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at being excluded from it; we should the chances are against her, the market rather say, his attempts to excite, at being overstocked, maneuvre is the same time, these two feelings in missed, no opportunity neglected, and others, for he is probably, at least to a much may be, and is, done by the good certain extent, permitted occasionally management of a judicious chaperon. to pollute that society with his own The gaudy bait is skilfully played before presence for which he makes this the eyes of the destined victim; the finegrateful return.

drawn slender line is invisible; the simple For the purpose of destroying the object of these arts, perhaps just twentyrespect of the lower orders for this one and fresh from college, sees and desociety, our worthy radical proceeds:

sires, thinks all is gold that glitters; he

nibbles : should some other sister of the 6. The number of men and women hook interfere, and try to lure


the are pretty nearly equal in the world, the prey, falsehood and slander lend their aid number of elder sons but small. Every to defeat her intrigues : just when the man, says Adam Smith, has a peculiar swain begins to think himself in love, the contidence in his own good luck. Everybait is withdrawn, he follows, and at last woman, perhaps, in her good luck and takes it. But with matrimony comes regood looks combined. Every one thinks pentance. Scarce is the honeymoon passed, that she has a better chance than her when he finds out the deception which neighbours of securing a matrimonial has been practised; he discovers that, inprize; and if a daughter's generosity or stead of an amiable companion, who can folly lead ber to preter a younger brother, enliven moments of dulness as well as the superior sagacity and prudence of her partake of the pleasures of gaiety, he has mother will speedily set the matter right; married an empty, selfish, heartless, frivoaccess will be denied him, perhaps some lous person, who cares not a sixpence for history of a flirtation with another con anything but his fortune, and who looks jured up, or if he contide his wishes to

upon him only as the peg upon which the fair one's parents, she may not be her establishment hangs. But it is too informed of his proposal. In short, to late so recede: he may, indeed, “flounce use the languaye of political economists, indignant of the guile,” but the line of the supply of wives exceeds the demand. matrimony is too strong to be broken. Hence arises the noble science of matri. The natural consequence follows; the monial angling. The noblest and most gentleman amuses himself with a mistress, amiable part of our species are turned the lady with a lover. This may be into so many artificial flies to tickle and thought a picture too highly coloured ; catch the human trout. Flimsy accom but I do maintain that it is the tendency plishments are substituted for solid edu of primogeniture to generate this spirit cation; the adornment of the person for of rapacity and artifice; it even tends to that of the mind; dress takes the place make sister rival sister, and perhaps a of literature ; singing and dancing, in whole family pull caps for one man. May stead of being regarded, one as a pleasant be, indeed, under the pressing exigencies way of beguiling a cheerless hour, the of circumstances, a rich grocer or teaother as a means of securing a graceful dealer is admitted to purchase his admis. deportment, are ends seriously pursued sion into the ranks of gentility by taking for their own sake. While the mother some unsaleable commodity off her mosuperintends the maid or the milliner as ther's hands. If no such thing as primo. she sews the gown on her daughter's geniture existed, if things were left to back; while she watches with respectul follow their own course, and permitted deference Mr. Nesbit or Mr. Woodman, to flow in their natural channels, this as he decks or distigures her hair with disparity between the demand and supply the orthodox ornaments prescribed by would vanish; this urgent necessity to fashion, or plasters the curls with rice be the first in the field, and to secure the water to her temples, her daughter's first rich fool, boy or booby, that might morals are left pretty nearly to form offer, would disappear; women would themselves, and her reading confined to mate with their equals; and though Hyde fashionable novels or trumpery annuals. Park might not exhibit so long a line of The whole soul of the mother is bent on carriages on a Sunday, nor the opera so securing the benefit of an establislıment; splendid an attendance on a Saturday, no time is to be lost, the future is left to yet the number of old maids at Bath and take care of itself; present attraction is of divorces at Doctors' Commons would all that is thought of. Conscious that be diminished.”

