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ies, or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or char; he ought to obtain justice freely, and without being obliged to pure it, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, conably to the laws.
SEC. 10. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war ust the same, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two wites to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
SEC. 11. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, ers and effects. against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be ated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 1, or affirmation and particularly describing the place to be searched, and persons or things to be seized.
SEC. 12. No bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, nor any law impairing obligation of contracts shall ever be passed, and no conviction shall work ruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.
SEC. 13. The property of no person shall be taken for public use, withjust compensation therefor.
SEC. 14. All lands within the State are declared to be allodial, and feudal ures are prohibited.-Leases and grants of agricultural land, for a longer m than fifteen years, in which rent, or service of any kind shall be reserved, d all fines and like restraints upon alienation, reserved in any grant of land, reafter made, are declared to be void,
SEC. 15. No distinction shall ever be made by law between resident aliens d citizens, in reference to the possession, enjoyment, or descent of property. SEC. 16, No person shall be imprisoned for debt, arising out of, or founded à a contract, expressed or implied.
SEC. 17. The privilege of the debtor to enjoy the necessary comforts of fe, shall be recognized by wholesome laws, exempting a reasonable amount property from seizure, or sale for the payment of any debt, or liability reafter contracted.
SEC. 18. The right of every man to worship Almighty God, according to he dictates of his own conscience, shall never be infringed; nor shall any an be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to aintain any ministry against his consent; nor shall any control of, or intererence with, the rights of conscience be permitted, or any preference be given y law to any religious establishments, or modes of worship; nor shall any oney be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of religious societies, or eligious, or theological seminaries.
SEC. 19. No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification for any tice of public trust under the State. and no person shall be rendered incometent to give evidence in any court of law, or equity, in consequence of his pinions on the subject of religion.
SEC. 20. The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power. SEC. 21. Writs of error shall never be prohibited by law.
SEC. 22. The blessings of a free government can only be maintained by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality and virtue, and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.
SECTION 1. It is hereby ordained and declared, that the State of Wisconsin doth consent and accept of the boundaries prescribed in the act of Congress entitled "An act to enable the people of Wisconsin Territory to form a Constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union," approved August sixth, one thousand eight hundred and fortysix, to-wit: Beginning at the north-east corner of the State of Illinoisthat is to say; at a point in the centre of Lake Michigan, where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude crosses the same: thence running with the boundary line of the State of Michigan, through Lake
Michigan, Green Bay, to the mouth of the Menominee river; thence up the channel of the said river to the Brule river; thence up said last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of Lake Brule in a direct line to the centre of the channel between Middle and South Islands, in the Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as marked upon the survey made by Captain Cramm; thene down the main channel of the Montreal river to the middle of Lake Superior: thence through the center of Lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Louis river; thence up the main channel of said river to the first rapids in the same, above the Indian village, according to Nichollet's map; thence due south to the hain branch of the river St. Croix; thence down the main channel of said river to the Mississippi'; thence down the centre of the main channel of that river to the north-west corner of the State of Illinois; thence due east with the northern boundary of the State of Illinois to the place of beginning. as established by "an act to enable the people of the Illinois Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States," approved April 18th, 1818. [Provided, however, that the following alteration of the aforesaid boundary be, and hereby is proposed to the Congress of the United States as the preference of the State of Wisconsin, and if the same shall be assented and agreed to by the Congress of the United States, then the same shall be and forever remain obligatory on the State of Wisconsin, viz.: · Leav ing the aforesaid boundary line at the foot of the rapids of the St. Louis river; thence in a direct line. bearing South-westerly, to the mouth of the Iskodewabo, or Rum river, where the same empties into the Mississippi river. thence down the main channel of the said Mississippi river as prescribed in the aforesaid boundary.]2
SEC. 2. The propositions contained in the act of Congress are hereby accepted, ratified and confirmed, and shall remain irrevocable without the consent of the United States; and it is hereby ordained that this State shal never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil within the same by the United States, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title' in such soil to ́bona-fide purchasers thereof; and no tas shall be imposed on land, the property of the United States, and in no cas shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. Provided, that nothing in this Constitution, or in the Act of Congress aforesaid, shall in any manner prejudice, or affect the right of the State of Wisconsin to five hu dred thousand acres of land, granted to said state, and to be hereafter s lected and located by and under the Act of Congress entitled "An act to appropriate the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, and grant pre-emption rights." approved September four, one thousand eight hundred and forty-one
not exceeding thirty days, shall be deemed a qualified elector at such electi
1. Citizens of the United States.
CONSTITUTION OF WISCON
day of December. A. D. 1912.
