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member, for words uttered in debate in either house, be questioned in any other place.

SEC. 8. The sessions of the legislature shall, after the first session thereof, be held biennially at the capital of the state, commencing on the first Monday after the first day of January and every second year thereafter, unless a different day shall have been appointed by law, and at other times when convened by the governor.

SEC. 9. Each house when assembled, shall choose its own officers: judge of the election, qualifications and returns of its own members, determine its own rules of proceeding, and sit upon its own adjournments; but neither house shall, without the concurrence of the other, adjourn for more than three days. nor to any other place than that in which it may be sitting.

SEC. 10. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as such house may provide.

A quorum being in attendance, if either house fail to effect an organization within the first four days thereafter, the members of the house so failing shall be entitled to no compensation from the end of the said four days until an organization shall have been effected.

SEC. 11. Each house may, for good cause shown, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members, expel a member.

SEC. 12. The business of each house, and of the committee of the whole shall be transacted openly and not in secret session.

SEC. 13. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall at the request of any three members present, be entered on the journal.

SEC. 14. Bills may originate in either house, but may be amended or rejected in the other, except that bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives.

SEC. 15. No law shall be passed except by bill, nor shall any bill be put upon its final passage until the same, with the amendments thereto, shall have been printed for the use of the members; nor shall any bill become a law unless the same shall have read on three several days, in each house, previous to the final vote thereon.

Provided, In case of urgency, two-thirds of the house where such bill may be pending, may, upon a vote of the yeas and nays, dispense with this provision. On the final passage of all bills, they shall be read at length, section by section, and the vote shall be by yeas and nays upon each bill separately. and shall be entered upon the journal; and no bill shall become a law without the concurrence of a majority of the members present.

SEC. 16. Every act shall embrace but one subject, and matters properly connected therewith, which subject shall be expressed in the title; but if any subject shall be embraced in an act which shall not be expressed in the title, such act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be embraced in the title.

SEC. 17. Every act or joint resolution shall be plainly worded, avoiding as far as practicable the use of technical terms.

SEC. 18. No act shall be revised or amended by mere reference to its title. but the section as amended, shall be set forth and published at full length.

SEC. 19. The legislature shall not pass local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases, that is to say:

Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of justices of the peace and con


For the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors.

Regulating the practice of the courts of justice.

Providing for a change of venue in civil or criminal actions.

Granting divorces.

Changing the names of persons or places.

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, working on,

or vacating, roads, highways, streets, alleys, town plats, parks, cemeteries, or any public grounds not owned by the state.

Summoning and impanneling grand and trial juries, and providing for their compensation.

Regulating county and township business, or the election of county and township officers.

For the assessment and collection of taxes.

Providing for and conducting elections, or designating the place of voting. Affecting the estates of deceased persons, minors or other persons under legal disabilities.

Extending the time for collection of taxes.

Giving effect to invalid deeds, leases or other instruments.

Refunding money paid into the state treasury.

Releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, the indebtedness. liability or obligation of any person or corporation in this state, or any municipal corporation therein.

Declaring any person of age, or authorizing any minor to sell, lease or incumber his or her property.

Legalizing, as against the state, the unauthorized or invalid act of any


Exempting property from taxation.

Changing county seats, unless the law authorizing the change, shall require that two-thirds of the legal votes cast at a general or special election, shall designate the place to which the county seat shall be changed; Provided, That the power to pass a special law shall cease, as long as the legislature shall provide for such change by general law; Provided further, That no special law shall be passed for any one county oftener than once in six years,

Restoring to citizenship persons convicted of infamous crimes.

Regulating the interest on money.

Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens.

Chartering or licensing ferries, bridges or roads.

Remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures.

Providing for the management of common schools.

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties, cities, townships, election districts or school districts, except as in this 'constitution otherwise provided.

Changing the law of descent or succession.

Authorizing the adoption or legitimization of children.

For limitation of civil or criminal actions.

Creating any corporation.

Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentages or allowances of public officers during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.

SEC. 20. The legislature shall not authorize any lottery or gift enterprise, under any pretense or for any purpose whatever.

SEC. 21. All bills or joint resolutions passed shall be signed by the presiding officers of the respective houses.

