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of paramount importance, his spiritual teracted and controlled by our free relation to the people under his institutions, by commercial ent
enterprise, charge-remove even the fact of his by the influences above all of the army being a man necessarily possessed of and those professions in which younger some education, and compelled to ex members of the families of our landed terior decorum of conduct; and say proprietors, with the same feeling of has there been no advantage to the birth, and home, and kindred, pursue country in the single circumstance their animating course) gives to lite of this portion of the produce of the much that is gracefulmugh that is soil devolving, hy a different law of generous—and assuredly adds, in every succession, and therefire never, way, to human happiness ;-if it be a except by some improbable accident, prejudice, which it scarcely is, it is transnritted into the same hands with one which, regarding it as subdued and the rest ? For the purpose of argu- affected by the influences we have inent, we will consider tithes only as pointed tv, has its value in being at they affect landed property ; they are, least a serviceable antagonist to the let us say-il portion of the landed
worse prejudices of othcial rank, and property of the country. Consi- of wealth, and the power which they der the tendency of such property to would else everywhere command. But accumulate in the same hands. All to this feeling in its full, and unmitigated the laws of the country were even strength, was owing the iron servitude more favourable than they at pre- of feudalism, preserved for ages, and sent are, to such accumulation ; but only now crumbling. To the evils they still favour it, and the feelings arising from a state of things, the tenin which these law's had their origin, dencies of which are to give to one have outlived the forms in which they the whole landed property of an exwere first manifested. Though entails tensive territory, is there nothing of of property are sutstantially done away importance in the way of counteracwith, and serve now for little more tion-in the circumstances of rights than the reasonable purposes of se over land, co-extensive with the landcuring a provision for children against Jord's rizlits? is there nothing in this the improvidence of parents during the favourable to the growth of an interperiod of minority, yet the feeling in mediate independent class, distingnishwhich they originated subsists—the ed from the lord on the one hand, and natural vanity survives, which would the peasant upon the other, and which regard some one individual as the re class could only assert their own rights presentative of a family; and all the on principles which involved the estabwishes and acts of persons possessed lishinent of rights for the vassal, and exof landed property are influenced by hibited the lord as one whose power, it. To this-a feeling predominating even when it seemed most absolute, was over natural justice, which would suy- limited and defined? Thecontest against gest something of an equal division of feudalism was one in which the cause“ of property among children in the same the poor against the mighty” was succircumstances--to this, a feeling pre- cessfully fought by the Church, in which dominating over the strongest instincts the victory gained was one of those of nature which could suggest the fits victories of principle, the value of ness of providing with most anxious which is once and for ever. Having care, for the youngest, as likely to be succeeded in freeing the people of most unprotected, for females are less England from domestic tyranny, the capable, at any time, of protecting church was again the great instrument themselves to this, a feeling prevail- of freeing the country from foreign ing even over the intense selfishness vassalage and foreign tribute. The of man, as the interests of the indivi- history of the Church in England is dual are forgotten in that of the name, the history of English liberty--and be and to be the founder of a family is a its fate what it may--for three hundred distinction which would be pretty surely years of greater civilization than any disclaimed by any one understanding, other country ever enjoyed, the hisor rather feeling, the vanity of which tory of the English Church is the hiswe speak—to this feeling, which (coun- tory of the literature of England.