3. Persons of Indian blood who have once been declared by law of o
ress to be citizens of the United States, any subhe contrary notwithstanding.
This proposal was not accepted by congress. See Act of May 29, 1848, admitti
Wisconsin to the Union.
4. Civilized persons of Indian descent not el, that the legislature may at any time exten rage to persons not herein enumerated; but no util the same shall have been submitted to a vot ection and approved by a majority of all the
d provided further, that in incorporated cities may provide for the registration of electors and gulations therefor,3
SEC. 2. No person under guardianship, ne all be qualified to vote at any election; nor reason, or felony, be qualified to vote at any el
rights. SEC. 3. All votes shall be given by ballot. ers as may by law be directed, or allowed to SEC. 4. No person shall be deemed to h tate, by reason of his absence on business of state. SEC. 5. No soldier, seaman, or marine in tates, shall be deemed a resident of this Statoned within the same,
SEC. 6. Laws may be passed excluding fre as who have been or may be convicted of br nous crime, and depriving every person who r indirectly interested, in any bet or wage any election, from the right to vote at such
SECTION 1. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years or upwards belonging to either of the following classes who shall have resided within the State for one year next preceding, any election, and in the election distrit
where he offers to vote, such time as may be prescribed by the Legislature tiguous territory, at the same time
of the assembly are required to be ch divided in the formation of
SEC. 2. The number of the members o than fifty-four, nor more than one hundre wumber not more than one-third, nor less the members of the Assembly.
SEC. 3. At their first session after eac ity of the United States, the legislature s members of the Senate and Assembly, acco excluding Indians not taxed, and soldier army and navy.4
2. Persons of foreign birth who, prior to the first day of Decemebered in the regular series, and t
from the odd and even-numbered distr Section 1 has been amended twice; the
A. D. 1908, shall have declared their intentions to become citizens confor able to the laws of the United States on the subject of naturalization:
vided that the rights hereby granted to such persons shall cease on the the legislature of 1881, readopted by the
the second amendment was proposed adopted by the legislature of 1907, and ratifi Amendment proposed and adopted by egislature of 1909 and ratified on Nov. 8. 19 Amendment proposed and adopted by rature of 1881 and ratified on Nov. 8, 18
SEC. 4. The members of the single districts on the Tuesday succeedin the adoption of this amendment by the tricts; such districts to be bounded by to consist of contiguous territory, and SEC. 5. The senators shall be ele
De citizens of the United States, any subsequent law of congress to ry notwithstanding.
vilized persons of Indian descent not members of any tribe; proit the legislature may at any time extend by law the right of sufpersons not herein enumerated; but no such law shall be in force same shall have been submitted to a vote of the people at a general ind approved by a majority of all the votes cast at such election; ided further, that in incorporated cities and villages, the legislature vide for the registration of electors and prescribe proper rules and ns therefor.3
No person under guardianship. non-compos mentis, or insane, qualified to vote at any election; nor shall any person convicted of or felony, be qualified to vote at any election, unless restored to civil
3. All votes shall be given by ballot, except for such township offimay by law be directed, or allowed to be otherwise chosen.
4. No person shall be deemed to have lost his residence in this y reason of his absence on business of the United States, or of this
5. No soldier, seaman, or marine in the army or navy of the United shall be deemed a resident of this State, in consequence of being stawithin the same.
2. 6. Laws may be passed excluding from the right of suffrage all perto have been or may be convicted of bribery, or larceny, or of any infarime, and depriving every person who shall make, or become directly. irectly interested, in any bet or wager depending upon the result of ection, from the right to vote at such election.
