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horseback, with four arms, holding in three of his hands a trident, a banner, and a bead-roll. (See fig. 3, pl. 16, from a compartment in the Temple of Rama.)

Kansa or Cansa, king of Mathura, who ordered the children of his sister to be put to death immediately they were born, in consequence of a prediction that he would be. dethroned and slain by one of them. Krishna escaped and afterwards slew him. (See Krishna, p. 35.)

Kapila, an incarnation of Vishnu.

Kapuli, a form assumed by Siva, as a religious mendicant. A human skull was his alms-dish; his necklace and ornaments were of the bones, and his dwelling-place was amongst the ashes of the dead. From skulls a Kapulika eats and drinks, and his sacrificial fires are fed with the brains and lungs of men, mixed up with their flesh; and human victims covered with the fresh blood gushing from the horrible wounds in the throats, are the offerings by which they appease this terrible god. Dr. J. Taylor.

Karmala, the servant of Dhermarajah, the benevolent form of Yama, who conveys the righteous to him for judgment. Chitra Gupta, according to Mr. Ward, is the attendant of Yama in his terrific character.

Kartikeya, p. 74.

Kashi, the sacred city (the modern Benares). No city in the world, say the Hindus, is equal to Kashi.

Benares is said to contain, at the present time, a million of inhabitants; 400,000 of whom are Mahomedans, the rest Hindus: two-thirds of this population are females. Benares is five miles long, and

four broad; and it has been calculated that 25,000 pilgrims, merchants, travellers, &c, enter and depart daily from it. It has 1,000 temples, half of which are dedicated to Mahadeo and the gods of his family. The number of Brahmans, Fakirs, Sanyasis, and other beggars in this town is immense. One of its greatest annoyances arises from the Bramany or sacred bulls (which are also numerous) throwing themselves across, and, at times, rendering almost impassable its narrow streets and lanes; from which strong coercive measures must not be used to remove them.

The principal temple in Benares is that of Beseshur, built A.D. 1681. "It is very handsome, but is too much confined by surrounding houses. The only entrance to it is by a narrow lane not five.feet wide, and blocked up with dirt, Brahmany bulls, &c.; the temple stands on the north. On entering, it is at first impossible to distinguish any thing, the eye being blinded by the sudden change from glare to darkness : a few lamps glimmer here and there; but the ear is saluted by the buz of prayers, and the harsh tinkling of a large copper bell, which is suspended from the roof of the central apartment, and is sounded by each worshipper on his departure. On each side are a few small rooms, each feebly lighted by a single lamp placed in a niche over the object of adoration (the linga). Many people of both sexes were on their knees, scattering on the linga rice, water, and leaves, which were soon devoured by the Brahmany bulls, who were roaming about the temple, quite at their ease; the crowd was incessantly entering and departing. The Brahmans were very annoying in their begging for money; but this seems to be a priestly custom, sanctioned every where by long usage, and equally as applicable to the Friars of the west as to the Brahmans of the east."—Asiat. Jour.

Kattees, p. 275.

Katyayini, a form of Durga, armed by all the gods to attack the Asuras.

Kavya, a name of Sukra.

Ketu, the planet of the descending node, p. 77 and 135, and pi. 26.

Keyans, p. 326.

Khandarpa, a name of Kamadeva.

Khaticka, a Devi of the Jains.

Khettries, the warrior tribe of India, formed from the arms of Brahma.

Khorial Mater, a deity worshipped by the Bheels for protection of their cattle against sickness and plundering.

Kinnurus, celestial choristers having horses' heads.

Rookies, p. 321.

Koombees, p. 289.

Koonti, the mother of the Pandus. (See Pandus, p. 248.)

Krishna, p. 34.

Krishna Krora, a form of Parvati, p. 99. Kshupakara, a name of Chandra.

Kustubha, an inestimable jewel, one of the gems produced at the churning of the ocean.

Kutar, a singularly shaped dagger, the mark of which is used by the Kattees to ratify a deed or agreement, p. 282.

Kuvera, or Cuvera, the god of wealth, and the regent of the North. This deity is

the son of Viswasrava, and the brother of Ravana, who was overcome by Rama in the war of Lanka, as related in the account of that god. A very brief notice has been taken of him, which represents him "as a magnificent deity residing in the palace of Alaka, or borne through the sky in a splendid car, named Pushpaka." p. 111.

Kuveri, the Sacti of Kuvera.


Lakshmi, p. 60.

Lanka, the island of Ceylon, celebrated by the war, which bears its name, between Rama Chandra and Ravan. (See Rama Chandra, p. 22.)

