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Vrindhavan. A breeze, like the breath of love from the fragrant flowers of the cStaca, kindles every heart, whilst it perfumes the woods with the dust which it shakes from the mallka with half-opened buds; and the cocila* bursts into song, when he sees the blossoms glistening on the lovely rasala. In this charming season, young Heri (Krishna) dances with a company of damsels."
This agreeable speech was intended, in the true spirit of female kindness, to answer a similar purpose to many made in our modern boudoirs, that is, to give pain to the auditor. The jealous Radha, however, gave no answer; when her amiable friend pointed out Krishna, "with a garland of wild flowers descending even to the yellow mantle that girds his azure limbs; distinguished by smiling cheeks, and by earrings that sparkle as he plays," enjoying the rapturous embraces of his fair companions. One presses him to her swelling bosom; another meditates on the lotus of his face; a third points to a vanjula bower. He caresses one, kisses another, and smiles on a third; while a fourth, under the pretext of hymning his divine perfections, whispers in his ear, "thy lips, my beloved, are nectar."
Radha remained in the forest lamenting to her confidant the wanderings of her faithless swain. "I saw him," she exclaimed, "in the grove with happier damsels, yet the sight of him delighted me. Soft is the gale that breathes over yon clear pool and expands the clustering blossoms of the voluble asbca; soft, yet grievous to me, in the absence of the foe of Madhu. Delightful are the flowers of the amru-trees on the mountain-top, while the murmuring bees pursue their voluptuous toil; delightful, yet afflicting to me, O friend, in the absence of the youthful Cesava." t
Krishna now repented of his levity, and sought a reconciliation with Radha; who, while she ardently wished for, appeared somewhat coquetishly to shun it. At length she yielded to the plaintive solicitations of her despairing lover, whose messenger tells her, "that the deity, crowned with silver blossoms, mourns in her absence; that even the dewy rays of the moon can bring no relief to the ardent flame which consumes him; that he
* A bird of sweet song, with green plumage. and red beak and feet.
quits the bower of love to throw himself on the cold clay, and repeat words which he had heard his beloved express: then, having bound his locks with forest flowers, he hastens to yon arbour, when a soft gale breathes over the banks of Yamuna; then again, pronouncing her name, he modulates his divine reed. Oh! with what rapture doth he gaze on the golden dust which the breeze shakes from expanded blossoms; the breeze, which hath kissed her cheek. With a mind languid as a dropping wing, feeble as a trembling leaf, he doubtfully expects her approach."
Radha was unable to move from her arbour of flowery creepers through debility, but her damsel hastened to Krishna to tell him he was expected. "The moon had spread a net of beams over the groves of Vrindhavan," but alas he came not; for, in habiliments becoming the war of love, and with traces waving like flowery Batmias, a damsel more alluring than Radha had, pending the negociation, captivated the heart of the fickle god.
Here follows a description, the bare perusal of which might send some of my romantic readers on a pilgrimage to the banks of the Yamuna. I shall therefore pass on to say, that after some varying incidents, described in the most glowing style of oriental imagery, the lovers were reconciled, and Radha sought the blossom-illumined bower of Govinda (Krishna). In the morning she rose disarrayed, and her eyes betrayed a night without slumber; when the yellow-robed god, who gazed on her with transport, thus meditated on her charms in his heavenly mind: "Though her locks be diffused at random, though the lustre of her lips be faded, though her garland and zone be fallen from their enchanting stations, yet, even though thus disarrayed, she fills me with extatic delight."
Radha turned from his gaze, and sportively bade him array her. He obeyed her behests, and placed musky spots on her bosom and forehead, dyed her temples with radiant hues, embellished her eyes with additional blackness, decked her braided hair and her neck with fresh garlands, and tied on her wrists the loosened bracelets, on her ankles the beamy rings, and round her waist the zone of bells that sounded with ravishing melody. Thus sang Jayadeva.*
• Translated by the accomplished and learned Sir William Jones. Asiatic Researches, vol. iii.
On another occasion, when Krishna came to Bindreben, the Devatas, in honour of the moon shining in her meridian lustre, had adorned themselves in variegated chains of pearls and rubies, had robed themselves in vestments of rose-colour, and rubbed themselves with saffron, so that the earth received fresh splendour from their appearance, and a warm and sweet air breathed around, when Krishna began to play on his flute. Immediately on hearing it, the Gopias all left their several occupations unfinished, and ran out to listen. Krishna affected to ask them "if all was well at home?" He then proceeded to give them some good advice upon their duties to their husbands, and so forth; when one of them said, "that when frenzy and distraction seized the mind, all duties and all earthly motives were overturned and forgotten; that if he ordered them to go, they were lame; but if he called them to him, they flew." Krishna perceiving them thus sincerely inflamed would not be too harsh with them, but took each of them in his arms, and treated them with equal tenderness; so that all the happiness and transport which are to be found in the world were collected in one place, in the hearts of the Gopias. Whenever they turned Krishna was close to them; and as women naturally acquiesce in the truth of an idea that pleases them, they concluded Krishna to be equally fond of them.'