There may be much abstract truth “ To the country gentlemen we owe in these attacks, but none in their pre- the evils which the new poor-law bill was sent application. Interested marriages introduced to remedy; with them would are, no doubt, common; but we tell disappear our game laws; and our corn our author, and we ground this, per- abolished. I believe them to be eminently

laws would, perhaps, be more easily haps startling, assertion, on long attention and impartial observation, that, unfit for the management of our jails'; generally speaking, the proportion of and, in short, were a national system of such unions increases exactly in the education and a well organized paid maratio of the poverty of the class in gistracy established, I think the propriewhich they exist; and to such an extent

tors and occupiers of land would speedily does this hold, as frequently to have learn to manage their own matters better almost compelled us to doubt the ex

than the best committee of the most active istence, in the very lowest classes, of country justices, and that the disappear

ance of the country gentlemen, instead of any other motive whatever.

an objection, would be found an addiFor evidence in support of this we tional argument on my side. Nor should do not refer our readers to the Eclogues we by this be deprived of an aristocracy : of Virgil, the Aminta of Tasso, or the the intelligence distributed through the Galatea of Florian, but to the source country would not be diminished; far where we were ourselves instructed otherwise. The mansions, the palaces, the school of practical and patient ob- the manors, which now are possessed by serration.

those who too often inherit the prejuBut to return to our author. After a

dices as well as the estates of their ances. Yery intelligible dissertation to prove tors, would pass into the hands of men of how conducive it would be to public would bring into agriculture some portion

far greater ability and acquirement, who improvement to lay hold on all private libraries, galleries, museums, &c. for of that acuteness of mind and intensity of the state, and not to remove them from purpose by which the means of their their present residences—far would he purchase were acquired, and by which be from doing such a Gothic act-but is the inost neglected of our arts, might

that which, though the most complicated, simply to remove the owners from both, receive that scientific cultivation which and to render the mansion and its con

alone can enable the British to compete tents public property; and showing in with the foreign corn grower.” one place that to be sickly and profli

We shall make but one more exgate is the essential distinction of an eldest son, and the result of too much tract, for the purpose of warning those wealth; he soon after demonstrates, ther cut their own throats quietly than

would-be Conservatives, who would rawith equal force of reasoning, that these fright those who wish to do them this same things are peculiar to younger kind office, and wh: se timely exclusion sons, and a necessary consequence of their poverty. He then kindly conde- from administration has recently prescends to answer some difficulties that crificed to the conciliating timidity of

served the constitution from being sasqueamish minds might suggest to the adoption of his system.

those friends who forget that public

opinion will always follow a decided go“ It will be objected, I doubt not, that vernment, and bas saved the Conone class of society, the country gentle- servative party froin being the subject men, would disappear from among us were

of a verdict of felo de se, the probathis law or custom of primogeniture to bility of which event seems to have be discontinued: but it may be questioned occurred to our radical when he wrote whether this would be an evil, and whe- as follows :ther a subdivision of landed property into “ Now they must make their delicate portions, sufficiently large, however, for and squeamish minds up to a little more the profitable employment of capital, is of a real reform ; for without it neither not greatly to be desired."

this nor any other government can go « 1 much doubt whether the country on; and if we get it, we must make up gentlemen, improved as they are since the our minds not to care who gives it us. I days of Squire Western, are to be consi- should nowise wonder, friend Isaac, to dered as a class in any great degree con- find many of us even taking to some of ducive to the public good.”

the moderate Tories, if they would but

show a reforming spirit, and give up their from the lower to the highest stations ultra and Orange connexions. They are in society, is not by any means so frevery stout when they take to a thing, quent in republics as in limited moand they don't stand at a trifle. Witness narchies. the Catholic question.”

The reason of this is obvious,' and Ere we conclude we shall briefly may be illustrated by what our readers notice one use of an established aristo- must have often observed when a mass cracy, which may not have been so of persons are congregated to see some frequently observed as those we have public show. If they are on a smooth mentioned. It consists in its affording slope, the weight of all above presses a legitimate object of ambition, by on those below; each feels conscious which talent can attain rank without that he holds his place merely by keeppower. Of all tyrannies that of talenting down others; while those others is the most dangerous

