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The boards of supervisors of the several counties, and the councils of the several cities, and towns if the same be separate school districts, shall provide for the levy and collection of such local school taxes,

SEC. 137. The General Assembly may establish agricultural, normal, manual training and technical schools, and such grades of schools as shall be for the public good.

SEC. 138. The General Assembly may, in its discretion, provide for the compulsory education of children between the ages of eight and twelve years. except such as are weak in body or mind, or can read and writ, or are attending private schools, or are excused for cause by the district school trustees.

SEC. 139. Provisions shall be made to supply children attending the public schools with the necessary text-books in cases where the parent or guardian is unable, by reason of poverty, to furnish them.

SEC. 140, White and colored children shall not be taught in the same school.

SEC. 141. No appropriation of public funds shall be made to any school or institution of learning not owned or exclusively controlled by the State or some political subdivision thereof; provided, first, that the General Assembly may, in its discretion, continue the appropriations to the College of William and Mary; second, that this section shall not be construed as requiring or prohibiting the continuance or discontinuance by the General Assembly of the payment of interest on certain bonds held by certain schools and colleges as provided by an act of the General Assembly, approved February twenty-third. eighteen hundred and ninety-two, relating to bonds held by schools and colleges; third, that counties, cities, towns and districts may make appropriations to non-sectarian schools of manual, industrial, or technical training, and also to any school or institution of learning owned or exclusively controlled by such county, city, town, or school district.

SEC. 142. Members of the boards of yisitors or trustees of educational institutions shall be appointed as may be provided by law, and shall hold for the term of four years, provided, that at the first appointment, if the board be of an even number, one-half of them, or if an odd number, the least majority of them, shall be appointed for two years.



SEC. 143. There shall be a Department of Agriculture and Immigration. which shall be permanently maintained 'at the capitol of the State, and whel shall be under the management and control of a Board of Agriculture and Immigration, composed of one member from each congressional district, wh› shall be a practical farmer, appointed by the Governor for a term of four years, subject to confirmation by the Senate, and the president of the Virgini Polytechnic Institute, who shall be ex-officio a member of the board; provided. that members of the board first appointed under this Constitution from the congressional districts bearing odd numbers shall hold office for two years.

SEC. 144. The powers and duties of the board shall be prescribed by law provided, that it shall have power to elect and remove its officers, and establist elsewhere in the State subordinate branches of said department.

SEC. 145. There shall be a Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration. whose term of office shall be four years, and who shall be elected by the qu' ified voters of the State, and whose powers and duties shall be prescribed by the Board of Agriculture and Immigration until otherwise provided by law. SEC. 146. The president of the Board of Agriculture and Immigration sh. be ex-officio a member of the Board of Visitors of the Virginia Polytechnic In stitute.



SEC. 147. There shall be a State penitentiary, with such branch prisons an! prison farms as may be provided by law.

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SEC. 148. There shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation the Senate, a board of five directors, which, subject to such regulations and uirements as may be prescribed by law, shall have the government and control the penitentiary, branch prisons and prison farms, and shall appoint the superendents and surgeons thereof. The respective superintendents shall appoint. I may remove, all other officers and employees of the penitentiary, branch sons and prison farms, subject to the approval of the board of directors. The erintendents and surgeons shall be appointed for a term of four years, and removable by the board of directors for misbehavior, incapacity, neglect of cial duty, or acts performed without authority of law. The terms of the ectors first appointed shall be one, two, three, four and five years, respecely, and thereafter, upon the expiration of the term of a director, his sucsor shall be appointed for a term of five years.

SEC. 149. For each State hospital for the insane now existing, or hereer established, there shall be a special board of directors, consisting of ee members, who shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation the Senate such board shall have the management of the hospital for which is appointed, under the supervision, and control of the general board of ectors hereinafter constituted. The terms of the directors first appointed ll be two, four and six years, respectively, and thereafter, upon the expiraof the term of a member, his successor shall be appointed for a term six years.

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SEO. 150. There shall be a general board of directors for the control and nagement of all the State hospitals for the insane now existing or hereer established, which shall consist of all the directors appointed members of several special boards. The general board of directors shall be subject to h regulations and requirements as the General Assembly may from time time prescribe, and shall have full power and control over the special boards directors and all of the officers and employees of the said hospitals,


SEC. 151. The general board of directors shall appoint, for a term of four rs a superintendent for each hospital, who shall be removable by said board misbehavior, incapacity, neglect of official duty, or acts performed without hority of law. The special board of each hospital shall, subject to the apval of the general board, appoint for a term of four years all other resident The superintendent of each hospital shall appoint, and may remove, h the approval of the special board, all other employees of such hospital. SEC. 152. There shall be a Commissioner of State Hospitals for the Insane, 0 shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Senate. term of four years. He shall be ex-officio chairman of the general and of h of the special boards of directors, and shall be responsible for the proper bursement of all moneys appropriated or received from any source for the intenance of such hospitals; he shall cause to be established and maintained all of the hospitals a uniform system of keeping the records and the accounts money received and disbursed and of making the reports thereof, He shall form such, other duties and shall execute such bond and receive such salary may be prescribed by law,


