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exist between phenomena, which appear We confess that we are by no means together or in succession : the latter are satisfied with the theory that asserts more strictly called cause and effect. that our idea of the relation of cause Thus, for example, a greater application and effect is nothing more than one of of forco, of weight, of fire, or of light, constant and invariable sequence. From uniformly causes a greater motion, or observing this, the mind may infer pressure, or heat, or illumination, increas- causation ; but it does not confound ing according to ascertained laws in each; the two ideas, which are essentially and this with such accurate certainty, distinct. Let us suppose two perfectly that such effects can be increased at plea- unparalleled phenomena in nature to sure, and in exact conformity with the be found constantly to appear, the one nicest calculations. This certainty and uniformity of variation distinguishes the following the other, might it not be
possible for a
cause to be relation of cause and effect from mere sequence, which, by a strange infatuation assigned, and no relation be supposed
to exist between the two effects, of oversight, has been confounded with it by Hume. Considered in this view, it although the one never should appear
without the other ? But we are as is at the same time, and by the same principle, the foundation of all art and of little satisfied with Mr. Wills' theory all right reasoning. In fact, the calcula- of constant and coordinate variation. tion which regulates the construction of Does Mr. Wills mean to assert that a watch with its due regulation of various the relation cannot subsist where the mechanic forces or of a steam-engine, things admit of no degrees, and where, with its aided applications of chemical consequently, we should suppose there knowledge, is an instance of both. The can be no variations ? But the entire certain effects from the nice measurement language of the paragraphs that treat of causes, and the nice and subtle pro- of this subject is obscure; and, if we cesses of reasoning which lead to, and may judge from some hints of a future are verified by them, most fully and ade- essay upon the question, the theory is, quately establish the required connexions. perhaps, one which he had but lately And the more thoroughly, since you must formed, and which had not rested long observe that these are not casual instances enough in his mind to be corrected of consequence, but of its uniform varia- and digested into shape. tion regulated by the will, and in unerring Still less are we satisfied with his conformity with the minutest and most attempted application of his general intricate reasoning. « This constant relation between trains truth of the results of reasoning ; if
principle to the establishment of the of reasoning and these variations, is all that
we understand him right, the relation we are here concerned with. It estab- of coexistence between causation and lishes that relation which subsists between right reasoning is proved by the causation and right reasoning, as applied experiments that verify the results to facts. Observation, experiment, and of mechanical or scientific calculathe conscious power of acting at will, are tion. Not to mention that both causathus the data upon which the theory of tion and right reasoning are probability rests.”
lations themselves, we apprehend To the whole of this paragraph we that the mind as naturally and as take objection. From the paragraph confidently reposes in the calculations immediately preceding, we find that he of its own reason as in the evidence of does not regard every relation of ex the senses, which must testify to the istence as one of cause and effect. result of the experiments which Mr. Here we find that all relations of coex Wills requires to support them. If istence are indicated by a uniform and the philosopher rejoices when the recoordinate variation; and even with sults of his deductions are verified by this limitation he will not admit the re- experiment, it is not because he doubts lation of the phenomena which appear the truth of the calculating process, together to be strictly that of cause but because he distrusts his own corand effect. Thus to constitute this rectness in its application. relation, it is necessary that there It is not our intention, however, to should be a uniform and constant attempt any discussion of these abstruse variation, and, besides, a sequence in and perplexing points-an enquiry into point of time.
which would lead us into metaphysical
speculations, the barren inutility of must long since have perceived we which would be strangely contrasted entertain. Many years have passed with the deep and practical utility of since a work was issued from the press the investigations through which Mr. equally calculated to serve the cause Wills himself has been our guide. It of Christianity, and to set the honest, would be like turning from the reaping but self-deceiving sceptic upon the of the harvest to pursue the butterfly. right path towards conducting the most Of the general merits of the volume it momentous enquiry upon which the is unnecessary for us now to reiterate human intellect can be engaged. the bigh opinion which our readers
THE REVERIES OF A WALK AT NIGHTFALL.
I will go forth among the woods, and learn,
One happy hour, my soul! one happy hour!
It hovers on those regions uncreate
This very Eve,
Sweet Earth! I loved thee
Night in the Forest! I have rushed amid
Fragrant with blended breath of flowers, the air
I too will sing
Clear, shadowless, and still;
He looked upon the rill;
'Twas midnight, and the stars of heaven
Revealed in glory stood,
Was mirrored in the flood.
“ How pleasant,” dreamed the raptured boy,
“ How pleasant 'twere to rove
The sister of my love!
In joys unknown to earth;
The country of my birth !”
Another heaven was there,
The stars, the sky, the air.
“ Nor wing on high my flight;
And meet a heaven as bright!"
The mimic stars were fed,
Swept o'er his sinless head!
Appears an beaven to youth,
And martyred into Truth !
W. A. B.
HIBERNIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENTS-ELEVENTH NIGHT.
The next night was rainy and tempes “For one night be might,” replied tuous. The captives, listening to the Henry ; " but the first glimpse of sunwind without, as it whistled dismally shine through the bars of his window through the embrasures and battle in the morning, would make him rue ments of the surrounding walls, gather- his bargain speedily. Oh, Heaven! it ed round their hearth, awaiting the is enough to set one crazy to see the arrival of their keepers with more tops of the Dublin mountains basking than usual resignation. " It is some. in the sun of a clear day, seeing just thing to have a roof over one's head enough of them to know that there on such a night as this, even though are running streams there and fresh the door be bolted on the wrong side," banks of heather; and then to think said Henry.
that you are here built up in stone and “ We would not be long without lime, like a lintel or a doorpost in the better shelter if the bolts were drawn," wall I have been dreaming of said Irt; “yet many a poor wretch the green fields every night for the tonight would be glad to change places last week.” with us, for the sake even of such dry “And I dreamt last night that the quarters."
Deputy had put us into a dungeon ten