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and chanting certain words, in the latter part of which he is joined by the audience. This being done, he sprinkles on all sides of the hut, and over the fire, spirits and milk, then coming forward, he commands the animals to be slaughtered, which is done by their hearts being torn out. The skin is stripped off in the shape of a bag, the head and feet remaining on it, and left suspended on poles. Whilst the flesh, with the exception of a few pieces which are thrown into the fire, is consumed by the audience. During all this time the Sseman continues repeating and chanting various words, and sprinkling about spirits and milk, in which he is occasionally supported by the congregation, which is generally more or less numerous according to the number of victims, of which they all partake."*
* Asiatic Journal, vol. xviii.
THE DEITIES AND MINOR DEITIES,
THE TERMS USED IN THE WORSHIP AND CEREMONIES, &c. OF THE
Acasanavi, a manifestation of a deity in which he is heard but not seen.
Acshava, the mystic syllable you. (See O'm, p. 136.)
Acuti, a daughter of Swayambhuva.
Aditi, one of the wives of Kasyapa, and the mother of the gods and suras.
Adityas, the gods, the offspring of Aditi.
Agastya, a pious and learned sage, translated to the heavens for his virtue, who reduced the monster Sanchanaga and carried him about in an earthen pot. He is said to have swallowed the sea and its contents.
Agni, p. 115.
Agnidra, a name of Agni.
Agnipuri, a manifestation of a deity, in which a sound issues from fire or a meteor.
Ahilya, the wife of the rishi Gotama, se-
Airavat, the elephant of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean.
Alaca, the residence or heaven of Kuvera.
Alloo, a raw hide used by the Rajpoots, with which they cover themselves to assert their claim to a disputed property, p. 284.
Amara Dasu, a leader of the Shikhs, p. 229.
Ambha Matha, a Jaina Devi worshipped in Marwar and its neighbourhood. "The temples erected to her (the ruins of which possess great beauty,) are to be seen in the wildest parts of the high mountains with which Marwar abounds."
Ambea, the mother of the Curas (see Pandus, p. 248.)
Ambika, a name of Parvati.
Amida, a Japanese deity, p. 339, PI. 37.
Amravati, the celestial city of Indra.
Amrita, the beverage of immortality drank by the gods, produced at the churning of the ocean.
Amrita Sir, or Umrit Sum, the principal place of worship of the Shikhs, founded by Ramdasu. (See Shikhs, p. 227.)
Ananda, the god of desire.
Ananta (see SeshaJ)
Anghudu, one of the ten leaders of the Shikhs, p. 229.
Anna Puma Devi, a form of Parvati, p. 97
Anugamana, the performance of Suttee by a woman alone, whose husband has died in a distant country: a sandal, or any article of his clothes may then represent him.
Aparagiti, a name of Parvati or Durga.
Apsaras, celestial dancers celebrated for their beauty. Among them Rembha, the popular Venus of the Hindus, and some others are described to be of inconceivable loveliness.
Ardha-nari, p. 101.
Argha, the cup or circle from which the Linga rises; its outer edge or rim is the yoni. It is also a boat-shaped vessel (called argha patra), used in religious ceremonies to contain the argha, or offering made of tila or sesamum indicum, cusagrass, perfumes, flowers, durva-grass and water. See fig. 5, plate 32.
Arghanat'ha, a name of Siva, in allusion to the Argha's connexion with the Linga.
Arjun, one of the five Pandu brethren (see Pandus, p. 248.)
Arjuna, one of the ten leaders of the Shikhs, p. 229.
Amn, the son of Kasyapa and Vinata, the brother of Garuda, and the charioteer and harbinger of Surya. He is thus described as the dawn; and as a handsome youth without thighs or legs (see Surya), p. 127, PI. 24.
A'sa'purna, the Rajpoot goddess Hope.
Asoca, a shrub sacred to Maha Deva; on particular ceremonies the buds of it are steeped in water, which is then drank. The flowers are very beautiful.
Asuras (Asurs or Asoors), demons and giants, who, like the Titans, made war against the gods. Sons of Diti.
Aswamedha, a sacrifice of a horse. The sanguinary part of this ceremony would, according to Mr. Colebrooke, appear, like that of the parushamedha, or human sacrifice, to be merely nominal, the horse, after certain ceremonies, being let loose. Mr. Ward, however, states that he is liberated only for a twelvemonth, when he is again taken, and being magnificently caparisoned, is, after various preliminary proceedings, slain by the hota or priest. He who offers a hundred sacrifices of a horse is entitled to the throne of Indra.
Asunni, a name of Parvati, who took the form of a mare, and was approached by Surya in the form of a horse. On their nostrils touching she was impregnated with sunbeams, and became the mother of the Aswini-Kumara, or twins of the Hindu zodiac.
Aswini-Kumara (see the foregoing article.) Atharva or Atharvana Veda, one of the four Vedas. (See p. 137.)
Atri, one of the seven Rishis, also called one of the seven Brahmadicas. (See Brahmadicas and Rishis.')
Avatara or Avatar, a descent upon earth of a deity in a human or some other shape. (See the ten avatars of Vishnu, p. 14 to 45, and those of others of the gods under their several heads.)
Austerities and Punishments, p. 112, 165. B.
Badra Bae, a deity worshipped by the Bheels to obtain rain. (See Bheels, p. 270.)
Badra Kali. (See Kali.)
Bajranga, a name of Bhairava.
Bala Rama, p. 48.
Baldiva, the Hindu Hercules. (See Pandus, p. 248.)
Bali or Maha Bali, an irreligious monarch, destroyed by Vishnu in the fifth avatar, p. 18.
Balinese, p. 348.
Ballaji, an avatar of Vishnu, in honour of whom the splendid temple at Jejury was erected. For further particulars of this b uilding and of its deity, seeTemples, p. 158.
Banga or Banca Deva, worshipped by the Goands, p. 296.
Bataks, p. 362.
Bauts, Hindu bards produced, to amuse Parvati, from the drops of sweat on Siva's brow; but they sang the praises of Siva only, which so offended Parvati that she turned them out of heaven, and condemned them to lead a wandering life upon earth, to sing there the martial deeds of heroes and the praises of the gods. Among the Bheels and some of the hill tribes, priests and bards.
Bazeegurs, p. 312.
Behyu Baji, a deity worshipped by the
Bhagisree, a name of Bhavani in western
Bhagiswar, a name of Mahadeo or Siva.
Bhallae, an instrument of the spade kind used in sacrifice.
Bhanu, one of the Ahityas, a name of the sun.
Bharadwaji, one of the Rishees.
Bhavani or Bowanee, the consort of Siva, a name of Parvati, p. 96.
Sheds, (The) p. 261,
Bhillet, a hill god, worshipped by the Bheels, p. 270.
Bhyru, p. 73.
Bhyrus, colossal figures seen at the entrances of temples.
Bikh Poison. One of the things produced at the churning of the ocean, which Siva is said to have drank. The Saivas allege that he did so to save the gods, and that, in consequence, his throat was turned blue; hence his name of Nilakautha (or bluethroated) ; but the Vishnaivas assert that it was from jealousy in consequence of Vishnu possessing Lakshmi.
Bilva, a flower sacred to Siva, Chaplets of them are worn by him, and are also used in sacrifices.
Binlang. Stones found in the Narmada, which are worshipped as emblems of Siva.
Birth, second (or twice born). These are