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iy place or to seize any person or things shall issue without describing them s nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmaon subscribed to by the affiant.

SEC. 9. In all criminal prosecutions the accused hath a right to be heard 7 himself and his counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation ainst him, to meet the witnesses face to face, to have compulsory process for staining witnesses in his favor, and, in prosecutions by indictment or informaon, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; he cannot be mpelled to give evidence against himself, nor can he be deprived of his life, erty or property, unless by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land.

SEC. 10. No person shall, for any indictable offense, be proceeded against iminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger, or leave of the court for oppression or misdemeanor in office. No person shall, r the same offense, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall private ́operty be taken or applied to public use, without authority of law and witht just compensation being first made or secured.

SEC. 11. All courts shall be open; and every man for an injury done him his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy by due course of w, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay. Suits y be brought against the Commonwealth in such manner, in such courts and such cases as the Legislature may by law direct.


SEC. 12. No power of suspending laws shall be exercised unless by the gislature or by its authority.

SEC. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, r cruel punishments inflicted.

SEC. 14. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for pital offenses when the proof is evident or presumption great; and the privge of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in case rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.


SEC. 15.

No commission of oyer and terminer or: jail delivery shall be





SEC. 16. The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of and. shall not be continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the nefit of his creditors in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.


SEC. 17. No expost facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of ntracts, or making irrevocable any grant of special privileges or immunities, all be passed.

SEC. 18. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the Legis


SEC. 19. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during e life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the Commonwealth. The estate such · persons as shall destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in ses of natural death, and if any person shall be killed by cusnalty there shall • no forfeiture by reason thereof.

SEC. 20. The citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble gether for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, dress or remonstrance.

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SEC. 21. The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves id the State shall not be questioned.

SEC. 22. No standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up without the msent of the Legislature, and the military shall in all cases and at all times ⚫ in strict subordination to the civil power.

SEC. 23. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house ithout the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be rescribed by law.

SEC. 24. The Legislature shall not grant any title of nobility or hereditary istinction. nor create any office the appointment to which shall be for a longer er than during good behavior.

SEC. 25. Emigration from the State shall not be prohibited.

SEC. 26. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government and shall forever main inviolate.



SECTION 1. The legislative power of this Commonwealth shall be vested in a General Assembly which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representa tives.

SEC. 2. Members of the General Assembly shall be chosen at the general election every second year. Their term of service shall begin on the first day of December next after their election. Whenever a vacancy shall occur either House, the presiding officer thereof shal! issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the term.

SEC. 3. Senators shall be elected for the term of four years and Represen tatives for the term of two years.

SEC. 4. The General Assembly shall meet at twelve o'clock, noon, on the first Tuesday of January every second year, and at other times when convened by the Governor, but shall hold no adjourned annual session after the year on thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight. In case of a vacancy in the other of United States Senator from this Commonwealth, in a recess between sessions the Governor shall convene the two Houses, by proclamation on notice a exceeding sixty days, to fill the same.1

SEC. 5. Senators shall be at least twenty-five years of age and Represe tatives twenty-one years of age. They shall have been citizens and inhabitants of the State four years, and inhabitants of their respective districts one yet next before their election (unless absent on the public business of the United States or of this State), and shall reside in their respective districts during their terms of service.

SEC. 6. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for whi he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office under this Comme wealth, and no member of Congréss, or other person, holding any office (exeti of attorney-at-law or in the militia) under the United States, or this Com wealth, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

SEC. 7. No person hereafter convicted of embezzlement of public- menys bribery, perjury or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the Gener Assembly, or capable of holding any office of trust or profit in this Comm wealth.

SEC. 8. The members of the General Assembly shall receive such salari and mileage for regular and special sessions as shall be fixed by law, and me. other compensation whatever, whether for service upon committee or otherwise No member of either House shall during the term for which he may have been elected, receive any increase of salary, or mileage, under any law passed daring such term.

SEC. 9. The Senate shall at the beginning and close of each regular sessie and at such other times as may be necessary, elect one of its members Predent pro tempore, who shall perform the duties of the Lieutenant Gover---4 in any case of absence or disability of that officer, and whenever the said offe of Lieutenant Governor shall be vacant. The House of Representatives slam elect one of its members as Speaker. Each House shall choose its other offer and shall judge of the election and qualifications of its members.

SEC. 10. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum, but a sua i...number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of deemembers.

SEC. 11. Each House shall have power to determine the rules of its ceedings and punish its members or other persons for contempt or disorder behavior in its presence, to enforce obedience to its process, to protect its mes bers against violence or offers of bribes or private solicitation, and, with th

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neurrence of two-thirds,. to expel a member, but not a second time for the me cause, and shall have all other powers necessary for the Legislature of free State. A member expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible either House, and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not r an indictment for the same offense.

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SEC.-12. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings and from ae to time publish the same, except such parts as require secrecy, and the as and nays of the members on any question shall, at the desire of any two them, be entered on the journal.

SEC. 13. The sessions of each House and of committees of the whole shall open, unless when the business is such as ought to be kept secret.

SEC. 14. Neither House shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two uses shall be sitting.

