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SEC. 61.

No new county shall be formed with an area of less than six red square miles; nor shall the county or counties from which it is formed educed below that area; nor shall any county be reduced in population w eight thousand. But any county, the length of which is three times its a breadth, or which exceeds fifty miles in length, may be divided at the -etion of the General Assembly..


SEC. 62. The General Assembly shall have full power to enact local option ispensary laws, or any other laws controlling, regulating, or prohibiting the ufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors.


SEC. 63. The General Assembly shall confer on the courts power to grant rees, change the names of persons, and direct the sale of estates belonging fants and other persons under legal disabilities, and shall not, by special lation, grant, relief in these or other cases of which the courts or other nals may have jurisdiction. The General Assembly may regulate the exerby courts of the right to punish for contempt. The General Assembly shall enact any local, special, or private law in the following cases:

For the punishment of crime.

Providing a change of venue in civil or criminal cases.




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Regulating the practice in, or the jurisdiction of, or changing the rules vidence in any judicial proceedings or inquiry before the courts or other mals, or providing or changing the methods of collecting debts or enforcing ments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate.

4. Changing or locating county seats.

5. For the assessment and collection of taxes, except as to animals which General Assembly may deem dangerous to the farming interests.


Extending the time for the assessment or collection of taxes.

7. Exempting property from taxation.

8. Remitting, releasing, postponing, or diminishing any obligation or liay of any person, corporation, or association, to the State or to any political ivision thereof.


9. Refunding money lawfully paid into the treasury of the State or the sury of any political subdivision thereof.

10. Granting from the treasury of the State, or granting or authorizing è granted from the treasury of any political subdivision thereof, any extra ensation to any public officer, servant, agent, or contractor.

11. For conducting elections or designating the places of voting.

12. Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing, or the rate of int on money.

3. Granting any pension or pensions.

4. Creating, increasing, or decreasing, or authorizing to be created, ined, or decreased, the salaries, fees, percentages, or allowances of public offiduring the term for which they are elected or appointed.

5. Declaring streams navigable, or authorizing the construction of booms ims therein, or the removal of obstructions therefrom.

6. Affecting or regulating fencing or the boundaries of land, or the runat large of stock.

7. Creating private corporations, or amending, renewing, or extending harters thereof.

8. Granting to any private corporation, association, or individual any il or exclusive right, privilege or immunity.

9. Naming or changing the name of any private corporation or asso


0. Remitting the forfeiture of the charter of any private corporation exupon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter et to the provisions of this Constitution and the laws passed in pursuance of. EX. 64. In all the cases enumerated in the last section, and in every other which, in its judgment, may be provided for by general laws, the General ably shall enact general laws. Any general law shall be subject to amendor repeal, but the amendment or partial repeal thereof shall not operate

directly or indirectly to enact, and shall not have the effect of the enactment of a special, private, or local law.

No general or special law shall surrender or suspend the right and power of the State, or any political subdivision thereof, to tax corporations and corporate property, except as authorized by Article Thirteen. No private corpora tion, association, or individual shall be specially exempted from the operation of any general law, nor shall its operation be suspended for the benefit of any private corporation, association, or individual.

SEC. 65. The General Assembly may, by general laws, confer upon the boards of supervisors of counties, and the councils of cities and towns, sur powers of local and special legislation, as it may from time to time deem exje dient, nor inconsistent with the limitations contained in this Constitution.

SEC. 66. The Clerk of the House of Delegates shall be Keeper of the Res of the State but shall receive no compensation from the State for his services as such.

The General Assembly by general law shall prescribe the number of en ployees of the Senate and House of Delegates, including the clerks thereof, as fix their compensation at a per diem, for the time actually employed in te discharge of their duties.

SEC. 67. The General Assembly shall not make any appropriation of pals funds, of personal property, or of any real estate, to any church, or sectari society, association, or institution of any kind whatever, which is entirely o partly, directly or indirectly, controlled by any church or sectarian society nor shall the General Assembly make any like appropriation to any charits institution, which is not owned or controlled by the State; except that it wi in its discretion, make appropriations to non-sectarian institutions for the form of youthful criminals; but nothing herein contained shall prohibit General Assembly from authorizing counties, cities, or towns to make s appropriations to any charitable institution or association.

SEC. 68. The General Assembly shall, at each regular session, apfe standing committee, consisting of two members of the Senate and three !-2 bers of the House Delegates, which shall be known as the auditing comme Such committee shall annually, or oftener in its discretion, examine the and accounts of the First Auditor, the State Treasurer, the Secretary d ́ Commonwealth, and other executive officers at the seat of government *** duties pertain to auditing or accounting for the State revenue, report the pr of its investigations to the Governor, and cause the same to be published two newspapers of general circulation in the State. The Governor sha the beginning of each session, submit said reports to the General Assembly t appropriate action. The committee may sit during the recess of the Ger Assembly, receive such compensation as may be prescribed by law, and t one or more accountants to assist in its investigations,



SEC. 69. The chief executive power of the State shall be vested in 2 ernor. He shall hold office for a term of four years, to commence on *te day of February next succeeding his election, and be ineligible to the S for the term next succeeding that for which he was elected, and to ang office during his term of service.