We would wish the republication of where all that is evil naturally congrethose books of Mr. Coleridge because gates, and in her manufacturing towns they everywhere seek to exbivit not the which have outgrown the church estab. faults of inen or of measures, but the lishment, and are, so far, an argument principle sought to be expressed in our for its increase-think of England as great institutions which even by those she is, and remember to what an who are not among the assailants, are extent the education of the English is less valued, we fear, than at any former in the hands of churchmen ; for in time. The defenders of our existing thinking of the church institutions of institutions are assailed, as if their the country, we are not alone to think olject was to perpetuate some such of the beneficed clergy and parish degradation of the bulk of the people, ministers, but of those members of the as the law of caste involves, as if the establishment-the masters and assistexisting institutions of England— for ants in public places of education, ihe a moment we entreat our reader, for tutors in the families of the nobility the sake of understanding wbat we and gentry, those who have formed would say, to shut out from his view the higher classes of the English into the anomalous condition of Ireland, what they are, and contribute to make whatever he may think of it, or may England what she still is, the first and imagine us to think-as if, we repeat, freest country in the world. Think those institutions were, in fact, an im- for a moment of this one English pediment to every advance from the institution, and when you have suctumbler classes, instead of being, as ceeded in bringing the case fairly they undoubtedly are at present, and --however inadequately--before your for centuries have been--the certain mind, ask yourself whether all these means of aiding them in every object, enviable distinctions of English educanot alone of reasonable desire, but cation are to be flung away; and even of the most ambitious hope, that when you have stripped the church of a man can entertain in any country, her property—we know you are quite although we were to allow himn to dishonest enough to do so if you canfancy an Utopia of his own; for Sir say have you provided means to supply Thomas More's would never do for the chasm that will thus be left ? By one of our reformers. Never, proba- whom is the business of education to be bly, was there an institution so decis conducted ? What shall be the new dedly beneficial to a nation as the books, and who are to be the instrucChurch has been in England-not a tors of the land ? What new system, family in the land, as Mr. Coleridge fresh from France is to replace the bas well observed, that has not a direct, BOOK OF God? In epite of all we and-it is in no feeling of depreciation can do to disguise it from ourselves, we use a word unhappily equivocal for it is hard to look intently on a even a selfish interest in its continu- prospect, that, as it exhibits our nature ance. Improve it-yes, in all imagi- degraded, it is painful to look uponnable ways improve it--divide the point in controversy is this, shall its wealth more reasonably--make its Christianity continue the religion of schools and colleges mo effective, the country? To efface this is among restore somewhat of its discipline—and the hopes of the infidel party in Engwith all these changes you but render land, as it has been on the continent; it more like what its framers wished it for this there is no language too strong to be ;-take from it its courts of civil for the radical press. Day after day, lax, and we fancy you will not find the in every form in which the wisdom church anxious to preserve them. In that is foolishness, and the mirth your plans for its reform restore, if which is unaccompanied with gaiety, you will, its convocation, that its own and which is followed by heaviness of independent voice may be again heard; heart, can array itself—in laborious but suppose it even as it is, unchanged essays—in poems called philosophical, -even as it is, think of its effects, but most of all, in the unstamped think of what England is in her higher publications, which, in defiance of classes, in her middle ranks, in her law, are printed, and command extenvillages and farms—think of England sive
circulation-do we meet with that everywhere but in her large cities, scoffing spirit which insults everything
at all above itself, and exhibits little ing words, which ought to be preserved kindness or consideration for anything in every record of the poet's life : below its own level.
“ Friend! were an author privileged to We have exceeded the space which ral and intellectual competence I should
name his own judge—in addition to mocan be reasonably allowed for this
look round for some man, whose knowarticle ; in the Biographia Literaria ledge and opinions had for the greater of Mr. Coleridge will be found some
part been acquired experimentally : and account of his early life and education, the practical habits of whose lite had put soine affectionate notices of his early him on his guard with respect to all speinstructors ; the book is one which we
culative reasoning, without rendering him wish may be reprinted, as it is impos- insensible to the desirableness of princisible to read it without loving the man. ples more secure than the shifting 1 ules There is in it a minute account of his and theories generalized from observastudies, and of his opinions on Meta- tions merely empirical, or unconscious iu physics and the principal systems how many departments of knowledge, both of England and of the Continent. and with how large a portion even of proThe part of the book which we most fessional men, such principles are still a value, however, is the poetical criticism, desideratum. I would select too one which occupies more than a volume. who felt kindly, nay, even partially, toIn the year after its publication he ward me; but one whose partiality had went to reside at Highgate, with Mr. its strongest foundations in hope, and and Mrs. Gillman-iriends in all things more prospective than retrospective would worthy of Coleridge ; for the last make him quick-sighted in the detection, nineteen years of his life he resided and unreserved in the exposure of the in their house, and we can well imagine deficiencies and defects of each present the bereavement which they, above all work, in the anticipation of a more deothers on earth must now feel-during
veloped future. In you, honored friend, those years the new edition of The I have found all these requisites combined
and realized : and the improvement, Friend was published, the Aids to Reflection, the Essay on Church and which these essays have derived from your State, and his contributions to the judgment and judicious suggestions, would,
of itself, have justified me in accompanyEncyclopædia Metropolitan, and to the Transactions ofthe Royal Society of Li- ing them with a public acknowledgment
of the same. But knowing, as you can. terature, were written; and there seems
not but know, that I owe in great meato have been awakeniny a second
sure the power of having written at all dawn of poetical life.
