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particularly of the acts, resolutions and orders of the General Assembly, and record the same; and perform all such duties as shall be prescribed by law. He shall be the keeper of the seal of the State, which shall not be altered.

SEC. 19. A Controller of the public accounts shall be annually appointed, by the General Assembly.12 He shall adjust and settle all public accounts and demands, except grants and orders of the General Assembly. He shall prescribe the mode of keeping and rendering all public accounts. He shall er officio be one of the auditors of the accounts of the Treasurer. The General Assembly may assign to him other duties in relation to his office, and to that of the Treasurer, and shall prescribe the manner in which his duties shall be performed.

SEC. 20. A sheriff shall be appointed in each county by the General Assembly, 13 who shall hold his office for three years, 14 removable by said Assembly, and shall become bound, with sufficient sureties, to the Treasurer of the State, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. In case the sheriff any county shall die or resign, the Governour may fill the vacancy occasioned thereby, until the same shall be filled by the General Assembly.

SEC. 21. A statement of all receipts, payments, funds, and debts of the State, shall be published from time to time, in such manner and at such periods. as shall be prescribed by law.



SECTION 1. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Supreme Court of Errors, a Superiour Court, and such inferiour courts as the General Assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish; the powers and jurisdiction of which courts shall be defined by law.

SEC. 2. There shall be appointed15 in each county a sufficient number of justices of the peace, with such jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases as the General Assembly. may prescribe.

SEC. 3. The Judges of the Supreme Court of Errors, of the Superiour and inferiour courts, and all justices of the peace shall be appointed by the General Assembly, in such manner as shall by law be prescribed.16 The Judges of the Supreme Court, and of the Superiour Court shall hold their offices during good behaviour:16 but may be removed by impeachment; and the Governour shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of the members of each House of the General Assembly; all other judges and justices of the peace shall be appointed annually, 16 No judge or justice of the peace shall be capable of holding his office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years.



SECTION 1. All persons who have been, or shall hereafter, previous to the ratification of this Constitution, be admitted freemen, according to the existing laws of this State, shall be electors.

SEC. 2. Every white17 male citizen of the United States, who shall have gained a settlement in this State, attained the age of twenty-one years, and resided in the town in which he may offer himself to be admitted to the privilege of an elector, at least six months preceding; and have a freehold estate of the yearly value of seven dollars in this State; or having been enrolled in the militia, shall have performed military duty therein for the term of one year next preceding the time he shall offer himself for admission,17 or being liable thereto shall have been, by authority of law, excused therefrom; ΟΙ 'shall have paid a State tax within the year next preceding the time he shall

Altered by amendments of 1838 and 1886.

14Altered by amendment of 1886.

15Altered by amendment of 1850.

Altered by amendments of 1850, 1856, 1876 and 1880.

17 Altered by amendments of 1845, 1855, 1876 and 1897.

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present himself for such admission; and shall sustain a good moral character, shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.17

SEC. 3. The privileges of an elector shall be forfeited by a conviction of bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft. or other of fence for which an infamous punishment is inflicted.18

SEC. 4. Every elector shall be eligible to any office in this State, except in cases provided for in this Constitution.

SEC. 5. The selectmen and town clerk of the several towns, shall decide on the qualifications of electors, at such times, and in such manner, as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 6. Laws shall be made to support the privilege of free suffrage. prescribing the manner of regulating and conducting meetings of the electors, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence therein, from power, bribery, tumult and other improper conduct.

SEC. 7. In all elections of officers of the State, or members of the General Assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot.19

SEC. S. At all elections of officers of the State, or members of the General Assembly, the electors shall be privileged from arrest, during their attendance upon, and going to, and returning from the same, on any civil process.

SEC. 9. The meetings of the electors for the election of the several State officers by law annually to be elected, and members of the General Assembly of this State, shall be holden on the first Monday of April in each year.20



SECTION 1. It being the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being. the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and their right to render that worship, in the mode most consistent with the dictates of their consciences; no person shall by law be compelled to join or support, nor be classed with, or associated to, any congregation. church or religious association. But every person now belonging to such congregation. church, or religious association shall remain a member thereof until he shall have separated himself therefrom, in the manner hereinafter provided. And each and every society or denomination of Christians in this State, shall have and enjoy the same and equal powers, rights and privileges; and shall have power and authority to support and maintain the ministers or teachers of their respective denominations, and to build and repair houses for public worship, by a tax on the members of any such society only, to be laid by a major vote of the legal voters assembled any societ meeting, warned and held according to law, or in any other manner.

SEC. 2. If any person shall choose to separate himself from the society or denomination of Christians to which he may belong, and shall leave a written notice thereof with the clerk of such society, he shall thereupon be no longer liable for any future expenses which may be incurred by said society.



SECTION 1. The charter of Yale College, as modified by agreement with the corporation thereof, in pursuance of an Act of the General Assembly. passe in 1792, is hereby confirmed.

SEC. 2. The fund, called the School Fund shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public. or common schools throughout the State, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof. The value and amount of said fund shall, as soon as practicable, be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe, published, and recorded in the Controller's office :

May be restored, amendment Art. xvii.
Altered by amendment of 1905.
"Altered by amendments of 1875 and 1884.

and no law shall ever be made, authorizing said fund to be diverted to any other use than the encouragement and support of public, or common schools, among the several school societies, as justice and equity shall require.



SECTION 1. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching.

SEC. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. When the Governour is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside.

SEC. 3. The Governour, and all other executive and judicial officers, shall be liable to impeachment; but judgments in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. The party convicted, shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial and punishment according to law.

SEC. 4. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason, or attainder, shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture.