Krishna, however, contrived to play them a slippery trick; for after having buoyed them up with hopes, he all on a sudden vanished from their sight, leaving them staring around them in astonishment and despair, and interrogating every tree, flower, and blade of grass, to obtain information of their faithless swain, which they at length effectually discovered him to be, as they too soon ascertained that another damsel had occupied his attentions. They then became frantic with grief; till Krishma, taking pity upon them, again made his appearance, when they worshipped him with flowers, and "caressed him, expressing in different languages, actions, and attitudes, the same passion."
All this excessive joy terminated in (what is not an unusual event) a rasumandala,-\ or dance, in which Krishna multiplied his form in proportion
f Of this dance Mr. Holwell has given a neat plate in his Historical Events; and Major Moor a very pretty one in his Hindu Pantheon, in which Krishna and a fair companion, playing to the number of the Gopias, and giving each of them a hand, caused each to believe that he was close to her side. "In that agitation of the feet, and delicate motion of the limbs and waist, all the refinement of the oriental dance was exhibited. The moisture of perspiration came on the cheeks of the Gopias, their hair was dishevelled, and their jetty tresses trembled over their necks, resembling black snakes feeding on the due of the hyacinth." The enjoyment of Krishna with the Gopias, and the Gopias with Krishna, is, concludes Mr. Maurice, a mystery, and cannot be described. Sir William Jones also says, they circulate the cup, but no material goblet.
Of the pastoral nymphs just described (of whom see a whimsical story under the head of Nareda), Krishna is said to have possessed sixteen thousand. Sir William Jones, in his Dissertation on the musical Modes of the Hindus, says: "in the literature of the Hindus all nature is animated and personified; every fine art is declared to have been revealed from heaven, and all knowledge, divine and human, is traced to its source in the Vedas." In their science of music, he adds, that in the days of Krishna there were sixteen thousand ragas, or musical modes, each of the Gopias of Mathura chusing to sing one to captivate the heart of their pastoral god. It has thus been assumed, that the sixteen thousand mistresses of Krishna were nothing else than the sixteen thousand ragas, which delighted the Apollo of the Hindus. The Brahmans aver, that his numerous love adventures were all maya, or illusion; and describe him as a perfect Joseph in regularity and goodness.
After these specimens, I think I may spare the reader a recapitulation of the other love adventures of Krishna. Suffice it, therefore, to say, that, like his victories, they were numerous; and that at length, following the example of other satiated votaries of dissipation, he married, and to prove more effectually his penitence, took unto himself eight wives, of whom Rukmini, an incarnation of Lakshmi, was the principal.'' But as the
on flutes and dancing, are in the centre ; and eight females, with as many forms of the god, dancing round them; six other females are playing upon various instruments. Krishna has been astronomically considered as the sun, with the planets moving round
* To understand this, and the far larger portion of Hindu Mythology, in the shortest way, it will be well to agree with Vishnu—that it is maya, or illusion.
reformation of rakes is seldom permanent, he speedily forsook the haven of domestic enjoyment to revel again in the arms of his mistress, the beautiful Rhada, also deemed an incarnation of the same goddess, with whom he is commonly worshipped.
An annual festival, to celebrate the birth of this god, is held in the month Bhadra. On this day his worshippers fast; but, on the conclusion of the worship, indulge themselves in music, dancing, singing, and various other festivities.
In the month Shravunu another festival is held in honour of him, which lasts from three to five days, during which the same festivities prevail; to which is added the ceremony of swinging the image of the god in a chair, suspended from the ceiling.
In the month Kartiku a third festival takes place to celebrate his revels, which have been before described, among the Gopias; and in the month Phalgoonu is also held the celebrated swinging festival of the dolu, the ceremonies of which last fifteen days, and are accompanied with great splendour and festivity. During these holidays the Hindus spend the night in singing and dancing, and wandering about the streets besmeared with the dolu (a red) powder, in the day time, carrying a quantity of the same powder about with them, which, with much noise and rejoicing, they throw over the different passengers they may meet in their rambles. Music, dancing, fire-works, singing, and many obscenities take place on this occasion. The intelligent missionary, Ward, has given descriptions of these festivals, in which he says: "At these times I have seen the greyheaded idolater and the mad youth dancing together; the old man lifting up his withered arms in the dance, and giving a kind of horror to the scene, which idolatry itself, united to the vivacity of youth, could scarcely be able to inspire."
Krishna is also worshipped under his infant form as Gopalu and Balagopalu, and again as Gopee-nat'hu, the god of the milk-maids.
In the picture of Krishna, observes Sir William Jones, it is impossible not to discover, at the first glance, the features of Apollo, surnamed Nomios, or the pastoral, in Greece, and Opifir in Italy, who fed the herds of Admetus, and slew the serpent Python.