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SEC. 2. The Legislature shall levy an annual capitation tax of one dollar each male inhabitant of the State who has attained the age of twenty-one s, which shall be annually appropriated to the support of free schools. ons afflicted with bodily infirmity may be exempted from this tax. SEC. 8. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in pursuance of ppropriation made by law, and on a warrant issued thereon by the Auditor; shall any money or fund be taken for any other purpose than that for h it has been or may be appropriated, or provided. A complete and detailed ment of the receipts and expenditures of the public moneys, shall be pubdannually. SEC. 4. No debt shall be contracted by this State, except to meet casual its in the revenue, to redeem a previous liability of the State, to suppress rection, repel invasion or defend the State in time of war; but the payof any liability other than that for the ordinary expenses of the State, be equally distributed over a period of at least twenty years. SEC. 5. The power of taxation of the Legislature shall extend to prons for the payment of the State debt, and interest thereon, the support of schools, and the payment of the annual estimated expenses of the State; whenever any deficiency in the revenue shall exist in any year, it shall, at regular session thereof held next after the deficiency occurs levy a tax the ensuing year, sufficient with other sources of income to meet such iency, as well as the estimated expenses of such year.
SEC. 6. The credit of the State shall not be granted to, or in aid of any ty, city, township, corporation or person; nor shall the State ever assume, ecome responsible for the debts or liabilities of any county, city, township, oration or person; nor shall the State ever hereafter become a joint owner, ockholder in any company or association in this State or elsewhere, formed ny purpose whatever.
SEC. 7. County authorities shall never assess taxes, in any one year, the egate of which shall exceed ninety-five cents per one hundred dollars valuaexcept for the, support of free schools; payment of indebtedness existing e time of the adoption of this Constitution, and for the payment of any btedness with the interest thereon, created under the succeeding section, s such assessment, with all questious involving the increase of such aggreshall have been submitted to the vote of the people of the county, and - received three-fifths of all the votes cast for and against it. SEC. S. No county, city, school district, or municipal corporation, except ases where such corporations have already authorized their bonds to be d, shall hereafter be allowed to become indebted, in any manner, or for purpose, to an amount, including existing indebtedness, in the aggregate, eding five per centum on the value of the taxable property therein to be Ttained by the last assessment for State and county taxes, previous to the Tring of such indebtedness; nor without, at the same time, providing for the ction of a direct annual tax, sufficient to pay, annually, the interest on debt, and the principal thereof, within, and not exceeding thirty-four years; ided, That no debt shall be contracted under this section, unless all quesconnected with the same shall have been first submitted to a vote of the le, and, have received three-fifths, of all the votes cast for and against the
SEC. 9. The Legislature may, by law, authorize the corporate authorities of s, towns and villages, for corporate purposes, to assess and collect taxes; such taxes shall be uniform, with respect to persons and property within jurisdiction of the authority imposing the same.
SECTION 1. The Legislature shall provide for the organization of all cortions hereafter to be created, by general laws, uniform as to the class to h they relate, but no corporation shall be created by special law; Pro
vided. That nothing in this section contained, shall prevent the Legislature`from providing by special laws for the connection, by canal, of the waters of the Chesapeake with the Ohio river by the line of the James river, Greenbrier, New river and Great Kanawha.
S SEC. 2. The stockholders of all corporations and joint stock companies, except banks and banking institutions, created by laws of this State, shall be Hiable for the indebtedness of such corporations to the amount of their stock subscribed and unpaid, and no more.
SEC. 3. All existing charters or grants of special or exclusive privileges under which organization shall not have taken place, or which shall not have been in operation within two years from the time this Constitution takes effect. shall thereafter have no validity or effect whatever; Provided, That nothing herein shall prevent the execution of any bona fide contract heretofore lawfully made in relation to any existing charter or grant in this State.
SEC. 4. The Legislature shall provide by law that in all elections for directors or managers of incorporated companies, every stockholder shall have the right to vote in person or by proxy, for the number of shares of stock owned by him, for as many persons as there are directors or managers to be elected, or to cumulate said shares, and give one candidate as many votes as the number of directors multiplied by the number of his shares of stock, shali equal, or to distribute them on the same principle among as many candidates as he shall think fit, and such directors or managers shall not be elected in any other manner.
SEC. 5. No law shall be passed by the Legislature, granting the right to eʊnstruct and operate a street railroad within any city, town or incorporated village, without requiring the consent of the local authorities having the com trol of the street or highway, proposed to be occupied by such street ruilroad.
