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VINDICIÆ GALLICÆ.

DEFENCE

OF THE

FRENCH REVOLUTION

AND ITS

ENGLISH ADMIRERS,

AGAINST THE ACCUSATIONS OF

THE RIGHT HON. EDMUND BURKE;

INCLUDING

SOME STRICTURES ON THE LATE PRODUCTION

OF

MONS. DE CALONNE.

By JAMES MACKINTOSH,

OF LINCOLN'S INN, ESQUIRE.

THE FOURTH EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR G. G. J. AND J. ROBINSON,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1792.

E 724.

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ADVERTISEMENT.

AD I foreseen the fize to which the following volume Hwas to grow, or the obstacles that were to retard its completion, I should probably have shrunk from the undertaking; and perhaps I may now be fupposed to owe an apology for of fering it to the Public, after the able and masterly Publications to which this controversy has given occasion.

Many parts of it bear internal marks of having been written some months ago, by allufions to circumstances which are now changed; but as they did not affect the reasoning, I was not folicitous to alter tbem.

For the lateness of its appearance, I find a confolation in the knowledge, that respectable Works on the same subject are still expected by the Public; and the number of my fellow-labourers only

suggests the reflection that too many minds cannot be employed on a controversy so immense as to present the most various aspects to different understandings, and so important, that the more correct Ratement of one falt, or the more successful illuftration of one argument, will at least rescue a book from the imputation of having been written in vain.

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I NOW

present the following Work to the Public a third time, rendered, I hope, lefs unworthy of their favor.-Of Literary Criticism it does not become me to question the justice, but Moral Animadversion I feel it due to myself to notice.

The vulgar clamor which has been raised with such malignant art against the friends of Freedom, as the apostles of turbulence and fedition, has not even spared the obfcurity of my name.

To strangers I can only vindicate myself by defying the authors of such clamors to discover one pasage in this volume not in the highest degree favorable to peace and stable government. Those to whom I am known would, I believe, be now to impute any sentiments of violence to a temper which the partiality of my friends must confefs to be indolent, and the hostility of enemies will not deny to be mild.

I have been accused, byvaluable friends, of treating with ungenerous levity the misfortunes of the Royal Family of France. They will not however suppose me capable of deliberately violating the facredness of misery in a palace or a cottage; and I fincerely lament that I should have been betrayed into expresions which admitted that construction.,

Little Ealing, Augus 28, 1791.

INTRODUCTION.

THE

HE late opinions of Mr. Burke fur

nished more matter of astonishment to those who had distantly observed, than to those who had correctly examined the system of his former political life. An abhorrence for abstract politics, a predilection for aristocracy, and a dread of innovation, have ever been among the most sacred articles of his public creed. It was not likely that at his age he should abandon to the invasion of audacious novelties, opinions which he had received so early, and maintained so long, which had been fortified by the applause of the great, and the assent of the wise, which he had dictated to so many illustrious pupils, and supported against so many distinguished opponents. Men who early attain eminence, repose in their first

creed.

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