CTION 1. The legislative power shall be vested in a Senate and Assem
c. 2. The number of the members of the Assembly shall never be less ifty-four, nor more than one hundred. The Senate shall consist of a r not more than one-third, nor less than one-fourth of the number of embers of the Assembly.
c. 3. At their first session after each enumeration made by the authorthe United States, the legislature shall apportion and district anew the ers of the Senate and Assembly, according to the number of inhabitants. ing Indians not taxed, and soldiers and officers of the United States and navy.4
c. 4. The members of the assembly shall be chosen biennially, by districts on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November after loption of this amendment by the qualified electors of the several dissuch districts to be bounded by county, precinct, town or ward lines. sist of contiguous territory, and be in as compact form as practicable. Cc. 5. The senators shall be elected by single districts of convenient uous territory, at the same time and in the same manner as members assembly are required to be chosen, and no assembly district shall be in the formation of a senate district. The senate district shall be red in the regular series, and the senators shall be chosen alternately the odd and even-numbered districts. The Senators elected, or holding
ection 1 has been amended twice; the first amendment was proposed and adopted legislature of 1881, readopted by the legislature of 1882, and ratified on Nov. 7. the second amendment was proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1905, red by the legislature of 1907, and ratified on Nov. 3, 1908.
Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1907, readopted by the ure of 1909 and ratified on Nov. 8, 1910.
Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1880, readopted by the ture of 1881 and ratified on Nov. 8, 1881.
over at the time of the adoption of this amendment, shall continue in office till their successors are duly elected and qualified; and after the adoption of this amendment, all senators shall be chosen for the term of four years.€
SEC. 6. No person shall be eligible to the Legislature, who shall not have resided one year within the State, and be a qualified elector in the district which he may be chosen to represent.
SEC. 7. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and quali fications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide.
SEC. 8. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, pmish for contempt and disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of twothirds of all the members elected, expel a member; but no member shall be expelled a second time for the same cause.
SEC. 9. Each house shall choose its own officers and the Senate shall choose a temporary president, when the Lieutenant-Governor shall not attend as president, or shall act as Governor.
SEC. 10. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings and publish the same, except such parts as require secrecy. The doors on each house shall be kept open except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days.
SEC. 11. The legislature shall meet at the seat of government at such time as shall be provided by law, once in two years and no oftener, unless convened by the Governor in special session, and when so convened no busi ness shall be transacted except as shall be necessary to accomplish the special purposes for which it was convened.7
SEC. 12. No member of the Legislature, shall, during the term for which he was elected, be appointed or elected to any civil office in the State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during the term for which he was elected.
or civil office under the United States, shall be eligible to a seat in the Legis lature, and if any person shall, after his election as a member of the Legislature. be elected to Congress, or be appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat. SEC. 14. The Governor shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either house of the Legislature.
SEC. 15. Members of the Legislature shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest; nor shall they be subject to any civil process during the session of the Legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session.
SEC. 21. Each member of the legislature and during a regular session, the sum of ats for every mile he shall travel in going to meeting of the legislature on the most usua of the legislature, no additional compens ber thereof, either directly or indirectly, e ed at the same rate as for a regular sessic aze or other perquisite, except the salary an received from the state by any member of in any other manner as such member.8 SEC. 22. The Legislature may confer upo several counties of the State, such powers o ative character, as they shall from time to SEC. 23. The Legislature shall establish aty government which shall be as nearly SEC. 24. The Legislature shall never auth
No person being a member of Congress, or holding any military tution of the State of Wisconsin, and fa
force. SEC. 25. The Legislature shall provide for the use of the State, and all print to be done for their use, or for the St lowest bidder, but the Legislature may ber of the Legislature or other State Or tly or indirectly, in any such contract. The Legislature shall never gr public officer, agent, servant, or contractrendered, or the contract entered into public officer be increased, or diminished SFC. 27. The Legislature shall direct by uts, suits may be brought against the Sta SEC. 28. Members of the Legislature, an
except such inferior officers as may be er upon the duties of their respective of affirmation to support the Constitution of
eir respective offices to the best of their SEC. 29. The Legislature shall determ militia of the State, and may provide e in such manner as shall be prescribe SEC. 30. In all elections to be made ereof shall vote viva-voce, and their votes SEC. 31. The Legislature is prohibited te laws in the following cases: stituting one person the heir-at-law of 1st. For or altering highways except in cases one county, and military roads to aic be granted by Congress, ess streams. at points wholly within 3. For a
SEC. 16. No member of the Legislature shall be liable in any civil action. or criminal prosecution whatever, for words spoken in debate.
