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CHAP. xxxv.]



of the pressure of steam; it is quite from under the control of the engineer, or any other person, so that its indications may be relied upon ; and the construction is so simple, that it is scarcely possible for it to get out of order, I might give a full explanation of the machine, but I think it best to leave that to the inventor himself. The numerous and appalling accidents which have occurred from the bursting of steam-boat boilers have induced me to give you these observations, which I think desirable to be laid before the public. I may state that I have no pecuniary interest in the scheme; but being the first person to whom it has been shown, and the first to make use of it, I feel it a duty I owe to the inventor, as well as the public, to make it as universally known as possible. The indicator is put up at Tapton colliery, near Chesterfield, and may be seen any day, by any respectable person.”

Mr. Stephenson also occupied some of his spare time, while at Tapton, in devising improvements in locomotive engines and railway carriages, still aiming at perfecting the great system which he had originated. Thus, in 1846, he brought out his design of a three-cylinder locomotive,— the two outside cylinders acting together in the same plane, the third cylinder, with a crank in the middle of the axle, acting at right angles to the plane and crank pins of the two other cylinders. The middle cylinder was double the diameter of the others; and its compensating action neutralised the tendency to oscillate, which was a defect in the long-boiler outside-cylinder engines as originally constructed. Although this new engine was very ingenious, and acted with great power, it has not come into general use, in consequence of the somewhat greater expense of its construction and working. The oscillation, also, of the outside-cylinder engines, which this invention was designed to correct, has since been obviated by an improvement in their design and structure.

A three-cylinder engine was, however, constructed by way of experiment for the North Eastern Railway, on which line it still continues in efficient work."

Shortly after, Mr. Stephenson invented a new self-acting brake, after a plan which had occupied his attention for many years, and which had been partially adopted on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway during the time that he was its acting engineer. He now communicated a paper on the subject, accompanied by a beautiful model, to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers at Birmingham, of which he was president. The great recommendation of the plan was its simplicity and cheapness. “Any effectual plan,” he said, “ for increasing the safety of railway travelling is, in my mind, of such vital importance, that I prefer laying my scheme open to the world to taking out a patent for it; and it will be a source of great pleasure to me to know that it has been the means of saving even one human life from destruction, or that it has prevented one serious concussion." *

In 1847, the year before his death, Mr. Stephenson was invited to join a distinguished party at Sir Robert Peel's mansion at Drayton Manor, and to assist in the ceremony of formally opening the Trent Valley Railway, which had been originally designed and laid out by him many years before. The first sod of the railway was cut by the Prime Minister himself, in November, 1845, during the time when Mr. Stephenson was abroad on the business of the Spanish rail

* See the “ Practical Mechanic's Journal,” vol. i. p. 53., for a description of the Self-acting Brake, since revived by M. Guérin, with the addition of 8 centrifugal apparatus. Mr. Stephenson's original idea, of employing the momentum or surplus velocity of the train for the purpose of braking the wheels of the carriages, and thereby stopping the train, has been ingeniously worked out by M. Guérin, who admits that his invention is but the complement of the Self-acting Brake above referred to.


way. The formal opening took place on the 26th of June, 1847, the line having thus been constructed in less than two years.

What a change had come over the spirit of the landed gentry since the time when George Stephenson had first projected a railway through that district! Then they were up in arms against him, characterising him as a devastator and spoiler of their estates; now he was hailed as one of the greatest benefactors of the age. Sir Robert Peel, the chief political personage in England, welcomed him as a guest and a friend, and spoke of him as the chief of our practical philosophers. A dozen members of parliament, seven baronets, with all the landed magnates of the district, assembled to celebrate the opening of the railway. The clergy were there to bless the enterprise, and to bid all hail to railway progress, as “ enabling them to carry on with greater facility those operations in connection with religion which were calculated to be so beneficial to the country.”* The army, speaking through the mouth of General A'Court, acknowledged the vast importance of railways, as tending to improve the military defences of the country. And representatives from eight corporations were there to acknowledge the great benefits which railways had conferred upon the merchants, tradesmen, and working classes of their respective towns and cities. Amongst those present who could not fail to contrast the now triumphant success of railways with the dismal forebodings uttered twenty years before, was Mr. William Yates Peel, one of the earliest supporters of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

Sir Robert Peel made a capital speech on the occasion, pointing out that, at a remote period in the history of British high roads 2000 years ago, Julius Agricola, who united in

* Speech of Archdeacon Hodson at the opening of the Trent Valley Railway.


his person both engineer and contractor,— being the Stephenson and Brassey of his day, — had formed a direct line of communication between London and Chester, though with unfavourable gradients. As to the immense advantages of railways, there could be no manner of doubt; they were, in his judgment, “destined to effect a greater social revolution than any invention since the art of printing was discovered;" tending, as they did, to promote the moral and social welfare, and to advance the political security of the kingdom, to establish new bonds of connection between England and Ireland, and to develope the industrial energies and resources of both countries. Sir Robert, in the course of his speech, invited “the lions of the broad and narrow gauge " to forget the memory of all former grievances for that day, even if, unfortunately, they were doomed to be revived again on the morrow.

Mr. Stephenson, however, was so strongly convinced of the great mistakes which had been committed of late years

– mistakes which had, in no small measure, been encouraged by Sir Robert Peel himself, greatly to the damage of railway property,—that he would not omit the opportunity, as he said, of “giving him a rub” on the occasion, and speaking out his mind freely on the subject of direct lines, steep gradients, and the atmospheric “humbug," all of which had at one time been patronised by Sir Robert, when Premier. In the course of his reply, he said, “ When I look back to the time when I first projected a locomotive railway in this neighbourhood, I cannot but feel astonished at the opinions which then prevailed. We were told, even by celebrated engineers, that it would be impossible ever to establish railways. Judge, then, how proud must now be the feelings of one who, foreseeing the results of railways, has risen from the lower ranks on their success! I may venture to make a reference to what the right honourable baronet said relative


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to Julius Agricola and a direct line. If Julius Agricola laid down the most direct lines, it must be recollected that he had no heavy goods' trains to provide for, and gradients were of no consequence. The line that general took was probably very good for his troops, where the hills would serve to establish his witches; but such lines would be in no way applicable at the present day, where the road is covered with long goods' trains propelled by the locomotive. What we require now is a road with such gradients that locomotives shall be able to carry the heaviest loads at the least expense. The right honourable baronet will excuse me if I say that to have a line that is direct is not the main thing. Had he studied the laws of practical mechanics as I have done, he would, doubtless, have regarded good gradients as one of the most important considerations in a railway. I will also venture to say a word as to the broad gauge. I ain afraid that this is another misconception, almost as great as the atmospheric railway ; only they have had the advantage of my engines to drag them through. The Great Western commenced operations by endeavouring to have everything different from us, - a different gauge and different engines. They put the boiler on one carriage and the engine on another, and they used ten-feet wheels, which were to go at a hundred miles an hour. But what became of those engines? They required porters to help them out of the station; and then they would not work. Luckily, however, we had sent them one engine from Newcastle, called the • North Star,' to carry on the traffic; and though, like a horse, an engines requires rest, yet it was continually being called out to bring in the trains, thereby doing double duty in conducting the traffic for which the original broad-gauge engines were found incapable.”

Nothing had occurred to weaken his confidence in the loco

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