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nad (son of Ravan), who after his overthrow and death, performed suttee with his head, and ascended to heaven.

Sequani, a Japanese deity, p. 341, pl. 38.

Sesha, or Atlanta, the thousand-headed serpent, emblematical of eternity, on which Vishnu reclined on the primeval waters. (See Vishnu, p. 11.)

Seta, or Sita, the wife or sacti of Rama, p. 23.

Shaman Religion (The), p. 370.

Shaster, a holy ordinance.

Shatarupa, a name of Suraswati.

Shatukratu, or Shatkratu, a name of Indra.

Shetula, a Hindu goddess, worshipped as a guardian deity against the small-pox and other cutaneous diseases: on inoculation, and in various stages of the smallpox offerings are made to this goddess.

Shikhs (The), p. 227.

Shri, or Sri, a name of Laksmi.

Shushtee, the goddess of fecundity, a Hindu deity, represented as a yellow woman sitting on a cat; regarded by the Hindus, says Mr. Ward, as the protectress of children, and is especially worshipped by females who have not been blessed with any. She is also worshipped monthly by women who have lost their children, and is generally invoked by parents as their protectress. The cat being sacred to Shustee the Hindus avoid hurting one, lest the goddess should injure their children.

Sidasiva, a name of Siva.

Silvanka Yoni, p. 174.

Sindhu, one of the sacred rivers of the Hindus.

Singhu Vahini, a form of Durga or Parvati.

This, like other forms of the Sacti of Siva, is described with four arms, sitting on a lion, and armed with a sword and spear, &c.

Sintiphos (The), p. 326.

Sirmoris (The), p. 304.

Sita Maya. Shetula.

Siva, p. 62.

Skanda, a name of Siva.

Sootar (or the carpenter), a name of Viswakarma.

STradha, p. 162.

Sruva. Lustral spoons. (See fig. 8, 9, and 10, pl. 32.)

Stones. Certain stones are held sacred by the Hindus: the principal are the Salagrama, Binlang, and Linga. (See Salagrama, p. 176, and Linga, p. 174.)

Subha, a portico of a Hindu temple.

Subhadra, the sister of Juggarnath and Bala Rama; placed in the temples and worshipped with Juggarnath.

Subramanhi, a name of Kartikeya in the south of India.

Sudras, the tribe of husbandmen of the Hindus, produced from the feet of Brahma. Sudyumna. (See Ila.)

Sugrivu, king of Karnata, who received and assisted Rama Chandra in recovering Sita in the war of Lanka.

Sugurn, p. 8.

Sukra, p. 134.

Sumatra, p. 360.

Sumudra, or Samudra. The sea; is worshipped (says Mr. Ward) by the Hindus when they visit the sea, as well as at the different festivals, and on the sixth day after the birth of a child.

Surabki, the boon-granting cow: one of the articles produced at the churning of the ocean. (See Kamdenu.) <

Suradevi, the goddess of wine, one of the good things produced at the churning of the ocean. After having taken so much trouble to bring her from the fathomless deep, it might have been expected that more respect would have been paid to her. She is, however, at present wholly neglected, whatever value may have been assigned to her heretofore. It has been concluded that, although the Hindu religion has restrained the use of spirituous liquors, the earlier inhabitants of India had no objection to it.

Suras, children of Aditi. (See Diti.)

Suraswati, see p. 9; also one of the sacred rivers of the Hindus, which rises in the north, and is supposed, after losing itself under ground, to join the Gunga or Ganges near Allahabad.

Surpanukha, the sister of Ravan, whose nose and ears were cut off by Lakshman. (See p. 24.)

Suti. (See Parvati, p. 79.)

Suttee, p. 166. The sketch from which the small representation in fig. 2, pl. 28, is taken, is by an eye witness of a suttee, which took place on the banks of the Hooghley, at Choikdho, near Suk Saugor, a few miles from Calcutta, in December 1829. In this instance, as in that related in p. 169, every exertion was made to save the female from self-immolation; but to every remonstrance that could be urged she answered calmly, but determinedly,

that her god called her and she must burn.

Swadha, the goddess of funeral obsequies, termed by Mr. Colebrooke the food of the manes. The word appears to possess a mystical meaning.

Swaha, the sacti of Agni (the Vesta of the Romans). Her name is repeated at burntofferings and other ceremonies of the Hindus. (See Agni, p. 115.)

Swanareta, one of the Adityas, a name of the sun. (See Adityas.)

Swardevi, a benevolent name of Bhavani or Parvati.

Swarochesha, one of the seven Menus.

Swayambhuva, the first Menu, considered by Sir W.Jones to have been synonymous with Adam.

