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minds of Hall and Mackintosh were disputed for the length of two sessions; in

many respects alike, and of this we and as might be expected, though it hope to be able to furnish some curious surprises Hall's biographer, were for illustrations, should we, as is our pur- this the better friends. Sir James pose, find time to call our readers' describes himself as learning more in attention to the works of Hall; but these discussions than from all the at present we can only refer to the books be had ever read; and Hall general character of both minds. There was fond of reiterating through life was the same love of truth, the same bis conviction that “his friend pos. generosity of purpose and of conduct: sessed an intellect more analogous to both, we think, loved declamation for that of Bacon than any person of its own sake, and in this were de modern times." To us all this sounds ceived—for declamation is not oratory; not like in-incerity, but like exaggerayet both undoubtedly possessed the tion. Hall, though he appears to have power of influencing great bodies of had a mind roaming naturally and joy. inen-let us say, when calling to their ously among its own range of subjects

, aid the prepared sympathies of those had the unfortunate habit of seeking to whom they addressed. The auditor express every thought of his in the was pleased, and could not but be strongest language he could invent. pleased, when he found his His strength of language did not like passions, his own prejudices echoed; that of our home imitators of the thoughts which he could recognise German subliwe, arise from a blunas the children of his own fancy were dering effort to render conceivable to presented to him in the dress given other minds what must for ever remain by the great man who was good unintelligible to their own. In Hall enough to adopt them and allow the very lowest notions of any subject them to be called by his name : it are translated into such langnage as mattered little whether the language the goodhumoured satirist has given of the orator was quite intelligible; to the ghost of Johnson in the Rejected the subject which was to be decorated Addresses; and we are afraid that Sir was as familiar to the admiring crowds James's admirers will not find it easy as poor Bloomfield's " Farmer's Boy" to persuade others that there is any was to its author before Dr. Parr trans- great resemblance between him and lated it into Greek, to the great amaze Bacon, althongh such was the opinion ment of all Birmingham--and of about of his distinguished Aberdeen class. as much value as Doctor Parr's trans- fellow. It is marvellous to us how, lation of Bloomfield's Poems, is the while these Scottish-bred chiefs are kind of declamation which was then for ever disputing, they regard nothing valued at Aberdeen. Hall and Mackin as the subject of reasonable doubt. tosh were at this time, from their studies, No, no! they translate everything into called by their class-fellows “ Plato and aphorism, and then it rests an article Herodotus" '-so strange was a little of faith-a proposition to be sustained Greek at Aberdeen; but moral and me- by thesis and syllogism, against all taphysical investigations were their chief gainsayers. O ye sons of Scotland! subjects of study and dispute. They and yė, their children of Belfast—and would repair, we are told by Doctor ye who, in the parish of Templemore, * Grégory, in his memoirs of Hall, to are recorded by the Ordnance Surthe seashore, or to the picturesque veyors of Ireland as reading each scenery on the banks of the Don, month 500 numbers of the University above the old town of Aberdeen, to Magazine, beware how you

flatter discuss the subjects of the morning's yourselves into the belief that be cause reading. In this way they examined ye are positive ye are therefore Aristogether almost every important posi- iotles; "think not, because ye have tion in Berkeley's Minute Philosopher, fought at the Diamond, that ye are alı in Butler's Analogy, or in Edwards together such as the mighty men of on the Will. Night after night they our Magazine. You are not : neither

Ordnance survey of Templemore— without any question the most valuable working on the statistics of a single parish, ever published. The survey, we are glad to know proceeds with great rapidity. It is the most useful and magnificent undertaking even engaged in by any nation.

was Mackintosh any thing at all like genius of the former was too calm to Bacon ; nor was Robert Hall--though make a due impression on the tumul. his is no inglorious a name in our lite- tuary mind of a disputatious boy; and," rature-such a man as Jeremy Taylor. adds Sir James, “ 1 soon contracted