SEC. 153. As used in this article, the term "corporation" or "company" Il include all trusts, associations and joint stock companies having any ers or privileges not possessed by individuals or unlimited partnerships, and lude all municipal corporations and public institutions owned or controlled the State: the term "charter" shall be construed to mean the charter of orporation by, or under, which any such corporation is formed; the term insportation company" shall include any company, trustee, or other person ing, leasing or operating for hire a railroad, street railway, canal, steamboat steamship line, and also any freight car company, car association, or car st, express company, or company, trustee or person in any way engaged in common carrier over a route acquired in whole or in part

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under the right of eminent domain; the term "rate" shall be construed to mean "rate of charge for any service rendered or to be rendered"; the terms “rate," "charge" and "regulation" shall include joint rates, joint charges and joint regulations, respectively; the term "transmission company" shall include any company owning, leasing, or operating for hire, any telegraph or telephone line: the term "freight" shall be construed to mean any property transported, or received for transportation, by any transportation company; the term “public service corporation" shall include all transportation and transmission companies. all gas, electric light, heat and power companies, and all persons authorized to exercise the right of eminent domain, or to use or occupy any street, alley or public highway, whether along, over, or under the same, in a manner not permitted to the general public; the term "person," as used in this article. shall include individuals, partnerships and corporations, in the singular as we as plural number; the term "bond" shall mean all certificates, or written evi dences, of indebtedness issued by any corporation and secured by mortgage of trust deed; the term "frank” shall be construed to mean any writing or token. issued by, or under authority of, a transmission company, entitling the holder to any service from such company free of charge. The provisions of this article shall always be so restricted in their application as not to conflict with any of the provisions of the Federal Constitution, and as if the necessary limitations upon their interpretation had been herein expressed in each case.

SEC. 154. The creation of corporations, and the extension and amend ment of charters (whether heretofore or hereafter granted), shall be pro vided for by general laws, and no charter shall be granted, amended or ex tended by special act, nor shall authority in such matters be conferred upor any tribunal or officer, except to ascertain whether the applicants have, by complying with the requirements of the law, entitled themselves to the charter amendment or extension applied for, and to issue, or refuse, the same accord ingly. Such general laws may be amended or repealed by the General Assemby and all charters and amendments of charters, now existing and revocable, hereafter granted or extended, may be repealed at any time by special act Provision shall be made, by general laws, for the voluntary surrender of charter by any corporation, and for the forfeiture thereof for non-user or mis The General Assembly shall not, by special act, regulate the affairs of any corporation, nor, by such act, give it any rights, powers or privileges.


SEC. 155. A permanent commission, to consist of three members, is here created, which shall be known as the State Corporation Commission. The missioners shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly in joint session, and their regular terms of office shall ' six years, respectively, except those first appointed under this Constitution, of whom, one shall be appointed to hold office until the first day of February nineteen hundred and four, one, until the first day of February, nineteen him dred and six, and one, until the first day of February, nineteen hundred and eight. Whenever a vacancy in the commission shall occur, the Governor she? forthwith appoint a qualified person to fill the same for the unexpired tera subject to confirmation by the General Assembly as aforesaid. Commissioner appointed for regular terms shall, at the beginning of the terms for wh appointed, and those appointed to fill vacancies shall, immediately upon thei appointments, enter upon the duties of their office; but no person so appoints. either for a regular term, or to fill a vacancy, shall enter upon, or contine in, office after the General Assembly shall have refused to confirm his appoint ment, or adjourn sine die without confirming the same, nor shall he be eligilfor reappointment to fill the vacancy caused by such refusal or failure to o firm. No person while employed by, or holding any office in relation to. 257 transportation or transmission company, or while in any wise financially inte. ested therein, or while engaged in practicing law, shall hold office as a ver ber of said commission, or perform any of the duties thereof. At least of the commissioners shall have the qualifications prescribed for judges of tre Supreme Court of Appeals; and any commissioner may be impeached or remote in the manner provided for the impeachment or removal of a judge of said cr

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mission shall annually elect one of their members chairman of the same, I have one clerk, one bailiff and such other clerks, officers, assistants and ates as may be provided by law, all of whom shall be appointed, and to removal, by the commission. It shall prescribe its own rules of order cedure, except so far as the same are specified in this Constitution or endment thereof. The General Assembly may establish within the det, and subject to the supervision and control of the commission, subordivisions, or bureaus, of insurance, banking or other special branches of ness of that department. All sessions of the commission shall be public, ermanent record shall be kept of all its judgments, rules, orders, findings isions, and of all reports made to, or by, it. Two of the commissioners nstitute a quorum for the transaction of business, whether there be a in the commission or not. The commission shall keep its office open for s on every day except Sundays and legal holidays. Transportation comhall at all times transport, free of charge, within this State, the members commission and its officers, or any of them, when engaged on their official The General Assembly shall provide suitable quarters for the commission ds for its lawful expenses, including pay for witnesses summoned, and cost ating processes issued, by the commission of its own motion; and shall fix aries of the members, clerks, assistants and subordinates of the comand provide for the payment thereof; but the salary of each commisshall not be less than four thousand dollars per annum. After the first January, nineteen hundred and eight, the General Assembly may pror the election of the members of the commission by the qualified voters State; in which event, vacancies thereafter occurring shall be filled as efore provided, until the expiration of twenty days after the next election, held not less than sixty days after the vacancy occurs, at election the vacancy shall be filled for the residue of the unexpired

