, if authorized, the revenue derived from such special tax shall be used for no other purpose than that stated; and provided further, that the additional tax authorized to be levied by the city of Troy, when so levied and collected, shall be used exclusively in the payment of the bonds and interest coupons thereon. hereafter issued in the adjustment of the present bonded indebtedness of said city; and provided further, that the additional tax authorized to be levied and collected by the city of Attalla shall, when so levied and collected, be used exclusively in the payment of bonds to

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