Mackintosh's vacations were passed prejudices against the latter of the in making verses and love, and the same nature with those which made circumstances of his family made him nie spurn the society and reject the anxious for an early establishment in almost paternal kindness of Doctor life. His utmost ambition, did not, he Cullen, to whom I had been very tells us, soar beyond a professorship warmly recommended." at Aberdeen; and though some letters Mackintosh's residence at Edinburgh were written by influential persons to was in the dog-days of the Brunonian aid him in this object, it does not seem heresy in medicine. He had a fever--was to have been pursued by him with any recommended wine-drank it in large earnestuess. We cannot but think quantities-recovered—became, in conthat his life would, under such circum- sequence, a Brunonian-and, instead of stances, have been a more happy and studying medicine, joined a medical dea more useful one than that to which bating club; and was, of course, among his higher destinies called him. A Cullen's warmest assailants. We are not person speculating on the fortunes of competent to forin any opinion of the eminent men may reasonably regret value of Brown's theories; but his own that the humble offices which Mackin- love of ardent spirits is said to have had tosh and Burke sought for themselves no small influence in the formation of in early life were denied to them; them. He delivered lectures on the for we can scarce bring ourselves to be- anti-Cullenian system, which attracted lieve that the peaceful studies in which great crowds. Each evening, previous their own tastes would have led them to his lecture, he astonished his audience to pass their lives would not have by taking fifty drops of the tincture of produced better fruit than can live opium in a glass of whiskey, and rein the climate to which they were peated the dose four or five times in removed. Burke giving up to party the course of the lecture. In this way what belonged to mankind is scarcely he inflamed his imagination for a while, an overstatement, and Mackintosh's and declaimed with great animation. name is destined to live in our litera- Brown mixed in all the worst dissipature by the fragments of works which tion of the students, and must have his position in society interrupted and been the ruin of many of them. It is marred. When he gave up the plan scarce worth while to delay our narraof college life he had to look round tive by mentioning his fate. His habits him for the means of subsistence. His of drunkenness became each day more own inclination would have led him to confirmed; bis theories, thongh deserv. the Scotch bar; but his means were ing of more attention than the Cullenians unequal to the struggles of so expensive would give them, were soon brought and uncertain a profession. To become into disrepute by his intemperance, a bookseller in London was his next and by his presumptuous and confiding hope; but capital was wanting for that; ignorance.' Cullen struggled to make and so he lost the enjoyment of that out means of support for him, but in paradise on earth, as he then thought vain. He migrated to London—ate ".a life spent among books, and diver, opium-drank brandy—advertised lecsified by the society of men of genius.” tures, and seemed to have secured an The deliberations ended in his going audience-but he came home one to Edinburgh to study medicine.

night drunk to his lodgings—took his The names of the principal persons customary dose of laudanum, and was in the literary circles in Edinburgh in found dead ! the year 1784 are inentioned. Mackin

This was dangerous society for a tosh's

age and circumstances were such clever boy, and Sir James felt it so. as to give him little opportunity of We transcribe another page from his often seeing them; and we gather that memoirs :M·Kenzie and Dr. Gregory were at this time almost the only lions he was «« In three months after my arrival in in the habit of seeing.

“ The elegant Edinburgh, before I could have distin

6

guished bark from James's powder, or a Irish bar, He was a member of the pleurisy from a dropsy in the chamber of secret directory of united Irishmen. La a sick patient, I discussed with the utmost 1801, when I last visited Scotland, he Auency and confidence the most difficult was a state prisoner in Fort George. He questions in the science of medicine. We is now a barrister at New York. mimicked, or rather felt all the passions Hope had not much fancy, but be of an administration and opposition; and had sense and decision, and he was a we debated the cure of a dyssentery with speaker of weight and force. as much factious violence as if our subject • Emmett did not reason, but he was had been the rights of a people, or the an eloquent declaimer, with the taste fate of an empire. Any subject of divi- which may be called Irish, and which sion is, indeed, sufficient food for the Grattan had then rendered so popular at sectarian and factious propensities of Dublin. Wilde had no precision and no human nature. These debates might, elegance: he copied too much the faults no doubt, be laughed at by a spectator; of Mr. Burke's manner. He was, how but if he could look through the ridicu- ever, full of imagination and knowledge, lous exterior, he might see that they led a most amusing speaker and delightful to serious and excellent consequences. companion, and one of the most generons The exercise of the understanding was

of men. the same, on whatever subjects, or in • My first speech was in the Speculative whatever manner it was employed. Such Society; it was against the slave trade, debates were the only public examinations which Dr. Skeeto, a West Indian phyin which favour could have no place, and sician, attempted to defend. My first which never could degenerate into mere essay was on the religion of Ossian. I formality; they must always be severe maintained, that a belief in the separate and always just.

