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progress of the English Protestant population, as, added to their national and religious prejudices against them, any farms falling into their hands are freed from the tithe to the Church. In the neighbourhood of the towns, and, indeed, in all the good situations, this process is going on with, for them, a most alarming rapidity. The rebellion in Lower Canada was, in a measure, against these settlers, and not against British rule; the jealousy of the French-Canadian inhabitants had then arrived at its height, and broke out in that feeble and petulant sedition. The Priesthood are by no means free from blame for encouraging this enmity of race, but they may be fairly acquitted of disloyalty to the government.
Among the Roman Catholics in this country, all the lower classes, and the females of the upper, are very devout and attentive to their religious duties; but among the well-educated men there is diffused not a little of the scoffing spirit of Young France. It must, however, be allowed, that the people of all ranks stand very high in the scale of morality: indeed, it has now become almost a matter of history when the gentlemen of the law last reaped aught from domestic misfortunes brought on by the neglect of its principles.
The remnant of the Indians who dwell within the bounds of Canada, profess the faith of Rome; and few are more attentive to the external observance of its duties than they. The squaws are gifted with very sweet voices, and the singing in their rude village churches is sometimes charming.
Among the various sects of Protestant Dissenters, the most numerous and important are the Scottish Church, and the Free Church of Scotland, numbering, together, in the United Province, nearly one hundred and fifty thousand members. They are determined in their distinction from the Church of England, but generally by no means bitter in their hostility to it. I find from the Visitation Journal of the excellent Bishop of Montreal, already quoted, that he was offered hospitality on his tour by some of their ministers. This body of Clergy is supported by their share of the Clergy Reserves, and the voluntary contributions of their congregations.
I shall not enter into any further notice of the varied, and, unfortunately, numerous, shades of opinions and sects, which pride, ignorance, fanaticism, and discontent, have spread among this portion of the Anglo-Saxon race. With regard to the sectarians of Canada, I regret to say that nearly all are united in treating the Church of England as a common enemy; though here it is so innocent of the rich temporalities, which at home are said to give virulence to their attacks.
Before I leave the subject of religion in Canada, I would wish to observe, with sincere pleasure, on the visitation of the Bishop of Montreal, during the summer of 1844, to the Red River settlement. A most interesting account of this was published in London last year, from which I take the following statements
The Bishop of Montreal left Quebec in the middle of May, and performed his journey of two thousand miles, in about six weeks. From a little beyond Montreal, the whole of the distance was travelled in open canoes, up through the rapid waters of the Ottawa, and by wild lakes and winding rivers into Lake Huron, thence along the northern shore, and by the Manitoulin Islands, once sacred to the Great Spirit of the ancient people, through the little settlement at Saut Sainte Marie into the deep and dreary Lake Superior; thence up the Rainy River, over falls of wonderful height and beauty, through labyrinths of woody islands, and almost unknown lakes, till at length the journey's end was reached.
They encamped usually at night, but sometimes, when it was fair, the precious breeze was taken advantage of, even through the darkness; large fires were lighted by the tent where they rested, but it was very cold at times; and, during the day, the bright sun, and the mosquitoes and other venomous insects, were hard to bear.
Numbers of wild but friendly Indians were met, of fine frame and stature, but very low in the scale of human progress; they were willing to assist at the "Portages" and would labour all day long for a very trifle, particularly the squaws. Early on a Sabbath morning the Bishop reached the settlement, when he saw the same people in their Christian state. "Thus on the morning of the Lord's our blessed day, we saw them gathering already round their pastor, who was before his door; their children collecting in the same manner, with their books in their hands, all decently clothed from head to foot; a repose and steadiness in their deportment; at least the seeming indications of a high and controlling influence on their character and hearts; their humble dwelling, with the commencement of farms, and cattle grazing in the meadow; the neat, modest parsonage or missionhouse, with its garden attached to it; and the simple but decent church, with the school-house as its appendage, forming the leading objects in the picture, and carrying on the face of them the promise of a blessing."
The congregation that day consisted of two hundred and fifty Indians, dressed partly in the European manner. The morning service is performed in English, but the lessons were translated into the Indian tongue by the interpreter, as was also the Bishop's sermon. About two thirds of the congregation are said to understand a simple address in English, and soon, probably, no other language will be required.
The Bishop considers these Indians to be a thinking and intelligent people. The man acting as sexton had been a noted sorcerer or " Medecine" of the tribe. The stay of the Visitation at the Red River Settlement was limited to about three weeks, by the necessity of starting in time to finish the arduous journey before the setting in of the winter. The number of persons confirmed was eight hundred and forty-six, and would have been considerably greater, but that a large portion of the people were at that time of the year hunting on the Prairies, or busied with distant traffic to Hudson's Bay. There were also two ordinations for the