SEC. 15. The members of the General Assembly shall in all cases, except ason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach or surety of the ce, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sessions of ir respective Houses and in going to and returning from the same; and for · speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other


SEC. 16. The State shall be divided into fifty senatorial districts of comt and contiguous territory as nearly equal in population as may be, and each rict shall be entitled to elect one Senator. Each county containing one or re ratios of population shall be entitled to one Senator for each ratio, and to additional Senator for a surplus of population exceeding three-fifths of a lo, but no county shall form a separate district unless it shall contain fouras of a ratio, except where the adjoining counties are each entitled to one more Senators, when such county may be assigned a Senator on less than r-fifths and exceeding one-half of a ratio; and no county shall be divided ess entitled to two or more Senators. No city or county shall be entitled to arate representation exceeding one-sixth of the whole number of Senators. ward, borough or township shall be divided in the formation of a district. : senatorial ratio shall be ascertained by dividing the whole population of State by the number of fifty.

SEC. 17. The members of the House of Representatives shall be appor(ell-among the several counties, on a ratio obtained by dividing the population the State as ascertained by the most recent United States census by two dred. Every county containing less than five ratios shall have one represenve for every full ratio, and an additional representative when the surplus eds half a ratio; but each county shall have at least one representative. Every ity containing five ratios or more shall have one representative for every full 0. Every city containing a population equal to a ratio shall elect separately proportion of the representatives allotted to the county in which it is located. ry city entitled to more than four representatives, and every county having one hundred thousand“ infabitants`shall be divided into districts of-compæet » contiguous territory, each district to elect its proportion of representatives. ording to its population, but no district shall elect more than four represen


SEC. 18. The General Assembly at its first session after the adoption of | Constitution, and immediately after each United States decennial census. Il apportion the State into senatorial and representative districts agreeably he provisions of the two next preceding sections.



SECTION 1. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so red or amended, on its passage through either House, as to change its inal purpose.

SEC. 2. No bill shall be considered unless referred to a committee, returned refrom, and printed for the use of the members.

SEC. 3. No bill, except general appropriation bills, shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.

SEC. 4. Every bill shall be read at length on three different days in each House: all amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the men bers before the final vote is taken on the bill, and no bill shall become a law, mless on its final passage the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the persons voting for and against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members elected to each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor.

SEC. 5. No amendment to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, except by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upo the journal thereof; and reports of committees of conference shall be adopte in either House only by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto. taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting recorded journals.

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SEC. 6. No law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof ex tended or conferred, by reference to its title only, but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extend or conferred shall be re-enacted and published a length.

SEC. 7. The General Assembly shall not pass any local or special law: Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens:

Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs school districts:

Changing the names of persons or places:

Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases:

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining, roads, high ways, streets or alleys:

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies except for the erection of bridges. crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other State:

Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys:

Relating to cemeteries, graveyards or public grounds not of the State: Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children:

Locating or changing county seats, erecting new counties or chatz county lines:

Incorporating cities, towns or villages, or changing their charters:

For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the pay of voting:

Granting divorces:

Erecting new townships or boroughs, changing township lines, boŋutz limits or school districts:

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties cities, boroughs, townships, election or school districts:

Changing the law of descent or succession:

Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of eride · in. any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, aldermen, justices of t peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in chancery other tribunals, or providing or changing methods for the collection of dec or the enforcing of judginents, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales real estate:

Regulating the fees or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, justie of the peace, magistrates or constables:

Regulating the management of public schools, the building or rejer. of school houses, and the raising of money for such purposes:

Fixing the rate of interest:

Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability, except »? due notice to all parties in interest, to be recited in the special enactment : Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 1 into the treasury:

Exempting property from taxation:

Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing:

Creating corporations, or amending, renewing or extending the charters reof:

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or exclue privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or individual the ht to lay down a railroad track:

Nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact such special or local law the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or special acts y be passed:

Nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges in any case ere the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for general law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same or e the relief asked for.

SEC. 8. No local or special bill shall be passed unless notice of the inten1 to-apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter he thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty ́s prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill and in the mer to be provided by law; the evidence of such notice having been pubed shall be exhibited in the General Assembly before such act shall be sed.

SEC. 9. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the se over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the eral Assembly, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before ing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

SEC. 10. The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties compensation of the officers and employees of each House, and no payment I be made from the State Treasury, or be in any way authorized, to any on, except to an acting officer or employee elected or appointed in pursuance


SEC. 11. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any lic officer, servant, employee, agent or contractor, after services shall have rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim nst the Commonwealth without previous authority of law.

SEC. 12. All stationery, printing paper and fuel used in the legislative other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing. ling and distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other ting and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used the meetings of the. General Assembly and its committees, shall be pered under contract to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such imum price and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no aber or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way rested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the oval of the Governor, Auditor General and State Treasurer.

SEC. 13. No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase iminish his salary or emoluments, after his election or appointment. SEC. 14. All bids for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Repreatives, but the Senate may propose amendments as in other bills.

SEC. 15. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but approtions for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative and judicial artments of the Commonwealth, interest on the public debt and for public ols: all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracbut one subject.

SEC. 16. No money shall be paid out of the treasury, except upon approtions made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance *eof.

SEC. 17. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational itution not under the absolute control of the Commonwealth, other than mal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the memselected to each House.

SEC. 18. No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military

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