c. 156 (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to such ments. rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law, the State ation Commission shall be the department of government through which e issued all charters and amendments or extensions thereof, for domestic ations, and all licenses to do business in this State to foreign corpo; and through which shall be carried out all the provisions of this tution, and of the laws made in pursuance thereof, for the creation, ion, supervision, regulation and control of corporations chartered by, or business in, this State. The commission shall prescribe the forms of all which may be required of such corporations by this Constitution or by law; Il collect, receive and preserve such reports, and annually tabulate and them in statistical form; it shall have all the rights and powers of, rform all the duties devolving upon, the Railroad Commissioner and the of Public Works, at the time this Constitution goes into effect, except as they are inconsistent with this Constitution, or may be hereinafter hed or changed by law.

>) The commission shall have the power, and be charged with the or supervising, regulating and controlling all transportation and transmisompanies doing business in this State, in all matters relating to the pernce of their public duties and their charges therefor, and of correcting therein by such companies; and to that end the commission shall, from o time, prescribe, and enforce against such companies, in the manner herer authorized, such rates, charges, classifications of traffic, and rules and itions, and shall require them to establish and maintain all such public e, facilities and conveniences, as may be reasonable and just, which said charges, classifications, rules, regulations and requirements, the commission from time to time, alter or amend. All rates, charges, classifications, rules egulations adopted, or acted upon, by any such company, inconsistent with prescribed by the commission, within the scope of its authority, shall lawful and void. The commission shall also have the right at all times spect the books and papers of all transportation and transmission com

panies doing business in this State, and to require from such companies, from time to time, special reports and statements under oath, concerning their business; it shall keep itself fully informed of the physical condition of all of the railroads of the State, as to the manner in which they are operated. with reference to the security and accommodation of the public, and shali. from time to time, make and enforce such requirements, rules and regulations as may be necessary to prevent unjust or unreasonable discriminations by any transportation or transmission company in favor of, or against, any person, locality, community, connecting line, or kind of traffic. in the matter of car service, train or boat schedule, efficiency of transportation or otherwise. in connection with the public duties of such company. Before the commission shall prescribe or fix any rate, charge, or classification of traffic, and before it shall make any order, rule, regulation or requirement directed against any one or more companies by name, the company or companies to be affected by sura rate, charge, classification, order, rule, regulation or requirement, shall first be given, by the commission, at least ten days' notice of the time and place, when and where the contemplated action in the premises will be considered and disposed of, and shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to introduce evi dence and to be heard thereon, to the end that justice may be done, and shall have process to enforce the attendance of witnesses; and before the commission shall make or prescribe any general order, rule, regulation of requirement, not directed against any specific company or companies by names. the contemplated general order, rule, regulation or requirement shall firs be published, in substance, not less than once a week for four consecutive weeks in one or more of the newspapers of general circulation published in th city of Richmond, Virginia, together with notice of the time and place, whe and where the commission will hear any objections which may be urged b any person interested, against the proposed order, rule, regulation or requir ment; and every such general order, rule, regulation or requirement, mad by the commission, shall be published at length, for the time and in to manner above specified, before it shall go into effect, and shall also, as lo as it remains in force, be published in each subsequent annual report of th commission. The authority of the commission (subject to review on appe as hereinafter provided) to prescribe rates, charges and classifications traffic, for transportation and transmission companies, shall be paramount; b its authority to prescribe any other rules, regulations or requirements f corporations or other persons shall be subject to the superior authority of ti General Assembly to legislate thereon by general laws; provided, however, th nothing in this section shall impair the right which has heretofore been. « may hereafter be, conferred by law upon the authorities of any city, town c county to prescribe rules, regulations or rates of charge to be observed by st public service corporation in connection with any services performed by under a municipal or county franchise granted by such city, town or cou” so far as such service may be wholly within the limits of the city. town? county granting the franchise. Upon the request of the parties interested. shall be the duty of the commission, as far as possible, to effect, by mediatio the adjustment of claims, and the settlement of controversies between tra portation or transmission companies and their patrons.

(e) In all matters pertaining to the public visitation, regulation or en trol of corporations, and within the jurisdiction of the commission, it sh have the powers and authority of a court of record, to administer oaths compel the attendance of witnesses and the production of papers, to pus for contempt any person guilty of disrespectful or disorderly conduct in " presence of this commission while in session, and to enforce compliance wi any of its lawful orders or requirements by adjudging, and enforcing by own appropriate process, against the delinquent or offending company (after shall have been first duly cited, proceeded against by due process of ` before the commission sitting as a court, ami afforded opportunity to introd evidence and to be heard as well against the validity, justness or reasonab ness of the order or requirement alleged to have been violated, as against

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