existence of heroes must always have • I was soon admitted a member of prevailed for some time before bero-worthe Speculative Society, which had gene- ship; that the greatest men must be ral literature and science for its objects. long dead, believed to exist in another It had been founded about twenty years region, and considered as objects of revebefore, and during that period, numbered rence before they are raised to the rank among its members all the distinguished of deities; that Ossian wrote at this youth of Scotland, as well as many stage in the progress of superstition; and foreigners attracted to Edinburgh by the that if Christianity had not been so soon medical schools.

introduced, his Trenmor and Fingal • When I became a member, the lead- might have grown into the Saturn and ers were Charles Hope, now Lord Justice Jupiter of the Caledonians. Constant Clerk,* John Wilde, afterwards professor complimented me for the ingenuity of the of civil law, and who has now, alas ! sur. hypothesis, but said, that he believed vived his own fertile and richly endowed Macpherson to have been afraid of inmind; Malcolm Laing the historian, venting a religion for his Ossian.'"- Vol. “The scourge of impostors and terror of quacks;":

1. pp. 25-28. Baron Constant de Rebecque, a Swiss of

We must make room for his obsersingular manners and powerful talents, vations many, a long year after on and who made a transient appearance in these declaiming societies and their the tempestuous atmosphere of the French effects :-Revolution;t Adam Gillies, a brother u« I am not ignorant of what Edinof the historian, and a lawyer in great burgh then was. I may truly say, that it practice at Edinburgh; Lewis Grant, is not easy to conceive a university where eldest son of Sir James Grant, then a industry was more general, where readyouth of great promise, afterwards mem- ing was more fashionable, where indober of parliament for the county of Elgin, lence and ignorance were more disrepunow in the most hopeless state of mental table. Every mind was in a state of ferderangement; and Thomas Addis Em- mentation. The direction of mental mett, who soon after quitted physic for activity will not indeed be universally law, and became distinguished at the approved. It certainly was very much,

(1835.] Lord President of the Court of Session. $ This was, of course, written long before M. Constant laid the foundations of a more durable fame.

Now a lord of session and justiciary.

though not exclusively pointed towards own, and in this way make him, in metaphysical inquiries. Accurate and the very recesses of his heart, and applicable knowledge were deserted for almost unknown to bimself, the mere speculations pot susceptible of certainty, advocate of a party. Every thing that nor of any immediate reference to the distinguishes original thinking is grapurposes of life. Strength was exhausted dually lost-every higher quality that in vain leaps to catch what is too high requires more than publicity and praise for our reach. Youth, the season of dies away—every sentiment is accombumble diligence, was often wasted in modated to the taste and understanding vast and fruitless projects. Speculators of the expected audience, and the could not remain submissive learners. Those who will learn, must for a time strength of expression is almost intrust their teachers, and

believe in their versely as the feeling of the speaker. superiority. But they who too early tencies of men with “ public lives ;'

Hence in part the strange inconsisthink for themselves, must sometimes think themselves wiser than their master, hence, too, the otherwise inexplicable from whom they can no longer gain any fact that those who at first dealt in thing valuable.' Docility is thus often the most violent declamation have alextinguished, when education is scarcely most always ended in Josing all that begun. It is vain to deny the reality of was peculiar or striking in their style, these inconveniences, and of other most and have become, as they advanced serious dangers to the individual and to in life, the most commonplace of all the community, from a speculative ten- men-knowing nothing-feeling Dodency (above all) too early impressed on thing-loving nothing. But we are the kinds of youth.””- Vol. I. p. 29. forgetting the limits within which our

observations must be confined, and We hurry over the rest of his Edin- shall therefore say no more on this burgh-life. He obtained his diploma subject at present than just advert at the usual time; and his thesis is said to the spirit of partizanship, thus alto have been better than was expected most unconsciously created, and its from a man so idle.