ous. By tyranny we have not only the sense of their own mean, of course, power not legitimately inferiority of station, but the galling revested. Now, the object of the ambi- Section that they are supporting those tion of talent is a permanent distinc- who are enjoying such advantages over tion from the majority of society. The them. This state of things produces a temporary eminence attained by each constant restlessness. Each feels that exertion of talent is obviously merely if he must be in a constant struggle, he the means employed by the individual may as well struggle to improve as to to attain the other. It is always a retain his situation; and everyone, conpainful and galling mortification to sequently, looks on his superiors as talent to feel its rank depending on tyrants, his inferiors as enemies, and those whom it considers as its inferiors. bis equals as rivals. But how different Hence it is that republics whose terri- the result when a similar crowd is coltories are sufficiently peopled are per lected on a flight of steps. Here the petually involved in civil broils, and elevation of one is of no injury to anouniformly terminate in a despotism. ther ; each is secure of his own place, There is no situation in them in which and, therefore, under no necessity of such a perinanent distinction can be exertion, nor disposed to any hostile obtained. Men of talent and ambition feeling towards others; on the contrary, are, therefore driven to recollect that if a vacancy appears, they are ready that object can only be attained by to help up one from below to fill it up. possessing themselves of immense and The fundamental error of all attacks independent power. The great move on the system of an liereditary aristoments of republics are, consequently, in cracy consists in the supposition that a general, convulsive, and are effected by state of political or social equality is the struggles of individual talent aiming possible, or consistent with the nature at power. Those of a limited and or circumstances of man, either in a mixed government, like that of Great civilized or savage state. We are not Britain, on the other hand, are per- called on to inquire whether, if posformed by the steady exertions of a sible, it would be even desirable. Our great number of able minds, each of own opinion is, that it would be in the whom, having in view a distinct and highest degree otherwise; that a state authorised object, labours on, with that of perfect and permanent equality, if friendly disposition towards his fellow- such were possible, must completely citizens which results from the con- paralyze and destroy the faculties and sciousness that his object is as gene- powers of the human mind. And, in rally approved as the means by which fact, such is the natural inequality of he attains it, and that jealous attach- mankind, that if we were to suppose ment to the constitution of his country the whole race, at any one given mowhich is the consequence of the feeling ment, rendered perfectly equal, there that on its permanence all his prospects would be, within one year after, as depend. This is remarkably exempli- many degrees of rank as there are in fied in a fact which has not escaped ourown constitution; with the important the notice even of our Transatlantic difference that those degrees would be brethren, that what is called “ rising limited only by, and consist in, the vafrom the ranks," or the elevation of rious kinds of power which the talents individuals, by the mere force of merit, or circumstances of each had enabled

them to attain over others. The leading nence where its struggles may termidistinction between a republic and a nate, and which it may transmit to its monarchy seems to be this, that while posterity; which, being disowned by the same distinctions of rank are pro- the other system, they are merely a duced in each by the unequal distribu- temporary and precarious usurpation, tion of wealth, talents, and fortune, they to be maintained by force or cunning, are acknowledged in the one state, and at the expense of the hatred of all rendered the secure reward of merit, below, and the jealous suspicion of all offering to ambition a permanent emi- above them.


No. V.



THE POPULAR SECRETARIES OF STATE. modest as Doctor Bowring, and meriAt last the Whig-Radical secretaries torious as Mr. Gillon-all this various of state have got into parliament-and host fought under the banner of that how? By what sinzular and signal act great and mighty chief, Lord John of a grateful and delighted public have Russell, because he was, or described these leading members of a ministry himself to be, the darling and the arrogating to itself exclusive popu- champion of the people. Swelling larity, been enabled to take their with the thought to nearly the size of seats as legislators for the people? Mr. Sheil, or half the size of Mr. Alas! that they who made the Reform O'Connell, he proclaimed that Sir Bill, and then worshipped the idol that Robert Peel's ministry should be voted they had made-alas! that they should down because it was inimical to the live to see such an event—and so soon people who loved and trusted him and too! The public did not show itself his friends, and them alone. Within grateful_did not show itself delighted, the house Mr. Grant snored his assent, but left the secretaries of state to and without (for even then the exstruggle into parliainent by the ignoble secretary for foreign affairs had and back-stairs entrance ofiwo boroughs been rejected in the county which in conveniently vacated for the occasion, happier days he represented,) Lord and one peerage, because no third Palmerston whispered to all the ladies borough was convenient or compliant of bis acquaintance that Lord John enough to receive the Right Honorable was right. Secretary for the Colonial Department.

