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simple rivalry that, if one got a charter, the other might also. But here, where the Committee might have given both, they gave neither. In another instance, two lines were projected through a barren country, and the Committee gave the one which afforded the least accommodation to the public. In another, where two lines were projected to run, merely to shorten the time by a few minutes, leading through a mountainous country, the Committee gave both. So that, where the Committee might have given both, they gave neither, and where they should have given neither, they gave both."

The frightful waste of money in conducting railway proceedings, before and after they reached the parliamentary committees, was matter of notoriety. An instance has been mentioned of an utterly impracticable line, which never got so far as the House of Commons, where the solicitor's bill for projecting and conducting the scheme amounted to 82,0001. It was estimated by Mr. Laing of the Board of Trade, and the estimate was confirmed by Mr. Stephenson, that the competition for new lines, many of which were sanctioned by Parliament under the delusion that railway travelling would be thereby cheapened, had led to the expenditure of about three hundred millions sterling, of which seventy millions had been completely thrown away in constructing unnecessary duplicate lines. But Mr. Stephenson further expressed himself of opinion, that this loss of seventy millions very inadequately represented the actual loss in point of convenience, economy, and other circumstances connected with traffic, which the public has sustained from the carelessness of Parliament in railway legislation.

The total cost of obtaining one act amounted to 436,223.. Another company expended 480,000l. on parliamentary contests in nine years. In another case, 57,0001. was expended in one session upon six counsel and twenty solicitors. One

CHAP. XXXI.] ILL EFFECTS OF THE MANIA. 445 barrister, in good practice before the committees, pocketed 38,0001. in a single session.

Amongst the many ill effects of the mania, one of the worst was that it introduced a low tone of morality into railway transactions. The bad spirit which had been evoked by it unhappily extended to the coinmercial classes ; and many of the most flagrant swindles of recent times had their origin in the year 1845. Those who had suddenly gained large sums without labour, and also without honour, were too ready to enter upon courses of the wildest extravagance; and a false style of living shortly arose, the poisonous influence of which extended through all classes. Men began to look upon railways as instruments to job with; and they soon became as overrun with jobbers as London charities. Persons, sometimes possessing information respecting railways, but more frequently possessing none, got upon boards for the purpose of promoting their individual objects, often in a very unscrupulous manner; landowners, to promote branch lines through their property; speculators in shares, to trade upon the exclusive information which they obtained; whilst some directors were appointed through the influence mainly of solicitors, contractors, or engineers, who used them as tools to serve their own ends. In this way the unfortunate proprietors were, in many cases, betrayed, and their property was shamefully squandered, greatly to the discredit of the railway system.

simple rivalry that, if one got a charter, the other might also. But here, where the Committee might have given both, they gave neither. In another instance, two lines were projected through a barren country, and the Committee gave the one which afforded the least accommodation to the public. In another, where two lines were projected to run, merely to shorten the time by a few minutes, leading through a mountainous country, the Committee gave both. So that, where the Committee might have given both, they gave neither, and where they should have given neither, they gave both.”

The frightful waste of money in conducting railway proceedings, before and after they reached the parliamentary committees, was matter of notoriety. An instance has been mentioned of an utterly impracticable line, which never got so far as the House of Commons, where the solicitor's bill for projecting and conducting the scheme amounted to 82,0001. It was estimated by Mr. Laing of the Board of Trade, and the estimate was confirmed by Mr. Stephenson, that the competition for new lines, many of which were sanctioned by Parliament under the delusion that railway travelling would be thereby cheapened, had led to the expenditure of about three hundred millions sterling, of which seventy millions had been completely thrown away in constructing unnecessary duplicate lines. But Mr. Stephenson further expressed himself of opinion, that this loss of seventy millions very inadequately represented the actual loss in point of convenience, economy, and other circumstances connected with traffic, which the public has sustained from the carelessness of Parliament in railway legislation.

The total cost of obtaining one act amounted to 436,2231. Another company expended 480,000l. on parliamentary contests in nine years. In another case, 57,0001. was expended in one session upon six counsel and twenty solicitors. One

CHAP. XXXI.] ILL EFFECTS OF THE MANIA.

445 barrister, in good practice before the committees, pocketed 38,0001, in a single session.

Amongst the many ill effects of the mania, one of the worst was that it introduced a low tone of morality into railway transactions. The bad spirit which had been evoked by it unhappily extended to the coinmercial classes ; and many of the most flagrant swindles of recent times had their origin in the year 1845. Those who had suddenly gained large sums without labour, and also without honour, were too ready to enter upon courses of the wildest extravagance; and a false style of living shortly arose, the poisonous influence of which extended through all classes. Men began to look upon railways as instruments to job with; and they soon became as overrun with jobbers as London charities. Persons, sometimes possessing information respecting railways, but more frequently possessing none, got upon boards for the purpose of promoting their individual objects, often in a very unscrupulous manner; landowners, to promote branch lines through their property; speculators in shares, to trade upon the exclusive information which they obtained; whilst some directors were appointed through the influence mainly of solicitors, contractors, or engineers, who used them as tools to serve their own ends. In this way the unfortunate proprietors were, in many cases, betrayed, and their property was shamefully squandered, greatly to the discredit of the railway system.

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CHAP. XXXII.

MR. STEPHENSON'S CONNECTION WITH MR. HUDSON.

Amongst the most prominent railway men of the day with whom Mr. Stephenson was necessarily brought into frequent and close connection,— more especially with reference to the completion of the East Coast route from London to Edinburgh,— was Mr. George Hudson of York, afterwards known to the public as “ The Railway King.” Mr. Stephenson, at the dinner which followed the opening of the York and Scarborough line, in June, 1845, thus described his first introduction to Mr. Hudson :-“I happened,” said he, “ to be visiting Whitby; and whilst I was conversing with a gentleman of that town as to what might be done with regard to the formation of a line from Leeds to York, a few of the Whitby gentlemen came up to introduce me to Mr. Hudson and several York gentlemen. At that time Mr. Hudson was not to be led into a rapid movement with respect to railway speculations. He then looked very coolly at those undertakings; but in time he became so thoroughly convinced of the certainty of great results from improved railway communication, that he stretched out his gigantic arms, and was prepared to go north, south, east, or west, wherever a line could be pointed out as being calculated to confer benefit upon the public and the proprietors of railways."

When the first line from Leeds to York was projected,

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