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"St. ANN "(214). By William Croft (1678–1727). J. Sebas

tian Bach's "Fugue in E Flat major," written in the last period of his life, is known as the “St. Ann's Fugue,” because of the use of this theme in the three movements (1) broad and stately, (2) graceful, (3) rhythmic and brilliant.

"MUNICH” (151). Known in Germany as the "Königsberg

Chorale." In Mendelssohn's oratorio “Elijah,” as Choral No. 15, it is sung to the words, “Cast thy burden upon the

This arrangement is nearly the same as appears in our Hymnal, where it is attributed to him.

Lord.

“ "SILENT NIGHT" (123). By Franz Gruber (1787–1863),

often called “Holy Night.” John Hyatt Brewer has written a Christmas cantata, “Holy Night," based upon this theme.

“RUSSIAN HYMN(707). By Alexis F. Lwoff (1799–1870).

Used in piano piece, “The Czarina,” by Ganne and in several symphonic works.

"CRUSADER'S HYMN” (118). Liszt has used the melody as a

trio in the oratorio "Saint Elizabeth” to the “March of the Crusaders."

"PASSION CHORALE” (151). By Hans Leo Hassler (1564–1612).

Used by Johann Sebastian Bach several times in his “Passion Music according to the Gospel of Saint Matthew": No. 21, “Acknowledge me, my Keeper”; No. 53, "Commit thy ways, O pilgrim”; No. 63, “O Head, all bruised and wounded”; No. 72, "When I, too, am departing." Each number is sung in a lower key than the preceding number.

“Decius” (93) or "Sr. PETER” (97). By Nicolaus Decius

(16th century). In Mendelssohn's oratorio “Saint Paul,” used as Chorale No. 3 to the words similar to our own hymn (93), “To God on high be thanks.”

“Nun DANKET” (30). By Johann Crüger (1598-1662).

Used by Mendelssohn as Chorale No. 8 in his Opus 52, the “Lobgesang," or "Hymn of Praise,” to the words, “Let all men praise the Lord,” which is Alfred Novello's translation from the original of our hymn (30) by Martin Rinkart.

“BREMEN” (476). By Georg Neumark (1621-81). In

Mendelssohn's oratorio “Saint Paul” this forms the Choral, No 9, at the death of Stephen to the words, “To thee, O Lord, I yield my spirit.”

“MILLER” (17). Mendelssohn took this as the finale of his

organ sonatas. It is said by one critic to have suggested to Mendelssohn his aria, “O rest in the Lord.”

“PORTUGUESE HYMN” (125). Often called “Adeste Fideles."

One of the Christmas melodies in Guilmant's organ offertory, “Christmas Hymns.”. John Spencer Camp uses it in his sacred cantata, “The Prince of Peace.

"CORONATION" (180). By Oliver Holden (1765–1844). John

Spencer Camp introduces this also in his "Prince of Peace." He is the composer of our hymn tunes, “Abiding Grace" (504) and "Sylvester" (571), both written especially for the Methodist Hymnal.

CHAPTER IX

THE TITLES OF THE TUNES

DERIVED FROM THE HYMNS-AUTHORS AND COMPOSERSFROM PERSONS-PLACES—HILLS-RIVERS, ETC.

METHOD IN CHOOSING NAMES

In the new Methodist Hymnal the titles of the hymns are no longer used, as in previous Hymnals. But, as titles are still applied to the tunes, why should we not know more about these tune names, their use, and their meaning?

There is a great confusion in the naming of tunes, for in many instances the same name serves to designate several different tunes while, on the other hand, there are often many tunes bearing the same name. When the naming of psalm tunes was first introduced in Este's Psalter (1592), it would have been simple enough to avoid this; but now when literally thousands of hymn tunes are being published each year, confusion is inevitable. Nevertheless, it is undoubtedly increased by the carelessness of editors.

In the Methodist Hymnal the editors have taken great care in the choice of names. Only one name, "Stanley," has had to serve two tunes, although in the latest Wesleyan Hymn Book there are twenty names that must stand for two or more tunes, and in some other books there are even more. One tune appears in our Hymnal under two names, "St. Peter" and "Decius," although this is somewhat justified by

the difference in musical arrangement. In choosing names for the new tunes the editors have made peculiarly fitting selections. One quarter, however, of the names chosen for new tunes in this Hymnal are already attached to other tunes in other books, as "Temple," "Racine,” “Ruth," "Middletown," "Resignation,” “Praise,” “Worship,” “Stella," "Nashville," "Plymouth,” “Washington,” and “Evanston," the last two having been applied to other tunes in the old Methodist Hymnals of both North and South.

Usually, the editors have followed good precedent in the choice of names for the old tunes also. "Cobern,” however, is among the exceptions. Dr. Gauntlett's tune, so named in our Hymnal, has appeared in many other books, and, so far as we have observed, always under the name of “Houghton.” It is so named in the Methodist Episcopal Hymnal of 1878, but is wrongly attributed there to William Gardiner, instead of Henry J. Gauntlett.

To illustrate the Babel of names that confuse the psalmodist, we have examined every tune title in twenty American hymnals, published within as many years. As a result, we find that, on the average, about fourteen tunes in each of these books are either tunes contained in the Methodist Hymnal but bearing different titles, or tunes not contained in our Hymnal but bearing the same titles as other tunes in the Hymnal. There are over twice as many of the former as of the latter.

Comparing the titles in our Hymnal with those in the Wesleyan Hymn Book of England, we find forty

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six tunes common to both hymnals that bear different titles, three of these titles, however, being very similar; and we find forty-nine titles referring to entirely different tunes in the books in which they respectively appear.

In spite of this confusion, most of the best hymns retain their original names, and to many of these names there attaches some peculiar interest relating to the composer or to the hymn. As so few of the constant users of the Hymnal have given thought to the meaning of the tune names, a glance at this field may not prove unprofitable.

Just a little more than one quarter of our tunes have clearly derived their titles from one of the hymns to which they are set in our Hymnal. Where a tune is used for more than one hymn, naturally such a title can be appropriate to only one of these hymns. Thirtyone of these titles make use of the English words of the first line, either entire or in part, as "Blessed Assurance," "Holy Spirit, Faithful Guide" or "Sweet Hour of Prayer”; and ten of them use the words of the refrain for a title, as “Close to Thee,” or “Loving Kindness.” These follow the German method of naming the chorales from the first lines of the hymn. Thus we have in our alphabetical list of tune titles, "Nun Danket” (Now thank we), "Ein' Feste Burg” (A mighty fortress), etc. All five of the German titles in our Hymnal are appropriate to the words. Of other titles suggested by the hymns fourteen refer to some act of worship, as "Praise” or “Baptism”; ten to some Christian virtue, as "Fortitude” or “Implicit Trust"

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