Linga, p. 174.

Lingaets worshippers of the Linga, who wear the mark of it on their breasts.

Lotus, the water-lily. This plant is held sacred throughout the East, and the deities of the various sects in that quarter of the world are almost invariably represented as either decorated with its flowers, seated or standing on a lotus throne or pedestal, or holding a sceptre formed from its flower, sometimes expanded, and at others closed. These flowers are said to be found in some parts of India blue, and in the southern parts white or red. It is fabled that they obtained the last-mentioned colour by being dyed with the blood of Siva, when Kamadeva wounded him with the love-shaft arrow, as related under the articles Siva and Kamadeva. Lakshmi is called the Lotus-born, from having ascended from the ocean on its flower in the Kurmavatara. Its expanding and closing powers, and its beautifully brilliant colours, afford an infinite variety of metaphors to the Hindu poets. Thus the lotus is with them as the lovely varying rose among the Persians. The lotus floating on the water is the emblem of the world. It is also the type of the mountain Meru, the residence of the gods (see Mem, p, 253), and the emblem of female beauty. No wonder therefore it is the poetic flower of the Hindus.


Macassers (The), p. 343.

Maha Bali, an irreligious monarch, whose power was destroyed by Vishnu in the fifth Avatar. (See fifth avatar, p. 18.)

Mahadeva, or Mahadeo, a name of Siva.

Mahadevi, Parvati.

Maha Pralaya, or grand consummation of all things, represents Siva as Kal,orTime, trodden under foot by Maha Kali, or Eternity. (See Kali, p. 91, and pi. 19.) Pakriti Pralaya is another name for the same event, namely, the complete destruction of the universe. When this awful event shall take place, rain will fall on the earth for one hundred (the Buddas say 100,000) years. Men and animals will be famished. The sun will dry up the seas, and all the waters and the universe will be burnt up like a ball of cow-dung. Various other destructive operations will then take place till the universe is again finally absorbed in the supreme essence. This description corresponds in substance with the opinions of the Burmans respecting the future destruction of the world, which the reader will find under the article Buddha, p. 198.

Maharshis, holy sages or saints.
Mahedasa, one of the minor avatars of

Vishnu, assumed to inculcate the doctrines

of the Vedas.

Mahesa, a name of Siva.

Mahisha, Muhisha, a giant destroyed by Durga, p. 86.

Mahmunee, the Buddha of Bengal.

Mahrattas, or Maharattas (The), p. 285.

Mala, a rosary, or necklace.

Malsara, a name of Parvati in the avatar of Siva, as Kandeh Rao. (See Kandeh Rao.)

Mana, devotion that proceeds from the heart in profound silence.

Manasa, the goddess of snakes. She is worshipped as a preservative against the bite of these reptiles, and is represented sitting on a water-lily environed with snakes. If a Hindu has been bitten by one, incantations are pronounced to propitiate the favour of Manasa.

Mandhara, or Mandha, a mountain used by the gods in churning the ocean. (See second avatar of Vishnu, p. 15.)

Manovate, a name for the heaven of Brahma.

Mantras, prayers. (See Vedas, p. 139.)

Maruts, the genii of the winds, of whom Pavana was the chief, and is thus called Marut.

Maruty, a name of Hanuman, as the son of Pavana, or Marut.

Mat a, one of the martial names of Durga.

Maya, or illusion. Brahma says, in this life man, as in a dream, finds delight in eating, drinking, and other enjoyments, but as soon as he awakes they yield no longer pleasure; for the joys and pleasures of this life are as unreal as dreams. By devout abstraction (that is, by meditating on God) man awakes to a knowledge of divine truths, and finds his former enjoyments nothing but illusion. Thus, a supreme eternal Spirit, the creator of all, pervades all, preserves all, and will finally destroy all; in fine, all things are Maya which do not proceed from the light of divine knowledge. By the Vishnaivas Laksmi is called Maya, or Ada Maya.

Medhra, the same as Yoni, p. 174.

Meghnaud, a son of Ravan, who was celebrated in the war of Lanka. He was overthrown by the bear Jumont, and afterwards killed by Lakshman.

Mehrawun, a brother of Ravan, who, in the war of Lanka, took, by a surprise, Rama and Lakshman prisoners, and carried them to Patala (or hell), from whence they were released (as they were about to be sacrificed) by Hanuman.