SEC. 6. The Legislature may provide, by general banking law, for the ere ation and organization of banks of issue or circulation, but the stockholders of any bank hereafter authorized by the laws of this State, whether of issue, deposit or discount, shall be personally liable to the creditors thereof, over and above the amount of stock held by them respectively to an amount equal to their respective shares so held, for all its liabilities accruing while they are such stockholders.
SEC. 7. Every railroad corporation organized or doing business in this State shall annually by their proper officers, make a report under oath, to the auditor of public accounts of this State, or some officer to be designated by law. setting forth the condition of their affairs, the operations of the year. and such other matters relating to their respective railroads as may be pre scribed by law. The Legislature shall pass laws enforcing by suitable penalties the provisions of this section.
SEC. 8. The rolling stock and all other movable property belonging to any railroad company or corporation in this State shall be considered persona property and shall be liable to execution and sale in the same manner as the personal property of individuals; and the Legislature shall pass no law exempt ing any such property from execution and sale.
SEC. 9. Railroads heretofore constructed, or that may hereafter be con structed in this State, are hereby declared public highways and shall be free to all persons for the transportation of their persons and property thereon, under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; and the Legislature shall, from time to time, pass laws, applicable to all railroad corporations in the State. establishing reasonable maximum rates of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight, and providing for the correction of abuses, the prevention of unjust discriminations between through and local or way freight and pas senger tariffs, and for the protection of the just rights of the public, and shal enforce such laws by adequate penalties.
SEC. 10. The Legislature shall, in the law regulating railway companies,
require railroads running th **ntaining three hundred o accommodation of trade and
SEC. 11. No railroad c franchise with any other rail the possession or control of *◄ntract, without the permiss SEC. 12. The exercise of never be so construed or abri«f the property and franchiand subjecting them to the 1
SECTION 1. The Legislatu d efficient system of free sc SEC. 2. The State Superin pervision of free schools, and ay be prescribed by law. I on him by the Legislature he Therefor: Provided, the amour one year.
SEC. 3. The Legislature m other officers as may be necess define their duties, powers and SEC. 4. The existing pern acerning to this State from tands; and from lands heretofo Virginia, if hereafter redeemed devises or bequests that may E
tion or where the purposes of ned; this State's just share of or otherwise liquidated; and a this State shall have the right
ational purposes; the proceeds leaving a will or heir, and of that may be levied on the rever be paid as an equivalent for e as may from time to time be pose, shall be set apart as a s and invested under such regul interest bearing securities of tl interest bearing securities cann he invested in such other solve proved by the Governor, Superi urer, who are hereby constituted The same under such regulation. terest thereof shall be annually out the State, and to no other interest remaining unexpended an and remain a part of the capita taxes which shall be received by taxes due to the State thereon. S
for which the same were levied SEC. 5. The Legislature shal
appropriating thereto the interest
s of all forfeitures and fines a
This section is modified by the Ir as set forth at the end of the constitu
ire railroads running through, or within a half mile of a town or village aining three hundred or more inhabitants, to establish stations for the mmodation of trade and travel of said town or village.
SEC. 11. No railroad corporation shal consolidate its stoc property or chise with any other railroad owning a parallel or competing line, or obtain possession or control of such parallel or competing line by lease or other ract, without the permission of the Legislature.
SEC. 12. The exercise of the power and the right of eminent domain shall r be so construed or abridged as to prevent the taking, by the Legislature, he property and franchises of incorporated companies already organized, subjecting them to the public use, the same as of individuals.
SECTION 1. The Legislature shall provide, by general law, for a thorough efficient system of free schools.
SEC. 2. The State Superintendent of Free Schools shall have a general suision of free schools, and perform such other duties in relation thereto as be prescribed by law. If in the performance of any such duty imposet him by the Legislature he shall incur any expenses, he shall be reimbursed efor; Provided, the amount does not exceed five hundred dollars in any year.
SEC. 3. The Legislature may provide for county superintendents and such r officers as may be necessary to carry out the objects of this article and e their duties, powers and compensation.