The few verses written in late years are among the
to your medical skill, and to the charac
teristic good sense which directed its exmost beautiful even of his poems. In ertion in my behalf; and whatever I may the Aids to Reflection many of the have written in happier vein to the influpassages are poetry of the highest ence of your society and to the daily order, and almost flow into metrical proofs of your disinterested attachmentform ; and have a music of their own knowing too in how entire a sympathy richer and truer than any of our poets, with your feelings in this respect the except Spenser, of whose fluent versi- partner of your name has blended the fication they alınost remind us. Mr. affectionate regards of a sister or daughter Coleridge's studies during all this pe- with almost a mother's watchful and unriod, were,we believe, philosophical and wearied solicitudes alike for my health, theological; and a religious inan al- interest, and tranquillity ;-you will not, ways, his piety increased as life advan- I trust, be pained, you ought not, I am ced. One of the most beautiful thinys sure, to be surprised that to Mr. and we have ever read is his letter to a Mrs. GILLMAN, of Highgate, these vogodchild, written a few days before his lumes are dedicated, in testimony of high death, which we regret has not been respect and grateful affection, by their
« S. T. COLERIDGE. preserved in these voluines.
" Highgate, Oct. 7, 1818." The volumes which his nephew Mr. Coleridge was born on the 24th publishes are inscribed to Mr. and Mrs. of October, 1772. “ He died on the Gillman. When “ The Friend” was
25th of July, 1834, in Mr. Gillman's published by Mr. Coleridge in 1818, house in the Grove, Highgate, and is it was inscribed to Mr. and Mrs. Gill- buried in the old church-yard, by the man, by Mr. Coleridge, in the follow- road side.”
WHICU MAY ILLUSTRATE THE LAST STANZA OF TUE PRECEDING POEM.
Thou whose meek eyes are bending o'er my page!
111.-LINES FOR MUSIC.
To fly the world for thoughts of thee,
To think of thee till choked with sighs,
To weep for thee till sorrow dies
A living death when thou art gone,
And find my world in thee alone,
My heart beat quick with gentle care
To gaze on thee yet scarcely dare
Now, now—to weep the golden past,
The Eden whose bright hours are o'er,
• This Platonic conception of human life is really independent of the support of the theories or romances of philosophy. However ihe fact may be explained by metaphysicians, it is a fact, that these shadowy reminiscences of a something past, to which we can assign no definite date or locality, do make part of the experience of most reflecting and of many unreflecting persons. How often do we find ourselves, in the midst of some interesting scene, tacitly asking, “ Have we not felt all this before ?" This illusory memory-if it be an illusion—of course, (like all other singular phenomena of the minil,) scarcely admits of any intelligible description to those who have never been conscious of it; but I have myself hail the personal testimony of numbers to confirm my own experience of its existence. An interesting passage from the Eastern Draina of Sacontala is apropos to this subject. “ Perhaps,” says one of the interlocutors, “ the sadness of men otherwise in happiness, on gazing on lovely oljects, and hearing delicious songs, originates in a dim recollection of ancient delights, and the remnants of a connection with some antecedent existence."