SEC. 70. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified voters of the at the time and place of choosing members of the General Assembly. of the election shall be transmitted, under seal, by the proper officers. : Secretary of the Commonwealth, who shall deliver them to the Speaker House of Delegates on the first day of the next session of the Genera! Asse The Speaker of the House of Delegates shall, within one week thereafter the presence of a majority of the Senate and of the House of Delegates the returus, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the he number of votes shall be declared elected; but if two or more shall h

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zhest and an equal number of votes, one of them shall be chosen Governor the joint vote of the two houses of the General Assembly, Contested elecons for Governor shall be decided by a like vote, and the mode of proceeding such cases shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 71. No person except a citizen of the United States shall be eligible the office of Governor; and if such person be of foreign birth, he must have en a citizen of the United States for ten years next preceding his election; r shall any person be eligible to that office unless he shall have attained the e of thirty years, and have been a resident of the State for five years next eceding his election..

SEC. 72. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government; shall reve five thousand dollars for each year of his service, and while in office receive no other emolument from this or any other government,

SEC. 73. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; municate to the General Assembly, at every session, the condition of the te; recommend to its consideration such measures as he may deem expent, and convene the General Assembly on application of two-thirds of the mters of both houses thereof, or when,, in his opinion, the interest of the te may require. He shall be commander-in-chief of the land and naval res of the State; have power to embody the militia to repel invasion, supss insurrection and enforce the execution of the laws; conduct, either in son or in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, all intercourse with er and foreign States; and, during the recess of the General Assembly, shall e power to suspend, from office for misbehavior, incapacity, neglect of official y, or acts performed without due authority of law, all executive officers at seat of the government except the Lieutenant-Governor; but, in any case which this power is so exercised, the Governor shall report to the General embly, at the beginning of the next session thereof, the fact of such sussion and the cause therefor, whereupon the General Assembly shall detere whether such officer shall be restored or finally removed; and the Govor shall have power, during the recess of the General Assembly, to appoint, tempore successors to all officers so suspended, and to fill, pro tempore. ancies in all offices of the State, for the filling of which the Constitution laws make no other provision; but his appointments to such vacancies shall y commission, to expire at the end of thirty days after the commencement he next session of the General Assembly. He shall have power to remit s and penalties in such cases, and under such rules and regulations as may prescribed by law, and, except when the prosecution has been carried on The House of Delegates, to grant reprieves and pardons after conviction; to ove political disabilities consequent upon conviction for offences committed r or subsequent to the adoption of this Constitution, and to commute cappunishment; but he shall communicate to the General Assembly, at each ion. particulars of every case of fine or penalty remitted, of reprieve or lon granted, and of punishment commuted, with his reasons for remitting. iting, or commuting the same.

SEC. 74. The Governor may require information in writing, under oath. the officers of the executive department and superintendents of State in: tions upon any subject relating to the duties of their, respective offices institutions; and he may inspect at any time their official books, accounts vouchers, and ascertain the condition of the public funds in their charge. in that connection may employ accountants, He may require the opinion riting of the Attorney-General upon any question of law affecting, the offiduties of the Governor.

SEC. 75. Commissions and grants shall run in the name of Commonwealth. Virginia, and he attested by the Governor, with the seal of the Commonth annexed.

SEC. 76. Every bill, which shall have passed the Senate and House of Dele8, shall, before it becomes a law. be presented to the Governor. If he ove, he shall sign it, but, if not, he may return it with his objections to house in which it originated, which shall enter the objections at large on ournal aml proceed to reconsider the same. If, after such consideration,

two-thirds of the members present, which two-thirds shall include a majority of the members elected to that house, shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it will likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the members present, which two-thirds shall include a majority of the members elected to that house. it shall become a law, notwithstanding the objections. The Governor shall have the power to veto any particular item or items of an appropriation bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. The item or items objected to shall not take effect except in the manner heretofore provided in this section as to bills returned to the General Assembly without his approval. If he approves the general purpose of any bill, but disapproves any part or parts thereof, he may return it, with recommendations for its amendment, to the house in which it originated, whereupon the same proceed ings shall be had in both houses upon the bill and his recommendations in relation to its amendment, as is above provided in relation to a bill which he shal have returned without his approval, and with his objections thereto; provide! that if, after such reconsideration, both houses, by a vote of a majority of the members present in each, shall agree to amend the bill in accordance with his recommendation in relation thereto, or either house by such vote shall fail e refuse to so amend it, then, and in either case, the bill shall be again sent t him, and he may act upon it as if it were then before him for the first time But in all the cases above set forth the votes of both houses shall be determine by ayes and noes, and the names of the members voting for and against the bill, or item or items of an appropriation bill, shall be entered on the journ of each house. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the s shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Asse bly shall, by final adjournment, prevent such return; in which case it shall le a law if approved by the Governor in the manner and to the extent above vided, within ten days after such adjournment, but not otherwise.