SEC. 4. The existing permanent and invested school fund, and all money uing to this State from forfeited, delinquent, waste and unappropriated is; and from lands heretofore sold for taxes and purchased by the State of inia. if hereafter redeemed or sold to others than this State; all grants. ses or bequests that may be made to this State, for the purposes of eduon or where the purposes of such grants, devises or bequests are not speci; this State's just share of the literary fund of Virginia, whether paid over otherwise liquidated; and any sums of money, stocks or property which State shall have the right to claim from the State of Virginia for eduonal purposes; the proceeds of the estates of persons who may die without ing a will or heir, and of all escheated lands; the proceeds of any taxes may be levied on the revenues of any corporations; or moneys that may aid as an equivalent for exemption from military duty; and such sums may from time to time be appropriated by the Legislature for the pur. shall be set apart as a separate fund to be called the "School Fund," invested under such regulations as may be prescribed by law, in the rest bearing securities of the United States, or of this State, or if such rest bearing securities cannot be obtained, then said "School Fund" shall invested in such other solvent, interest bearing securities as shall be.ap ed by the Governor, Superintendent of Free Schools, Auditor and Treaswho are hereby constituted the "Board of the School Fund," tỏ manage same under such regulations as, may be prescribed by law; and the inst thereof shall be annually applied to the support of free schools throughthe State, and to no other purpose whatever. But any portion of said rest remaining unexpended at the close of a fiscal year shall be added to remain a part of the capital of the "School Fund," Provided, That all s which shall be received by the State upon delinquent lands, except the es due to the State thereon, shall be refunded to the county or district by For which the same were levied.19
SEC. 5. The Legislature shall provide for the support of free schools by ropriating thereto the interest of the invested "School Fund," the net BroIs of all forfeitures and fines accruing to this State under the laws thereof;
This section is modified by the Irreducible School Fund Amendment [Article XVI], set forth at the end of the constitution.
the State capitation tax, and by general taxation of persons and property or otherwise. It shall also provide for raising in each county or district, by the authority of the people thereof, such a proportion of the amount re quired for the support of free schools therein, as shall be prescribed by general laws.
SEC. 6. The school districts into which any county is now divided shall continue until changed in pursuance of law.
SEC. 7. All levies that may be laid by any county or district for the pur· pose of free schools shall be reported to the clerk of the county court; and shall, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law, be collected by the sheriff or other collector, who shall make annual settlement with the county -court; which settlement shall be made a matter of record by the clerk thereof, in a book to be kept for that purpose.
SEC. 8. White and colored persons shall not be taught in the same school. SEC. 9. No person connected with the free school system of the State, or with any educational institution of any name or grade under State contro, shall be interested in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book or other thing used, or to be used therein, under such penalties as may be prescribed by law; Provided, That nothing herein shall be construed to apply to any work written, or thing invented, by such person.
SEC. 10. No independent free school district, or organization shall here after be created, except with the consent of the school district or districts out of which the same is to be created, expressed by a majority of the voters voting on the question.
SEC. 11. No appropriation shall hereafter be made to any State norma school, or branch thereof, except to those already established and in operation. or now chartered.
SEC. 12, The Legislature, shall foster, and encourage moral, intellectual. scientific and agricultural improvement; it shall, whenever it may be practicable, make suitable provision for the blind, mute and insane, and for the organization of such institutions of learning as the best interests of general education in the State may demand.
SECTION 1. All private rights and interests in lands in this State derived from or under the laws of the State of Virginia, and from or under the co stitution and laws of this State prior to the time this constitution goes into operation, shall remain valid and secure and shall be determined by the laws in force in Virginia, prior to the formation of this State, and by the constim tion and laws in force in this State přiòr to the time this constitution goes into effect.
SEC. 2. No entry by warrant on land in this State shall hereafter be made. SEC. 3. All title to lands in this State heretofore forfeited, or treated as forfeited, waste and unappropriated, or escheated to the State of Virginia or this State, or purchased by either of said States at sales made for the nonpayment of taxes and become irredeemable, or hereafter forfeited, or treated as forfeited, or escheated to this State, or purchased by it and become irredeetable, not redeemed, released or otherwise disposed of, vested and remaining in this State, shall be, and is hereby transferred to, and vested in any person (other than those for whose default the same may have been forfeited or re turned delinquent, their heirs or devisees), for so much thereof as such pers pas, or shall have had actual continuous possession of, under color or clata of title for ten years and who, or those under whom he claims, shall have paid the State taxes thereon for any five years during such possession; or if there be no such person, then to any person (other than those for whe default the same may have been forfeited, or returned delinquent, their her or devisees). for so much of said land as such person shall have title or claim to, regularly derived, mediately or immediately from, or under a grant from the Commonwealth of Virginia or this State, not forfeited, which ba for the title forfeited would be valid, and who, or those under whom he clains
has, or shall have paid all State taxes cessive years, after the year 1865, or have issued since that year; or if there 14 any person (other than those for w forfeited, or, returned delinquent, eir Said land as such person shall have had -ion of, under color of title for any five ad have paid all State taxes charged on SEC. 4. All lands in this State, w r hereafter for any cause forfeited, of The State of Virginia, or this State, or •leemable, not redeemed, released, tran title whereto shall remain in this Stattioned be made, shall by proceedings in The lands, or a part thereof, are situated. SEC. 5. The former owner of any s excess of the sum for which the land and chargeable thereon, or which, if t have been charged or chargeable there with interest at the rate of twelve pethe proceedings, if his claim be filed in within two years thereafter.
