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name, with good taste, changed to the old Indian word—Toronto—the place of meeting, or of council. In distant times, the tribes from the shores of the lake assembled there to make peace or war. A fort, of tolerable strength, but much out of repair, now protects the entrance of the harbour; there is but a small proportion of military force, but there are plenty of loyal citizens to man it,—men who have already done their duty, and are ready to do it again, should occasion arise to call forth their services.
The great improvements in Toronto have been within the last few years: the streets are well paved and lighted with gas, and extensive water-works supply every part of the town. Here is the college of Upper Canada, a well-situated building, possessing extensive grounds, and bearing a high character for its system of instruction and discipline. The rules of this institution, and the disbursements of its considerable state endowments, are a constant subject of political discussion. The office of the Canada Land Company is also in this town. This body is still looked upon with great jealousy and dislike by a considerable party in the province, perhaps not altogether without reason. Many lands, no doubt, remain unoccupied in consequence of this monopoly: even as far away as the banks of the Saguenay, people labour under, and complain bitterly of its pressure, and that fertile district is still only tilled by a few chance squatters, who, without any title, have taken up their residence upon it.
Toronto may boast of a tone of society above that of most provincial towns, either here or in Europe. Among the people of official rank, there are several who, by their acquirements, talent, and refinement, would be ornaments anywhere. In Canada, and in England, also, they are too well known to need any commendation; their example and influence are proved most useful, by the enlightenment and good manners of the residents. The standard of character, the domestic arrangements' and habits of the people, are formed strictly on the model of the mother country; they look to her with reverence and affection; well may she be proud of their loyalty, and encourage their love.
There is an indescribable pleasure in finding four thousand miles away from our own dear land, a place like this, its healthy and vigorous child,—with every feature of its parent marked upon its face, every family trait developed in its character. We greet it as the hope of "England in the New World."
May the day of severance be far distant! But, perhaps, in the long future, when grown to sturdy and independent manhood, it may become expedient that there should be a separate household for the old and the young, and that with a hearty blessing and a friendly farewell they should part—let them then part—but in love. I am convinced that this fair Canada may grow great enough to be a balance of power on the American continent, undisturbed by rabble license, uncursed by the withering crime of slavery, undishonoured by repudiation, unstained by a parent's blood.
Just now, I was on the point of entering into a minute description of King Street and Parliament House, government offices and jail, baths and hotels, when it luckily flashed across my mind that, as 1 was not writing a guide-book, I had better let them alone. Having spared you that, pray excuse me for mentioning that labourers get five shillings a day, and the good things of this life for about half the prices of the English markets. Many of the roads in the neighbourhood are made of planks; the levels are very judiciously managed, and the draught on them is but little heavier than on a railroad; you are spared the noise and rattling of the somewhat clumsy vehicles. Numerous steam-boats enliven the wharves, plying in all directions during the seasons of navigation. Like most of those in Canada and America, they are very good; one of them, the " Chief Justice Robinson," is quite a model of neatness and comfort; the deck is carpeted, furnished with sofas and arm-chairs, the sides hung round with paintings and ornamented with well-occupied stands of gay flowers; while she is as safe and speedy as the smokiest and dirtiest of her sisterhood.
In this steamer I crossed the lake, and went seven miles up the Niagara river, to Queenstown, thence to the falls, eight miles, by a railway of very primitive construction : it despises levels, has settled down into deep ruts, and is unconfined by fences on either side. We were perched on a quaint old coach, our locomotives three meek horses, and it certainly was not an express train. Our lateral movements on the rough track, rivalled those forward in quantity, and much exceeded them in rapidity.
During the late war, this district was the scene of several very bloody and gallant actions between the English and Americans; they seem to have been highly satisfactory to both parties, for each claims the victory. They have contended for the laurels during the last thirty years with the same pertinacity with which they disputed the battle-ground, and with the same doubtful result. One thing, however, is certain—that the Americans failed in making any serious permanent impression on any part of the country. Perhaps the mutual injury was about equal, their loss of Buffalo being balanced by that of Little York on the side of the English; each had to mourn over the graves of many worthy and brave soldiers. Sir Isaac Brock was the most remarkable of these; he commanded the British force at the battle of Queenstown, where he fell: the Canadian Parliament erected a pillar to his memory on the scene of his victory, which, as I have before mentioned, was blown up by one of the Sympathizers, at the time of their invasion of Canada.
Queenstown is but a poor place: being on the frontier, it has frequently suffered in the struggles between the two countries; the inhabitants are now about five hundred in number. At the entrance of the Niagara river, or, as it should be called, the continuation of the St. Lawrence, is Fort Niagara, now a place of considerable strength and importance. I there saw, for the first time, the flag of the Stars and Stripes, and the soldiers in their grey uniforms. On the English side, Fort Massassagua guards the river; behind it is the town of Niagara, with its docks and foundry, four churches, and two thousand people. At the western end of Lake Ontario, is Burlington Bay, containing the