SEC. 22. No act shall take effect until sixty days from the end of the session at which the same shall have been passed, except in case of emerzeney, which emergency shall be declared in the preamble or in the body

of the law.

SEC. 23. Each member of the legislature shall receive for his services, a sum not exceeding five dollars per day, from the commencement of the session: but such pay shall not exceed for each member, except the presiding officers, in the aggregate. three hundred dollars for per diem allowances for any one session; and shall receive each the sum of ten cents per mile each way, by the usual traveled route.

When convened in extra session by the governor, they shall each receive five dollars per day; but no extra session shall continue for a longer period

than twenty days, except in case of the first session of the legislature. They shall receive such mileage as is allowed for regular sessions.

The presiding officers of the legislature shall each, in virtue of his office, receive an additional compensation equal to one-half his per diem allowance as a member; Provided, That whenever any member of the legislature shall travel on a free pass in coming to or returning from a session of the legislature, the number of miles actually traveled on such pass shall be deducted from the mileage of such member.

SEC. 24. The first concern of all good government is the virtue and sobriety of the people, and the purity of the home. The legislature should further all wise and well-directed efforts for the promotion of temperance and morality. SEC. 25. The members of the legislature shall, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, take or subscribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support the constitution of the United States and the constitution of the state of Idaho, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of senator (or representative, as the case may be) according to the best of my ability." And such oath may be administered by the governor, secretary of state, or judge of the supreme court, or presiding officer of either house.

SEC. 26. From and after the first day of May in the year 1917, the manufacture, sale, keeping for sale, and transportation for sale of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes are forever prohibited. The legislature shall enforce this section by all needful legislation.3



SECTION 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general, and superintendent of public instruction, each of whom shall hold his office for two years, beginning on the first Monday in January next after his election, except as otherwise provided in this constitution. The officers of the executive department, excepting the lieutenant-governor, shall, during their terms of office, reside at the seat of government, where they shall keep the public records, books and papers. They shall perform such duties as are prescribed by this constitution and as may be prescribed by law.

SEC 2. The officers named in section one of this article shall be elected by the qualified electors of the state at the time and place of voting for members of the legislature, and the persons, respectively, having the highest number of votes for the office voted for shall be elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for any one of said offices, the two houses of the legislature at its next regular session, shall forthwith, by joint ballot, elect one of such persons for said office. The returns of election for the officers named in section one shall be made in such manner as may be prescribed by law, and all contested elections of the same, other than provided for in this section, shall be determined as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenantgovernor, unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years at the time of his election; nor to the office of secretary of state, state auditor, superintendent of public instruction, or state treasurer, unless he shall have attained the age of twenty-five years; nor to the office of attorney general unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, and have been admitted to practice in the supreme court of the state or territory of Idaho, and be in good standing at the time of his election. In addition to the qualifications above described, each of the officers named shall be a citizen of the United States and shall have resided within the state or territory two years next preceding his election.

Section 26 is a new section; it was proposed by the legislature of 1915 and ratified on November 7, 1916.

SEC. 4. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the military forces of the state, except when they shall be called into actual service of the United States. He shall have power to call out the militia to execute the laws, to suppress insurrection, or to repel invasion.

SEC. 5. The supreme executive power of the state is vested in the governor, who shall see that the laws are faithfully executed.

SEC. 6. The governor shall nominate and, by and with the consent of the senate, appoint all officers whose offices are established by this constitution, or which may be created by law, and whose appointment or election is not otherwise provided for. If during the recess of the senate, a vacancy occurs in any state or district office, the governor shall appoint some fit person to discharge the duties thereof until the next meeting of the senate, when he shall nominate some person to fill such office. If the office of a justice of the supreme or district court, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general, or superintendent of public instruction, shall be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the governor to fill the same by appointment, and the appointee shall hold his office until his successor shall be elected and qualified in such manner as may be provided by law.