SFC. 6. It shall be the duty of eve #he land books of the county in whic cause himself to be charged with the Ter any five successive years after the i nd containing one thousand acres or such books with State tax on said 1: >hail be forfeited and the title there **ne or more of such five years, the ov Tax on any part of the land, such par Camuse, And any owner of land so for Time of the forfeiture thereof, who s
r insane person, may, until the exp 1 such disability, have the land, or s all State and other taxes that shall hargeable on the land, or interest t thereafter with interest at the rate of 171xes and interest thereon for all su interest therein. Provided. Such right I wenty years from the time such land
SECTION 1. No convention shall The Constitution of the State, unles the affirmative vote of a majority The Legislature and providing that * the same day therein specifiet, after the passage of such law, fo voters on the question of calling a
held unless a majority of the vo the same; nor shall the members b ne month after the result of the Tublished. And all acts and ordin mitted to the voters of the State no validity whatever until they ar SEC. 2. Any amendment to t posed in either House of the Le Three several days in each House,
or shall have paid all State taxes charged or chargeable thereon for five essive years, after the year 1865, or from the date of the grant, if it shall e issued since that year; or if there be no such person, as aforesaid, then my person (other than those for whose default the same may have been eited, or returned delinquent, their heirs and devisees.) for so much of 1 land as such person shall have had claim to and actual continuous possesof, under color of title for, any five successive years after the year 1865, have paid all State taxes charged or chargeable thereon for said period. SEC. 4. All lands in this State, waste and unappropriated, or heretofore hereafter for any cause forfeited, or treated as forfeited, or escheated to State of Virginia, or this State, or purchased by either and become irremable, not redeemed, released, transferred or otherwise disposed of, the whereto shall remain in this State till such sale as is hereinafter menned be made, shall by proceedings in the circuit court of the county in which lands, or a part thereof, are situated, be sold to the highest bidder.
SEC. 5. The former owner of any such land shall be entitled to receive the ess of the sum for which the land may be sold over the taxes charged d chargeable thereon, or which, if the land had not been forfeited. would ve been charged or chargeable thereon, since the formation of this State, th interest at the rate of twelve per centum per annum, and the costs of e proceedings, if his claim be filed in the circuit court that decrees the sale. thin two years thereafter.
SEC. 6. It shall be the duty of every owner of land to have it entered on e land books of the county in which it, or part of it, is situated, and to use himself to be charged with the taxes thereon, and pay the same. When r any five successive years after the year 1869, the owner of any tract of nd containing one thousand acres or more, shall not have been charged on ich books with State tax on said land, then by operation hereof. the land all be forfeited and the title thereto vest in the State. But if, for any e or more of such five years, the owner shall have been charged with State x on any part of the land, such part thereof shall not be forfeited for such mise. And any owner of land so forfeited, or of any interest therein at the me of the forfeiture thereof, who shall then be an infant, married woman. r insane person, may, until the expiration of three years after the removal f such disability, have the land, or such interest charged on such books, with Il State and other taxes that shall be, and but for the forfeiture would be. hargeable on the land, or interest therein for the year 1863, and every year hereafter with interest at the rate of ten per centum per annum; and pay all axes and interest thereon for all such years and thereby redeem the land or nterest therein. Provided. Such right to redeem shall in no case extend beyond wenty"'yérfs 'from the time such land was forfeited.
the Legislature and providing that polls shall be be less than three months
SECTION 1. No convention shall be called, having the authority to alter the Constitution of the State. unless it be in pursuance of a law, passed by the affirmative vote of a majority of the members elected to each House of open throughout the State.
on the same day therein specifieth, which shall after the passage of such law, for the purpose of taking the sense of the voters on the question of calling a convention. And such convention shall not be held unless a majority of the votes cast at such polls be in favor of calling the same; nor shall the members be elected to such convention until, at least. one month after the result of the vote shall be duly ascertained, declared and published. And all acts and ordinances of the said convention shall be submitted to the voters of the State for ratification or rejection, and shall have no validity whatever until they are ratified.
SEC. 2. Any amendment to the Constitution of the State may be proposed in either House of the Legislature; and if the same, being read on three several days in each House, be agreed to on its third reading, by two