Swerga, or Sorgon, the heaven of Indra on Mount Meru.

Sydeva, one of the five Pandu brethren. (See Pandus.)


Tag Bahadur, one of the ten leaders of the Shikhs, p. 227.

Tamasa, one of the seven Menus.

Tapyasa, or Tapass, p. 165 and 251, fig. 8, pi. 26, and fig. 3, pi. 28.

Tara, a form of Durga or Parvati, a variety of Kali painted black. (See Kali and pi. 19.)

Tarika, a demon destroyed by Kartikeya, p. 75.

Tee, the umbrella which crowns the top of a Burman praw or pagoda, without which it is not considered to be sanctified. In restoring that of the Shoe Dagon at Rangoon, which had been destroyed by an earthquake in 1769, the King of Ava attended with an army of 50,000 men.

Temples, p. 155.

Teyo-ke-o-dae-sin, the creator of the Japanese, p. 332.

Ten-seo-dae-sin, the principal goddess of the Japanese, p. 332.

T'hakur, or T'akur, a name of Vishnu.

Tila Sesamun, used in puja, or worship.

Tonquin Chinese, p. 369.

Tookia, a deity worshipped by the Koombies, p. 290.

Traga, an abominable practice in use among the Kattees, the object of which is similar to the d'herna, but more barbarous, p. 281.

Trees and plants. The bilwa, tolusa, and other trees and plants, are sacred among the Hindus. A leaf of the tolusa is always placed under a salagrama stone. (See Jalandhara, p. 247.)

Trilu, a Brahman, who cursed Siva to deprive him of his virility, for seducing his wife under the form of a Sanyasi.

Triparasura, a name of Tarika.
Triphala, the trident or trisula of Siva.

Trisula, the trident of Siva. It is considered to be in continual motion over the face of the universe to guard and preserve its creatures. To oppose its course would be to incur immediate death. Its motion would appear to be regular, but varying according to the days in the week; thus it is imagined that it is unlucky to proceed towards the westward on Sundays and Fridays, to the northward on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, to the eastward on Satur

days and Mondays, and to the southward on Thursdays. Trivena, or three plaited locks, allegorical of the holy rivers Gunga (or Ganges), Yamuna (or Jumna), which join near Allahabad, and the Suraswati, which is also supposed to join the other two under ground. A person dying near the imagined confluence of the three streams, or even those of the Gunga and Yamuna, attains immediate beatitude; consequently self, or selfpermitted, immolation, suttees, &c. are meritorious on this peculiarly holy spot.

Trivikrum or the three-stepper, a name of Vishnu. (See fifth avatar.)


Uma, a name of Parvati. Under this name the goddess was surprised by the Rishis in the forest of Gauri, in the embraces of Siva; in consequence of which that deity condemned every male who should, from that period, enter the forest, to a change of sex. This story has been also attributed to Rohini, the wife of Soma or Chandra, who surprised her in a similar situation with Siva, who accordingly transformed the unfortunate husband into a female. Hence the moon, which was before a male, became of the female sex. (See Chandra, p. 131.)

Unee and Unkpan, chiefs in the army of Ravan.

Ungad, a general in Sugrivu's army, attached to Rama Chandra in the war of Lanka. On one occasion, when Ravan pressed powerfully upon the gods, Ungad seized him by the leg and pulled him down.

Upanishad, a portion of the Vedas. (See Vedas.)

Uttama, one of the seven Menus.


Vagiswari, the goddess of eloquence.

Vahan, a vehicle allotted to each of the gods. Brahma has the Hanasa, a goose or swan. Vishnu, Garuda, half man half bird; Siva, the bull; Indra, the elephant; Ganesha, a rat; Kartikeya, a peacock; Agni, a ram; Pavana, an antelope; Yama, a buffalo; Mungula or Mars, a sheep; Budh, a lion; Shunee or Sani, a vulture; Rama, a monkey; Kama Deva, a parrot; Durga or Parvati, a lion and bull, and the other goddesses the vahans of their respective lords.

Vaidya-nath, a form of Siva.

Vajra-pani, he who holds the thunder-bolt; a name of Indra.

Vaikontha or Vaikunt'ha, the heaven of Vishnu, p. 12.

Vaishnaivi or Vishnaivi, a name of Lakshmi. Vai.ihnaivas or Vishnaivas, the worshippers of Vishnu.

