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Goparum. Beautifully sculptured gateways attached to the large temples of the Hindus, into which the people are not permitted to enter. On days of festivals the figures of the deities are brought out of the temples through the Goparum, and placed in small open temples called Muntopas, to receive the adoration of the multitude.

Gopula, a form of Krishna in his childhood. (See fig. 3 and 4, plate 12.)

Gosaees. (See Choitunya, p. 240.)

Govindhu Singhu, the last of the ten leaders of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs, p. 229.)

Grahas (The), planets of the Hindus; they are sometimes worshipped together, and at others separately. They consist of Surya or Ruvee, the sun; Soma or Chandra, the moon; Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Shuni or Sani, Rahu, and Ketu. (See Suryd, Chandra, Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Sani, Rahu, and Ketu,) p. 127 to 135.

Grunt'hee, a Shikh priest.

Grunt'hus, the sacred books of the Shikh sect.

Gunga, p. 118.

Gunga Putra, Kartikeya.

Guru Muta, the great council of the Shikh sect.

Gutachue. This extraordinary figure, seen commonly in the Hindu sculptures bent to the ground with outstretched legs and arms supporting another figure of greater magnitude, was, according to Colonel Tod, the son of the forest king Herimba, who bestowed his affections on Drupdevi, the wife of the five exiled brothers, the Pan

dus, (See Pandus, p. 248.) Bhima, one of them, determined to punish the insult which was thus offered to them. He, therefore, instructed Drupdevi to consent, and name the Temple as the place of assignation. Overjoyed at his success, Gutachue failed not in punctuality; but, as his audacious hand was raised to remove the veil from her face, the nervous arm of Bhima rent the supporting column of the temple. To save himself and the fair object of his passion from being crushed under the impending ruin, he strained his gigantic force, and supported the fabric on his shoulders till he was released by the attendant protectors of the fair. To perpetuate the infamy of the forester who thus violated the laws of sanctuary and hospitality, the architects have adopted this relation in all sacred edifices, where a diminutive and grotesque figure of Gutachue, with arms and legs extended under him, the head stooping, and face distorted, as from a sense of oppression, are seen.


Hall am, a Bheel deity.

Halle Mata, worshipped by the Bheels, to protect them in their predatory excursions.

Hanasa, the vahan or vehicle of Brahma; a swan or goose.

Hans, a Japanese deity, p. 340.

Hanuman, p. 57.

Hara, or Hari, a name of Siva.

Hara Rayu, one of the ten leaders of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs.)

Hara-gawri, a name of Siva and Parvati.

Hari, a name of Parvati, the consort of Siva, as Hara or Hari.

Hatipowa, a deity presiding over agriculture, worshipped by the Bheels.

Hayagriva, the demon who stole the Vedas from Brahma, and was destroyed by Vishnu in the Matsya avatar, p. 14.

Heri, a name of Vishnu; also one of the Pandus.

Heri-Hari, the conjoint form of Vishnu and Siva, p. 101.

Himalaya, or Hivmaran, the mountain, the mythological father of Parvati. The chain of mountains separating India from Tartary.

Himansu, a name of Chandra.

Hiranyacasipa, a demon, who vanquished the gods, but was afterwards overcome and destroyed by Vishnu. (See Fourth Avatar, p. 17.)

Hooly, or Hohli, a festival in honour of Krishna, which takes place in the month Phulgoon (February—March), at the commencement of the spring. The amusements on this joyous occasion consist in dancing, singing, and playing, in the most complete sense of the word (if the expression may be allowed) the fool. Their songs are kuvecrs, or extempore stanzas, principally in allusion to the charms of Krishna and his amours with the Gopias, and are consequently not marked by an excess of delicacy. One of the dances is the favorite tipree dance, or rasa-mandala, in which twenty, thirty, or more form a ring, each having a short stick in his hand, with which he strikes, alternately, those of the persons before and behind him, keeping time with it and his foot, while

the circle moves round, keeping time to a drum and shepherd's pipe, of three or four sweet and plaintive notes. (See p. 293.)

In Major Moor's Hindu Pantheon is a beautiful plate on this subject, in which Krishna (with Radha) in the centre, is described as the sun, and the circle of Dancers as the heavenly bodies moving round him.

Playing the Hooly consists in throwing a red powder, sometimes mixed with powdered talc to make it glitter, in the eyes, mouth, and nose, or over the persons of those who are the objects of the sport, splashing them well at the same time with an orange-coloured water. The powder is sometimes thrown from a syringe, and sometimes put into small globules, which break as soon as they strike the object at which they are aimed. The Hindu females are as expert in throwing these as some of our singularly well-bred young ladies are in hitting the noses of their lovers or beaux with pellets of bread.