SEC. 77. A Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected at the same time and fe the same term as the Governor, and his qualifications and the manner a ascertainment of his election, in all respects, shall be the same.

SEC. 78. In case of the removal of the Governor from office, or of ! death, failure to qualify, resignation, removal from the State, or inability discharge the powers and duties of the office, the said office, with its comperst tion, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor; and the General Assem shall provide by law for the discharge of the executive functions in other nes sary cases.

SEC. 79. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be president of the Senate: shall have no vote except in case of an equal division; and while acting such, shall receive a compensation' equal to that allowed to the Speaker of th House of Delegates.

SEC. 80. A Secretary of the Commonwealth shall be elected by the qualiter voters of the State at the same time and for the same term as the Govern?! and the fact of his election shall be ascertained as in the case of the Govern He shall keep a daily record of the official acts of the Governor, which sh be signed by the Governor and attested by the Secretary; and, when requir he shall lay the same, and any papers, minutes and vouchers pertaining to office, before either house of the General Assembly. He shall discharge other duties as may be prescribed by law. All fees received by the Secre of the Commonwealth shall be paid into the treasury monthly.

SEC. 81. A State Treasurer shall be elected by the qualified voters of * State at the same time and for the same term as the Governor; and the f of his election shall be ascertained in the same manner. His powers and d

shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 82. An Auditor of Public Accounts shall be elected by the joint › of the two houses of the General Assembly for the term of four years. powers and duties shall be prescribed by law.


SEC. 83. The salary of each officer of the Executive Department. exe

those cases where the salary is determined by this Constitution, shall be fixed by law; and the salary of no such officer shall be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected or appointed.

SEC. 84. The General Assembly shall provide by law for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient system of checks and balances between the officers at the seat of government entrusted with the collection, receipt, custody, or disbursement of the revenues of the State.


SEC. 85. All State officers, and their deputies, assistants or employees. charged with the collection, custody, handling or disbursement of public funds, shall be required to give bond for the faithful performance of such duties; the, amount of such bond in each case, and the manner in which security shall be furnished, to be specified and regulated by law.


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SEC. 86. The General Assembly shall have power to establish and maintain 1 Bureau of Labor and Statistics, under such regulations as may be prescribed y law.


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SEC. 87. The Judiciary Department shall consist of a Supreme Court of Appeals, circuit courts, city courts, and such other courts as are hereinafter uthorized. The jurisdiction of these tribunals and the judges thereof, except o far as conferred by this Constitution, shall be regulated by law.

SEC. 88. The Supreme Court of Appeals shall consist of five judges, any hree of whom may hold a court. It shall have original jurisdiction in cases f habeas corpus, mandamus, and prohibition; but in all other cases, in which : shall have jurisdiction, it shall have appellate jurisdiction only.

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Subject to such reasonable rules, as may be prescribed by law, as to the urse of appeal, the limitation as to time, the security required, if any, the anting or refusing of 'appeals, and the procedure therein, it shall, by virtue f this Constitution, have appellate jurisdiction in all cases involving the conitutionality of a law as being repugnant to the Constitution of this State, or the United States, or involving the life or liberty of any person; and it shall so have appellate juristliction in such other cases, within the limits hereinfter defined, as may be prescribed by law; but no appeal shall be allowed to e Commonwealth in any case involving the life or liberty of a person, except at an appeal by the Conimonwealth may be allowed by law in any case inolving the violation of a law relating to the State revenue. No bond shall be quired of any accused person as a condition of appeal, but a supersedeas nd may be required where the only punishment imposed in the court below a fine.


The court shall not have jurisdiction in civil cases where the matter in ntroversy, exclusive of costs and of interest accrued since the judgment in e court below, is less in value or amount than three hundred dollars, except controversies concerning the title to, or boundaries of land, the condemnation property, the probate of a will, the appointment or qualification of a pernal representative, guardian, committee, or curator, or concerning a mill, roaday, ferry, or landing, or the right of the State, county, or municipal corpotion, to levy tolls or taxes, or involving the construction of any statute, ordince or county proceeding imposing taxes; and, except in cases of habeas rpus, mandáius, and prohibition, the constitutionality of a law, or some her matter not merely pecuniary. After the year nineteen hundred and ten e General Assembly may change the jurisdiction of the court in matters erely pecuniary. The assent of at least three of the judges shall be required

the court to determine that any law is, or is not, repugnant to the Contution of this State, or of the United States; and if, in a case involving the nstitutionality of any such law, not more than two of the judges sitting ree in opinion on the constitutional question involved, and the case cannot determined, without passing on such question, no decision shall be rendered rein, but the case shall be reheard by a full court; and in no case where • jurisdiction of the court depends solely upon the fact that the constitu

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