Vaiswadeva, the gods collectively. In the performance of a Sradd'ha, or ceremonies in honour of departed ancestors, the officiating priest thus invites and welcomes the Vaiswadeva. He places cushions for them, made of cusa grass, and thus invokes them: "Assembled gods! hear my invocation; come and set down on this holy grass." After scattering barley on the same spot, he meditates this prayer, "Assembled gods! listen to my invocation! ye who reside in the sky, and ye who abide near us, (on earth) or far off (in heaven) ; ye whose tongues are fire, and ye who defend the funeral sacrifice, set on this grass and be cheerful.''—Asiatic Researches.

Vaisyas, the merchant tribe of India produced from the thighs of Brahma.

Vaitarini, the Styx of the Hindus.

Vamuna, a dwarf; a form assumed by Vishnu

to destroy Maha Bali in the fifth avatar,

p. 18.

Varaha, an avatar of Vishnu in the third or boar avatar, p. 16.

Varahi, the cacti, or consort of Vishnu in the boar avatar.

Varuna, the god of the waters, p. 135.

Varuni, the sacti of Varuna.

Vasania (The spring), the friend of Kama Deva, the god of love, and Reti, affection.

Vasishta, one of the most distinguished of the seven Rishis; also one of the seven Brahmadicas.

Vasu (A), one of the deities who form a Gana, which is composed of eight. There are nine Ganas, whose principal is Ganesha; hence his title of lord of the Ganas.

Vasudeva, the father of Krishna, p. 35.

Vasuki, the venomous serpent used as a rope by the Suras and Asuras, at the churning of the ocean, p. 15 and 254, plate 6. The pestilential breath of this enormous reptile was such, as to cause the gods to resort to a stratagem to induce the demons to change sides with them, the former taking the tail, the latter the head part. Siva swallowed a portion of the poison, which changed his throat to a blue colour; hence his appellation of Nilakantha, or blue throat.

Vauk, devotion offered by the audible effusions of speech.

Vayu, a name of Pavana.

Vedas (The), the earliest sacred writings of the Hindus, p. 137.

Vedanga, one of the Adityas; a name of Surya.

Venamaly, a name of Narayana.

Vicramadittya or Vikramaditya, a learned monarch and an astronomer, whose capital, Oujein, was about his time overwhelmed by a violent convulsion of nature. Hindu legends thus whimsically account for that circumstance, together with his origin and birth; as described in the 6th vol. of the Asiatic Researches.

"A certain deity, named Gundrufsein, was condemned for an offence committed against Indra, to appear on earth in the shape of an ass; but on his entreaty he was allowed, as a mitigation of his punishment, to lay aside that body in the night, and take that of a man. His incarnation took place at Ougein, during the reign of a rajah named Sundersein, and the ass, when arrived at maturity, accosting the rajah in a human voice, proclaimed his own divine origin, and demanded his daughter in marriage. Having, by certain prodigies, overcome the scruples of the rajah, he obtained the object of his wishes. All day, in the form of an ass, he lived in the stable; but when night came on, laying aside the ass's skin, and assuming the form of a handsome and accomplished young prince, he went into the palace, and enjoyed, till morning, the conversation of his beauteous bride. In process of time the daughter of the rajah became pregnant, and as her husband, the ass, was deemed incapable of producing such an event in one of the human species, her chastity was suspected. Her father questioned her on the subject, when she explained the mys- tery. At night the rajah concealed him

self, and having witnessed the metamorphosis, set the ass's skin on fire to prevent his son-in-law from reassuming that form. Although rejoiced at his liberation, Gundrufsein foresaw the vengeance of Indra, and warned his wife to flee; telling her that his earthly tenement being consumed, he must return to heaven, and that the city would be overwhelmed with destruction. The princess fled to a village at some distance, where she brought forth a son, named Vicramadittya; and a shower of earth falling from heaven, buried the city and its inhabitants."

Vina, the Hindu lyre, formed of a flat piece of wood with strings, having a gourd at one end, and sometimes one at both ends, seen in the plates in the hands of Nareda, Suraswati, and the celestial choristers. (Seefig.ll.pl. 32.)

Vindhya Vasini, a form of Durga or Parvati, to whom is ascribed the destruction of many giants. She is represented sitting on a lion, with four or eight arms.

Vira Badra, or Ehr Badr, p. 74.
Viraj, p. 100.

Virupacsha, a name of Siva.
Vishnu, p. 11.

Vismamitra, one of the Rishis, and the Guru of Rama Chandra. He was seduced by Rembha while engaged in austerities, at the instigation of Indra.

Viswakarma, p. 6.

Vitruhn or Vitrahan, a name of Indra. He who slew the giant Vitruha or Vitra.

Viweswat, a name of Surya.

Viweswati, the son of Surya, called the child of the sun, and the founder of the

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