Colonel Broughton relates an anecdote, in which the celebrated Mahratta chief, Scindiah acted a distinguished part. On inviting some English officers to partake of the amusement, he was told that they were determined to pelt and squirt at every one who pelted and squirted at them. He said he was ready for them, and that it would soon be seen who could manage the matter best. The officers speedily found, that although they had been accustomed to have the best of the battle with powder and ball, they were no match for Scindiah with powder and water, as the pipe of a large fire-engine, filled with yellow water, and worked by half a dozen men, was placed in his hand, with which he contrived to deluge the whole company, causing shovelfuls of the powder to be thrown over them at the same time, so that, from the effects of the red powder and yellow water, the shouts, female screams, and noise of drums, trumpets, fiddles, and cymbals, the whole in a few minutes became a scene little better than a pandemonium.

This festival is observed by all classes throughout Hindustan, and evil (or at least red powder) will commonly await the European, as well as native, who on these occasions has the misfortune to fall in with a wandering band of these joyintoxicated furies. (See farther—Krishna, p. 44.)

Horus. (See Orus, p. 255.) Hota, a priest who, at sacrifices, slays the victim.

Howen Wana Mata, a deity worshipped by the Bheels, to protect their cattle against murrain and lameness.

Hurree Govindu, Hurree Kissen, two of the ten leaders of the Shikhs.

I, J.

Jainas (The), p. 220.
Jalandhara, p. 245.

Jami, or Jemni, an incarnation of Bhavani, worshipped in the Mahratta States. She has four hands, with destructive weapons, necklaces of skulls, &c. &c.

Janvi, or Januvi, a name for the sacred thread worn by the Hindus. (See Poita, or Zennaar, p. 154.)

Japan, p. 328.
Java, p. 349.

Jaya, and Vijava, two of the daughters of

Daksha. The latter brought forth a hundred weapons, missile and manual, for the use of Rama in the war of Lanka.

Jene, a Japanese deity, p. 341.

Jharejas a tribe of Rajpoots, p. 275.

Jhari, a vessel to hold lustral water.

Ila, the child of Manu, the son of Surya Vivaswari. This personage was born as a female, and was transformed into a male under the name of Sudyumna. He was again turned into a female on entering the charmed forest of Gawri (see Uma.) The planet Budh became enamoured of Sudyumna under this form. Siva afterwards restored Sudyumna to his sex, on condition that he should become, alternately, a male one month, and a female another.

Images: The images worshipped by the Hindus are made of various materials; gold and silver; metals of inferior value; chrystal, stone,wood, clay, and compositions of different kinds. Some are of small size, and appropriated as household gods; others are progressively larger, and used for temple worship; and others again are of colossal size, seventy, eighty, and more feet in height. A Linga at Benares requires six men to encircle it. The clay and composition images made in the vicinity of Calcutta for the annual festivals (some of which have a very splendid appearance, and are of large dimensions), are, after the ceremonies are over, cast into the river. The modern manufacturers of the deities are artisans in gold, silver, and other metals; stone-cutters and potters. Some of the modern casts are handsome; but the modern sculptures are commonly contemptible. Some of the ancient Hindu sculptures are magnificent; and, in minute ornamental and floral decorations, almost unrivalled. In Siam, Japan, &c. images are made of the ornaments and precious metals, &c. collected from the ashes of the funeral pile of a deceased person; and others again from the pulverized fragments of the bones kneaded with water into a paste, baked, and afterwards gilded.

Indra, p. 122.

Indrani, the consort or Sacti of Indra. (See Indra.)

Indra Doomnu, a pious king, who collected the bones of Krishna; and caused an image of Jaggarnat'h to be formed by Viswakarma, in which they were placed.

Indu, a name of Chandra.

Infanticide, 177

Jogeesuree, the consort of Bhyru, or Bhairava, worshipped in the Mahratta States.

Jogun, or Yogun, about four coss, or eight miles, some make it more.

Johara, p. 174.

Isa, or Isani, names of Siva.

I sis, p. 255.

Iswara, or Eswara, Lord of the Universe; supreme Lord. A name appropriated to each of the three great deities by their respective followers; whose endeavours have been to raise their own object of worship above those of the other two sects; thus with the Vishnaivas, Vishnu is the Iswara; with the Saivas, Siva; as was with the worshippers of Brahma, that deity.