Mendicants (religious). These people are very numerous, and consist of the Voirage«s, or Vishnaivas; Sanyasis, or Saivas; Ramanayas, or worshippers of Rama; Nanock Punthees, followers of Nanock; and various others, viz. Kuveer Punt'heesi Sukhee Bhuvus; Khelanta Yogees; Kanu-pala Yogees; Shurevurees; Ughoru Punt'hees; Brumhacharees, &c. &c. They have their various forms of austerities, which it would afford no satisfaction to the reader to recapitulate; a few of them are noticed in pp. 67 and 165, and pi. 28.

Menus, p. 8.

Meru (The Mountain), p. 253.
Mhairs (The), p. 299.

Migranku, a name of Chandra.

Mitra, a name of Surya (the sun), one of the Adityas.

Moinee, an order of Hindu devotees, who vow perpetual silence. They go almost naked, and smear their bodies with cowdung.

Mooktee Kestree, a form of Parvati, or Durga. She is of a blue complexion, like Kali, and appears to be merely a variety of that terrible goddess.

Mrigu, the antelope. (See Chandra and Siva.

Mughs, or Mugs, a people inhabiting the border countries of Chittagong and Arm- can; thus called, according to Colonel Symes, from a corruption of the word Mog, a term of religious import and high sanctity, formerly applied only to the priesthood and the king. (See Kookies, p. 321.)

Mughut, a head-dress.

Muhishu Murdinee, a form of Durga or Parvati: she is represented sitting on a lion, having six, eight, or ten arms, and holding in her hands a shell, a club, a shield, a water-lily, a discus, &c. &c.

Mundaris, a Mahomedan sect, founded by Mudan, a Soofi. "They admit the divine mission of Mahomed, but disclaim his title to particular veneration. The Mudans go nearly naked, braiding the hair and smearing the body with ashes, and wearing iron chains round their waists and necks.

Mund Mala, the necklace of human heads, which is suspended from the necks of Siva and some of his avatars, and Parvati, as Kal and Kali.

Mungala, p. 132.

Mungala Chundika,a.iorm of Durga, represented sitting on three skulls, with a book in one hand, a string of beads in the other. Much worshipped, according to Mr.Ward, by females, to avert distress from their families.

Muntopums, small open temples standing near the larger ones, into which the figures of the deities are placed on being brought from the latter, on days of festivals, for worship.

Murlidur (or the Tuneful), a name of Krishna when represented playing on his flute.


Naga, or Nag, a serpent.
Nagas (The), p. 254.

Nairit, or Nirut, the regent of the southwest division of the earth.

Nakharam and Mairam, the mountain gods of the Cucis.

Nakshaha, the twenty-eight lunar mansions. (See Chandra.)

Names.—Vishnu, Siva, Durga, and others, have each a thousand names: the other deities have also many. The Brahmans in worship repeat these names, and, in doing so, drop a bead for each from a rosary which they wear. The rosaries resemble those of the Catholics. (See fig. 8, pl. 33.)

Nanda, or Ananda, a pious herdsman or patriarch of the Gokals; the foster father of Krishna.

Nandi, the sacred bull of Mahadeva, or Siva: it is his vahan, and by some described as the emblem of justice. (See Siva, with fig. 3, pl. 15 and pi. 16.)

Nandiswara, a name of Siva, as Iwara, and his vahan, the bull Nandi.

Naneshwer, a subordinate incarnation of Vishnu, described by Major Moor as having taken place at Alundy, near Poonah, about, as some state, seven, or according , to others, twelve hundred years ago. In that gentleman's work will be found a full description of him. He is there stated to have been a religious ascetic, and to have been buried alive at Alundy, where his tomb is seen under a splendid temple, and where he yet appears (for, although buried, he is not dead) to pious, if at the same time, wealthy visitors.

Nanock, the founder of the sect of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs, p. 227.)

Naraka (generally), the hells of the Hindus, (especially) the hell or region of serpents.

Narasingh Avatar, p. 17, pl. 8.

Narasinghi, a name of Lakshmi, as the sacti

of Vishnu in the Narasingh avatar. (See

p. 17 and 120.)

Narayana, p. 102.

Narayani, a name usually applied to Lakshmi, sacti of Vishnu; but may be applied to Parvati and Saraswati. (See Narayana, p. 102.)

Nareda, p. 7.

Neel, a chief in Rama's army in the war of Lanka.

Nepalese (The), p. 301.

Neyama, devotion assisted by ceremonial purification.

Nilakantha, a name of Siva, from his having a blue throat, in consequence of having drank the poison produced at the churning of the ocean.

Nimba, a plant, the leaves of which are used in Puja.

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