SEC. 7. The governor, secretary of state, and attorney general shall constitute a board to be known as the board of pardons. Said board or a majority thereof, shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, and to grant commutations and pardons after conviction and judgment, either absolutely or upon such conditions as they may impose in all cases of offenses against the state except treason or conviction on impeachment. The legislature shall by law prescribe the sessions of said board and the manner in which application shall be made, and regulate proceedings thereon; but no fine or forfeiture shall be remitted, and no commutation or pardon granted, except by the decision of a majority of said board, after a full hearing in open session, and until previous notice of the time and place of such hearing and the release applied for, shall have been given by publication in some newspaper of general circulation, at least once a week for four weeks. The proceedings and decision of the board shall be reduced to writing and with their reasons for their action in each case, and the dissent of any member who may disagree, signed by him, and filed, with all papers used upon the hearing, in the office of the secretary of state.

The governor shall have power to grant respites or reprieves in all cases of convictions for offenses against the state, except treason or conviction on impeachment, but such respites or reprieves shall not extend beyond the next session of the board of pardons; and such board shall at such session ontinue or determine such respite or reprieve, or they may commute or pardon the offense, as herein provided. In cases of conviction for treason, the governor shall have the power to suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the legislature at its next regular session, when the legislature shall either pardon or commute the sentence, direct its execution, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the legislature, at each regular session, each case of remission of fine or forfeiture, reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted since the last previous report, stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of remission, commutation, pardon, or reprieve, with the reasons for granting the same, and the objections, if any, of any member of the board made thereto.

SEC. 8. The governor may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, which information shall be given upon oath whenever so required; he may also require information in writing, at any time under oath, from all officers and managers of state institutions, upon any subject relating to the condition, management and expenses of their respective offices and institutions, and may, at any time he deems it necessary, appoint a committee to investigate and report to him upon the condition of any executive office or state institution. The governor shall, at the commencement of each session, and

from time to time, by massage, give to the legislature information of the condition of the state, and shall recommend such measures as he shall deem expedient. He shall also send to the legislature a statement, with vouchers, of the expenditures of all moneys belonging to the state and paid out by him. He shall also, at the commencement of each session, present estimates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all purposes of the state.

SEC. 9. The governor may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the legis lature by proclamation, stating the purposes for which he has convened it; but when so convened, it shall have no power to legislate on any subjects other than those specified in the proclamation; but may provide for the expenses of the session and other matters incidental thereto. He may also, by proclamation, convene the senate in extraordinary session for the transaction of executive business.

SEC. 10. Every bill passed by the legislature, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sign it, and thereupon it shall become a law; but if he do not approve, he shall return it with his objections, to the house in which it originated, which house shall enter the objections at large upon its journals and proceed to reconsider the bill. If then two-thirds of the members present agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of the members present in that house, it shall become a law notwithstanding the objections of the governor. In all such cases the vote of each house shall be determined by yeas and nays, to be entered on the journal.

Any bill which shall not be returned by the governor to the legislature within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, shall become a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the legislature shall, by adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall be filed, with his objections, in the office of the secretary of state within ten days after such adjournment (Sundays excepted) or become a law.

SEC. 11. The governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money, embracing distinct items, and the part or parts approved shall become a law; and the item or items disapproved shall be void, unless enacted in the manner following: If the legislature be in session, he shall within five days, transmit to the house within which the bill originated, a copy of the item or items thereof disapproved, together with his objections thereto, and the items objected to shall be separately reconsidered, and each item shall then take the same course as is prescribed for the passage or bills over the executive veto.

SEC. 12. In case of the failure to qualify, the impeachment, or conviction of treason, felony, or other infamous crime, of the governor, or his death, removal from office, resignation, absence from the state, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office for the residue of the term, or until the disability shall cease. shall devolve upon the lieutenant-governor.

SEC. 13. The lieutenant-governor shall be president of the senate, but shall vote only when the senate is equally divided. In case of the absence or disqualification of the lieutenant-governor from any cause which applies to the governor, or when he shall hold the office of governor, then the president pro tempore of the senate shall perform the duties of the lieutenantgovernor until the vacancy is filled or the disability removed.

SEC. 14. In case of the failure to qualify in his office, death, resignation. absence from the state, impeachment, conviction of treason, felony or other infamous crime, or disqualification from any cause, of both governor and lieutenant-governor, the duties of the governor shall devolve upon the president of the senate pro tempore, until such disqualification of either the gov ernor or lieutenant-governor be removed, or the vacancy filled; and if the president of the senate, for any of the above-named causes, shall become

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