Itahara, a portion of the Vedas. (See Vedas).

Jugarnatha, p. 4'J.

Jugudhatri, a form of Parvati or Durga, p. 98, and fig. 1, pl. 21.

Jumont, a celebrated bear; one of the generals of Sugrivu, and chief counsellor of Rama, in the war of Lanka. He overcame Megnaud, and threw him headlong into Lanka.

Junuka, the father of Sita; the wife of Rama Chandra, p. 24.

Jutaee, a celebrated vulture, the brother of Samput. (See Samput.)


Kakya, one of the wives of Dasara, king of Ayodhya, who persuaded that monarch to banish his son Rama from his dominions. (See Rama Chandra.)

Kailasa, the heaven of Siva.

Kali, p. 91.

Kalki, or tenth avatar of Vishnu. (See p. 12

and 45, pl. 13. Kalpi, an astronomical calculation of

4,320,000,000 of years.

Kalu Rayu, a form of Siva, mounted on a tiger, having in one hand a bow, in another an arrow.

Kamadeva, or Camdeo, p. 46.

Kamala or Kernel, the lotus; also a name of Lakshmi.

Kamdarhu, a name of Mahadeo, worshipped in the southern and western parts of India.

Kamdenu, the boon-granting cow produced at the churning of the ocean. (See the Tortoise orKurmavatara of Vishnu.) This animal is invoked to obtain favours from the deities, who are supplicated to assume her form to bestow them. On this occasion, the supplicant presents a cow to the deity whose favour he solicits, and holding it by the tail, thus addresses Lakshmi, (who is usually invoked), or any other deity whom he then names, instead of Lakshmi.

"May the goddess, who is the Lakshmi of all beings, and resides among the gods, assume the form of a milch cow to procure me comfort.

"May she, who is Lakshmi, reposing on the bosom of Vishnu—she who is the Lakshmi of the regent of riches—she who is the Lakshmi of kings—be a boon-granting cow unto me."

Mr. Colebrooke, in the 7th vol. As. Res., mentions other forms of invocation, but these will be sufficient for the present purpose. That gentleman also states, that it is common for a householder to feed " a cow before he breaks his own fast;" and that the worship of this animal consists in presenting flowers to her, washing her feet, &c, &c, The hospitable rites of marriage ceremonies are concluded by letting loose a cow, a guest exclaiming—'* Release the cow, may she subdue my foe; may she subdue the enemies of him (the host) and me; dismiss the cow that she may eat grass and drink water." When the animal has been released, the guest addresses her. "I have earnestly addressed this prudent person, saying, Kill not the innocent cow, who is the mother of Rudra."

The cow is an object of extensive adoration. Besides the annual festivals in honour of her, particularly pious individuals worship her daily, at which times they feed and scatter flowers around her. The ordure of the cow is considered as a great purifier; unclean places are purified with it; the floors and door-ways of houses and cooking-places are periodically rubbed with it. Ashes from it are used to rub the bodies of the Hindus, and form the

sectarial marks that denote their castes; the images of their gods are also purified with it, mixed up with the urine of the animal, milk, ghee, &c. &c. Those of basalt in my possession were completely plastered with this holy unction, so baked apparently by the sun of ages, that it took a man two days to pick it out, and purify one of the most beautiful in the English style with soap and warm water. But soul-purifying as is the ordure of the animal, the urine of her is so potently holy, that, says Major Moore—" the catholic devil himself cannot," as the proverb runs, "hate holy water more than the Hindu spirits of impurity abhor this sin-expelling sanctifying liquor. Images are sprinkled with it; no man of any pretensions to piety and cleanliness would pass a cow in the act of staling, without receiving the holy stream in his palm, sipping a few drops, and, with his bedewed fingers, marking and crossing his forehead, shoulders and breast." This gentleman, after seriously assuring us that he never tried this delightful exorcism, relates a droll story in point, which will reward a reader for turning to p. 143 of his excellent work.

Mr. Ward says, that Bramah created the Brahmans and the cow at the same time, and that the latter is called " the mother of the gods," and is declared by Brahma to be a proper object of worship.

Katnula Kamini, a form of Parvati or Durga, p. 99.

Kandeh Rao, an avatar of Siva, who became incarnate in that character, to destroy the giant Mani-Mal. A magnificent temple is dedicated to his worship in this avatar at Jejury, about thirty miles from Poonah. Siva, as Kandeh Rao is represented on

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