SEC. 17. The style of the laws of the State shall be "The people of thee or mortgage of real or personal pro State of Wisconsin, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:lity, 5th. For locating or changing an
collection of taxes or for extending
and no law shall be enacted except by bill.
SEC. 18. shall embrace more than one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title SEC. 19. Any bill may originate in either house of the Legislature, and a bill passed by one house may be amended by the other.
SEC. 20. The yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any que tion shall, at the request of one-sixth of those present, be entered on the journal,
Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1880, readopted by the legislature of 1881, and ratified on Nov. 8, 1881.
Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1880, readopted by the legislature of 1881, and ratified on Nov. 8, 1881.
No private or local bill which may be passed by the Legislature granting corporate powers or privileg
Section 21 has been amended twice: ged by the legislature of 1865, readopted November. 1867 the present amendment wa Breadopted by the legislature of 1881 the amendment of 1867 is as follows: Sec. te for his services three hundred and fi y mile he shall travel in going to and relegislature, on the most usual route. dditional compensation shall be allowed eetly. In c
21. Each member of the legislature shall receive for his services, uring a regular session, the sum of five hundred dollars, and ten. every mile he shall travel in going to and returning from the place of the legislature on the most usual route. In case of an extra the legislature, no additional compensation shall be allowed to any hereof, either directly or indirectly, except for mileage, to be comthe same rate as for a regular session. No stationery, newspapers, · other perquisite, except the salary and mileage above provided, shall ed from the state by any member of the legislature for his services, other manner as such member.8
22. The Legislature may confer upon the boards of supervisors of al counties of the State, such powers of a local, legislative and admincharacter, as they shall from time to time prescribe. 23. The Legislature shall establish but one system of town and overnment which shall be as nearly uniform as practicable.
The Legislature shall never authorize any lottery, or grant any
25. The Legislature shall provide by law, that all stationery reor the use of the State, and all printing authorized and required by be done for their use, or for the State, shall be let by contract to st bidder, but the Legislature may establish a maximum price, no of the Legislature or other State Officer, shall be interested, either or indirectly, in any such contract.
The Legislature shall never grant any extra compensation to ic officer, agent, servant, or contractor, after the services shall have dered, or the contract entered into; nor shall the compensation of lie officer be increased, or diminished during his term of office. 27. The Legislature shall direct by law in what manner and in what uits may be brought against the State.
28. Members of the Legislature, and all officers, executive and judiept such inferior officers as may be by law exempted, shall before they on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe an oath, ation to support the Constitution of the United States, and the Conof the State of Wisconsin, and faithfully to discharge the duties of Spective offices to the best of their ability.
29. The Legislature shall determine what persons shall constitute tia of the State, and may provide for organizing and disciplining the such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
- 30. In all elections to be made by the Legislature, the members shall vote viva-voce, and their votes shall be entered on the journal. . 31. The Legislature is prohibited from enacting any special or privs in the following cases: 1st. For changing the name of persons or ting one person the heir-at-law of another. 2d. For laying out, openaltering highways except in cases of State roads extending into more e county, and military roads to aid in the construction of which lands e granted by Congress. 3. For authorizing persons to keep ferries streams, at points wholly within this state. 4th. For authorizing the mortgage of real or personal property of minors or others under dis5th. For locating or changing any county seat. 6th. For assessment ection of taxes or for extending the time for collection thereof. 7th. anting corporate powers or privileges, except to cities. 8th. For author
-ction 21 has been amended twice; the first amendment was proposed and by the legislature of 1865, readopted by the legislature of 1867, and ratified ember, 1867; the present amendment was proposed and adopted by the legislature -,readopted by the legislature of 1881, and ratified on Nov. 8, 1881. The text mendment of 1867 is as follows: Sec. 21. Each member of the legislature shall for his services three hundred and fifty dollars per annum, and ten cents for mile he shall travel in going to and returning from the place of the meetings of islature, on the most usual route. In case of an extra session of the legislature, itional compensation shall be allowed to any member thereof, either directly or