The united, congenial, and respectWhat a talling off is bere! How differ- able host of English free-thinkers and ent from what might have been! How Philosophers,” of Irish Papists and different from what was expected! Lord Scotch · Independents,” carried their Joba Russell was so satisfied of the ex- first point. Sir Robert Peel's ministry treme unpopularity of the Conservative was outvoted, and resigned. Lord a ministration, and so modestly con John Russell and his friends took scious that upon him and upon his office, and then the time was come to colleagues were the popular hopes prove before the face of an anxious fixed, that on this very yround he led and inquiring world that the Whigthe late opposition to battle. That re Radical ministers were indeed the spectable and united band of members darlings of the people. The three of parliament, consisting of English new secretaries of state were all comultra-Whigs and Radicals, all learned

Lord John Russell, at the as John Gully, and liberal as Joseph time of his appointment, was member Huine-of Irish Papists, consistent for the county of Devon-Mr. Grant and quiet as Mr. Daniel O'Connell, was member for the county of Iverness pure and independent as Mr. Feargus --and Lord Palmerston had been meinO'Connor — of Scotch “reformers," ber for the county of Hants. The act

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of becoming ministers—an act for the circumstances of the case, Lord which, as has been said, their exclusive Palmerston addressed the Tivertonians, popularity was the ground and the upon acquiring the highly popular excuse-vacated the seats of Lord honor of being declared their repreJohn and Mr. Grant ; the whole three sentative. After reminding them of had now to show, by the eclat of their the great and glorious privilege they re-entrance to parliament, the truth enjoyed of assembling in the “open and justice of their pretensions to the air” to hear him declare his sentiments. exclusive favor of the people. The He said--" The circumstances under way in which this was shown was as which he found himself there, were no follows :- Mr. Grant did not dare to less honorable to them than gratifying to go back to his county; a Conservative him.Now, let us mark his exquisite was returned in his place by the peo- reasons.

He had no connexion with ple, and admission was procured for the county of Devon-he had never him into the House of Peers by the put foot within their beautiful town till influence of his party with the king; the other day, when he obeyed their Lord John Russell did dare to go back summons. (He must have meant the to his county, but was beaten by an summons of Mr. Kennedy.) He had immense majority, and a Conservative no claim on their good wishes, except was returned in his room. Colonel those which were founded upon his Fox, son of one of Lord J. Russell's public conduct and his political princicolleagues in the cabinet, was then ples.” All this was excellent: the only induced to resign his seat for the thing it wants is a statement of which borough of Stroud, a place in Glouces- set of political principles (for he has tershire, with which Lord John has no bad several in his time) the noble connexion whatever. He was, how- lord wished to inake the foundation of ever, elected on Colonel Fox's recom his claim to the wise and discriminating mendation, and the gallant colonel was favor of the Tivertonians. Were they immediately afterwards accommodated the principles of the Liverpool, or the with a place in the ordnance depart- Canning, or the Goderich, or the Welment. Lord Palmerston did not ad- lington, or the Grey, or the Melbourne dress any large constituency. There administration ? for in all these did the were half-a-dozen of the closest bo- noble lord serve, so continual has been roughs now left in England, talked of bis zeal for the public welfare. The from time to time as likely to be men of Tiverton ought to have asked vacated for his sake-at last one Mr. him this question. Kennedy, the only English member Another instance of his lordship’s who voted with Mr. Dan. O'Connell intrepidity on this occasion it is proper in the House of Commons for Repeal to record, in order that there may be of the Union, felt himself suddenly a due estimate formed of the advantage unwell, and found sitting in the house enjoyed by the country in having such very inconvenient to him. He there- a Foreign Secretary.' " The governfore resigned his seat for the borough ment of Lord Melbourne,” quoth he, of Tiverton, and, singular to relate, “ was suddenly interrupted in the Lord Palmerston

was immediately career of reform which it was pursuelected for that place without oppo- ing, (an invisible career, by the by,) and sition. Thus did the three secretaries in November last a government took get into parliament; and looking at the office, consisting of persons who, during means by which, and the manner in the whole period of their political existwhich they achieved that object, it is ence, had resisted every improvement, surely not too much to say, that no and from whose opposition had arisen one can have any doubt as to the all the difficulties which the 'reform veracity of their assertions about the ministry' had to contend with.” Now, possession of exclusive popularity. No it so happens, that during at least twoone can feel any perplexity of mind as thirds of the “ political existence of to the fact of the great favor in which “these persons,” the very same Lord they are held by the peoplethat Palmerston, who thus speaks of them, people in whose name they cast out WAS HIMSELF THEIR SUBORDINATE OR the Conservative administration. THEIR COLLEAGUE, aiding and abetting

It is impossible not to admire the whatever they did, whether it was “in easy confidence with which, under all resistance to every improvement” or

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