more direct injuries. The man may The excitement of debating clubs be an honest man, but is searcely a was, we think, injurious to him in fair reasoner, who does not present to every way. Notwithstanding the ani- his own mind the case of an adversary mation of such scenes, and although with as much strength as his mind the mind exerts itself with increased dispassionately exercised upon the subactivity under such influences; and jeet can give it. Now, at these meetthe village Keans and Coates's of the ings—call them debating clubs or what political stage—those who are fitted you will—does it ever occur that in by nature for the part, and their af- any of the speeches on either side an fected imitators are formed by the attentive listener can point out anyopportunity thus given; and although thing like a fair statement of the case we freely admit that there are few to which the speaker affects to reply? circumstances in which intellect is In the spring of the following year awakened that are not really and for (1788) he migrated to London. There ever beneficial to society,- yet there is some inaccuracy of dates in this is much to deplore in those stimulants part of his son's narrative; for his which lead young men of the highest marriage is represented as taking place promise (such are always most easily on the 18th of February of the same misled) from the acquisition of real year with a young lady whom he met knowledge into courting opportunities at the house where he lodged. We of display; which, while not less time think, both from the order in which is employed in intellectual exertion some other incidents of Sir James's than if the studies were of a more sober life are given, and from his son's ackind, yet make the student habitually count of the idleness and dissipation negleet such pursuits as cannot well in which his first year in London was be the subject of popular harangues, passed, that the editor of Sir James's and, what perhaps is worse, tempt History of the Revolution must be him by the strongest impulses of our right in assigning the next year as nature to think rather of what will the date of bis marriage. The marriage satisfy the minds of others than his surprised and offended the friends of

both parties ; and yet--so little is it the leaders of the Whig party; "by possible for others to estimate what Fox, Grey, Lauderdale, Erskine, Whitare the constituents of happiness, bread;" and soon after by one, wbose there can scarce be a doubt that the praise not alone was of more value, but short period of obscure struggle which under the circumstances must have followed this union was the bappiest been felt of more value—by Burke of Sir James's life. His support was himself. « The period of his composing obtained by contributions to the pe- it,” says the biographer who has drawn riodical press:

A pamphlet on the up the account prefised to James's regency question, occasioned by the Fragment of the History of the Revomalady which attacked George the lution, a narrative which seems to us Third, in which Mackintosh supported of considerable value, though spoken of the analogy which Fox sought to es- with some impatience by Mackintosh's tablish between the existing circum- son-"the period of composing it was stances and the natural demise of the probably the happiest of his life. His crown, is the only work of his to which life was now passed in the solitude of any distinct reference is given. He made his house at Ealing, without seeking some unsuccessful attempts to establish or desiring any other enjoyment than himself as a physician, first in Salisbury, the composition of his work and the then at Bath, and afterwards at Wey- society of his wife, to whom, by way mouth. In 1789 he visited the Nether- of recreation, in the evening, he read lands in company with his wife, and for what he had written during the day. the greater part of the year resided in The Vindiciæ Gallicæ, accordingly, Brussels, where he made himself ac- though not the most profound or quainted with foreign politics—informa- learned of his productions, was never ation which, on his return to London, he after equalled by him in vigour and turned to an immediate account. He re- fervor of thought, style, and dialectics." turned to London early in 1790, without We, of course, must decline any money or means of living. There must, discussion of the topics of Mackintosh's we think, be some mistake in the state- work; but there is something in the ment given by a correspondent of the honest letter of Mr. Wilde's, which his Law Magazine, on the authority of son gives, that compels us to make Parr, that “his wife being the sister room for it : of Peter and Daniel Stuart, the respective proprietors of the Oracle and “ With regard to your book, my dearest Morning Post—the former a Pittite, James, I had the first or second copy the latter a Foxite paper, Mackintosh' that was in Edinburgh. My opinion of wrote leading articles for each of those it I need not tell you; as I prophesied journals, suited to their respective po- luna minores ;' but I prefer sunshine,

it has happened. You are inter ignes litics.*" The statement was probably one of Parr's monstrous exaggerations

even to the moon playing in autumnal

azure on the waters of Loughness. at a period of hostility with Sir James

You know I never could conceal any -for, though we are altogether ignorant of the author of the paper in the part of my mind from such friends as Law Magazine, it is impossible to read better for sottishness and prostitution

I certainly did not like you the the article and not place the most

on a throne.' Let us reason the matter. entire reliance on the fidelity of his

• Suppose all the calumnies against recollection. The notes to that article the King and Queen of France io be by the editor of the Law Magazine true, you will not certainly say that the contain much interesting information.

slavery of France was owing to them. In April, 1791, appeared his reply Let the private vices of this man and to Burke-a splendid work, aud which

woman be what they might, they had even at this day cannot be read without nothing in them savage or tyrannical. our feeling that it deserved all the France was enslaved long before, and by praise which it obtained. The public other hands. You deny the benevolence cation of the “Vindiciæ Gallicæ" at once of the king of Frauce. Be it so: but you brought its author into celebrity. His allow yourself

, and who will not allow, acquaintance was eagerly sought by (Paine does it,) that concessions to liberty,

Recollections of Sir James Mackintosh.

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