SECTION 1. Members of the General Assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices. take the following oath or affirmation, to wit:

You do solemnly swear, or affirm, (as the case may be), that you will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Connecticut, so long as you continue a citizen thereof; and that you will faithfully discharge, according to law, the duties of the office of to the best of your abilities. So help you God.

Spe. 2. Each town shall annually21 elect selectmen, and such officers of local police, as the laws may prescribe.

SEC. 3. The rights and duties of all corporations shall remain as if this Constitution had not been adopted; with the exception of such regulations and restrictions as are contained in this Constitution. All judicial and civil officers now in office, who have been appointed by the General Assembly, and commissioned according to law, and all such officers as shall be appointed by the said Assembly, and commissioned as aforesaid, before the first Wednesday of May next, shall continue to hold their office until the first day of June next, unless they shall before that time resign, or be removed from office according to law. The Treasurer and Secretary shall continue in office until a Treasurer and Secretary shall be appointed under this Constitution. All military officers shall continue to hold and exercise their respective offices, until they shall resign, or be removed according to law. All laws not contrary to, or inconsistent with, the provisions of this Constitution, shall remain in force, until they shall expire by their own limitation, or shall be altered or repealed by the General Assembly, in pursuance of this Constitution. The validity of all bonds, debts, contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate or the State. of all suits, actions, or rights of action, both in law and equity, shall continue as if no change had taken place. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and General Assembly, which is to be formed in October next, shall have, and possess, all the powers and authorities, not repugnant to, or inconsistent with this Constitution, which they now have and possess, until the first Wednesday of May next.

"Altered by amendment of 1905.

SEC. 4. No judge of the Superiour Court, or of the Supreme Court of Errors; no member of Congress; no person holding any office under the authority of the United States; no person holding the office of Treasurer, Secretary, or Controller; no sheriff or sheriff's deputy, shall be a member of the General Assembly.



When a majority of the House of Representatives shall deem it necessary to alter, or amend this Constitution, they may propose such alteration and amendments; which proposed amendments shall be continued to the next General Assembly, and be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session; and if two-thirds of each House, at the next session of said Assembly, shall approve the amendments proposed, by yeas and nays, said amendments shall, by the Secretary, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in the State; whose duty it shall be to present the same to the inhabitants thereof, for their consideration, at a town meeting, legally warned and held for that purpose; and if it shall appear in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present at such meetings, shall have approved such amendments, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this Constitution.

Done in Convention on the fifteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, and of the Independence of the United States the forty-third.

By order of the Convention.



OLIV: WOLCOTT. President.




From and after the first Wednesday of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, the Senate of this State shall consist of not less than eighteen nor more than twenty-four members and be chosen by districts.



The General Assembly, which shall be holden on the first Wednesday of May, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, shall divide the State into districts for the choice of Senators, and shall determine what number shall be elected in each, which district shall not be less than eight, nor more than twenty-four in number, and shall always be composed of contiguous territory, and in forming them, no town shall be divided, nor shall the whole or part of one county be joined to the whole or part of another county, to form a district; regard being had to the population in said apportionment and in forming said districts, in such manner that no county shall have less than two senators. The districts, when established, shall continue the same until the session of the General Assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States; which said Assembly shall have power to alter the same, if found necessary, to preserve a proper equality between said districts, in respect to the number of inhabitants therein, according to the principles above recited; after which, said districts shall not be altered, nor the number of Senators altered, except at any session of the General Assembly next after the completion of a census of the United States, and then only according to the principles above prescribed.

Altered by amendment of 1901.



At the meeting of the electors on the first Monday of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty, and annually thereafter, immediately after the choice of Representatives, the electors qualified by law to vote in the choice of such Representatives, shall be called upon, by the presiding officer in such meeting, in the several towns within their districts, respectively, to bring in their ballots for such person or number of persons to be Senator or Senators for such districts in the next General Assembly, as shall, by law be allowed to such districts respectively, which person or persons, at the time of holding such meeting, shall belong to and reside in the respective districts in which they shall be so balloted for as aforesaid: And each elector present at such meeting, qualified as aforesaid, may thereupon bring in his ballot or suffrage for such person or persons as he shall choose to be Senators for such district, not exceeding the number by law allowed to the same, with the name or names of such person or persons, fairly written on one piece of paper.3 And the votes so given in, shall be received, counted, canvassed and declared, in the same manner now provided by the Constitution, for the choice of Senators. The person or persons, not exceeding the number by law allowed to the districts in which such votes shall be given in, having the highest number of votes, shall be declared to be duly elected for such districts: But in the event of an equality of votes between two or more of the persons so voted for, the House of Representatives shall, in the manner provided for by the Constitution, designate which of such person or persons shall be declared to be duly elected.




There shall annually be chosen and appointed a Lieutenant-Governor, a Treasurer, and Secretary, in the same manner as is provided in the second section of the fourth article of the Constitution of this State, for the choice and appointment of a Governor.



A Comptroller of Public Accounts shall be annually chosen by the electors, at their meeting in April, and in the same manner as the Treasurer and Secretary are chosen, and the votes for Comptroller shall be returned to, and counted, canvassed, and declared by the Treasurer and Secretary.



The electors in the respective towns, on the first Monday of April4 in each year may vote for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor. Treasurer, Secretary, Senators, and Representatives in the General Assembly successively, or for any number of said officers at the same time, and the General Assembly shall have power to enact laws regulating and prescribing the order and manner of voting for said officers, and also providing for the election of Representatives at some time subsequent to the first Monday of April in all cases when it shall so happen that the electors in any town shall fail on that day to elect the Representative or Representatives to which such town shall be by law entitled. Provided, that in all elections of officers of the State, or members of the General Assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by hallot, either written or printed.

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