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guages. Nearly all of Count Zinzendorf's best hymns, for instance, along with many other Moravian hymns, have been translated from the original German into Danish, Dutch, French, Swedish, Esthonian, Letonian, Wendish, and several other languages, besides the English.

But, what is of more interest to us, some of the best hymns originally framed in English have been translated into other tongues. "Take my life, and let it be" has been translated into French, German, Swedish, Russian, and several other languages of Europe and even of Africa. Its expression of humility has spared it from suffering the fate of the Russian translation of the gospel hymn, “Hold the fort, for I am coming,' which was officially censored by the government of Russia as being too revolutionary in sentiment. A study of many mission hymnals, that we have examined, proves to us that we dare not attempt to sketch the linguistic fortunes of even one of the

many international hymns, some of them passing into hundreds of alien languages and dialects on their errand of singing their great truths to the hearts of “every kindred, every tribe on this terrestrial ball.”

As a class the most scholarly translations from the English have been those turned into Latin. For instance, several Latin translations have been made of the hymn, “The church's one foundation” (207), the best being “Nobis unum est fundamen,” by the Rev. E. Marshall, 1882, and "Qui Ecclesiam instauravit, by T. G. Godfrey-Faussett, 1878. This hymn has been translated into all the dominant modern lan

guages. The Latin version of "The King of love my Shepherd is” (136) that is best known is “Rex amoris, ut pastoris”; and of “When gathering clouds” (134), R. Bingham’s “Quum circumcirca glomerantia nubilia cernam,” wherein the sound of the Latin words seems to fit the rolling and rumbling of the clouds much better than the original English. The Rev. C. B. Pearson's translation of our hymn, “O come, and mourn with me awhile" (152) begins with the line, “Adeste fideles, mecum complorantes”-a startling contrast to the well-known “Adeste fideles, laeti triumphantes.” Mr. Gladstone was fond of rendering into Latin as well as into Greek some of our best hymns. Our “Rock of Ages” he made into "Jesu, pro me perforatus,” and our hymn, “Art thou weary" (293), he began with the line, "Scis, te lassum? scis languentem ?” Macgill's translation of the same hymn begins, "Sisne lassus ærumnosus?

The titles of the hymns are truly a part of the story of the hymns, though our interest in them is not so great as in the tune titles, since the former are not given in the Methodist Hymnal as they were in the Hymnal of 1878. Even in the older Hymnal it was the exception to find the same title to a hymn under which it originally appeared. The reason for this lies partly in the fact that some of the old titles were very long and unwieldy, partly in the taste of successive editors. For instance, originally our hymn “Author of faith” (298) was entitled, "The Life of Faith, Exemplified in the Eleventh Chapter of St.

The great

Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews”; while “Make haste, O man, to live" (390) was entitled “Live." Both titles were altered for the reason just cited. Another long title is, "God's Gracious Approbation of a Religious Care of our Families” (670).

The occasional caprice that has determined tune titles is not evident in the hymn titles. majority of hymns derive their titles, like other poems, from the thought of the words. Some, however, in their title declare the occasion of their inspiration, as “For the Anniversary Day of One's Conversion” (1), “Written before Preaching at Portland” (241), “An Apology for my Twilight Rambles Addressed to a Lady” (498), “After Preaching to the Newcastle Colliers” (643), the stories of which have already been told in a previous chapter. The following original titles speak for themselves: “Comfort in God under the Removal of Ministers or other Useful Persons by Death” (592), “For the Dedication of an Organ, or for a Meeting of Choirs” (27), "A Liturgy for Missionary Meetings” (60), “The Holy Catholic Church: the Communion of Saints” (207), written by a Catholic on the Ninth Article of the Creed. Toplady's title to our hymn “Rock of Ages” (279), “A living and dying Prayer for the Holiest Believer in the World,” was evidently intended for an answer to the doctrine that Christian perfection is attainable before death.

CHAPTER VI

THE THEOLOGY OF THE HYMNS

HYMNS AS TEACHERS-FALSE DOCTRINES TO BE AVODAD

OUR HYMNODY A RESTATEMENT OF CREED HYMNS are eloquent teachers of doctrine. Some hymnologists have carelessly stated that true hymns should not teach theology. The statement needs qualifying. Art best achieves her purposes when she least appears to be consciously striving for them. Likewise hymns are often the most effective teachers when they least seem to be didactic. The hymnwriter must assume the tone of prophet rather than logician, for syllogisms cannot be woven into the fabric of a hymn. Some of Isaac Watts's favorite hymns have been strangled by over-dogmatism. Nevertheless, the body of our hymns contains all of the fundamental thought on which our religious system is built; and there is not an essential doctrine of our faith that cannot be found in the Hymnal.

The influence of hymns as teachers of theology to the people can hardly be overestimated. Their very form is adapted to easy memorization. Clothed in language concise and chaste, swaying to the motion of rhythm, and rounded with rhyme, these poetical phrases that bear the great spiritual truths of the Church, when repeatedly sung to inspiring music, firmly fasten themselves upon the memories of the people.

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William T. Stead, in his “Hymns that Have Helped,” bears witness to the power of a hymn once deeply lodged in his memory: “It is Newton's hymn, which begins, ‘Begone, unbelief.' I can remember my mother singing it when I was a tiny boy, barely able to see over the book-ledge in the minister's pew; and to this day, whenever I am in doleful dumps, and the stars in their courses appear to be fighting against me, that one doggerel verse comes back clear as a blackbird's note through the morning mist.” An early American rhymed Psalter contains a quaint defense of the custom of setting the psalms to verse by insisting that verse is of lighter weight than the same bulk of prose, and therefore men find it easier to carry in their memories than prose.

Furthermore, the hymn and its melody from their very nature tend to be more often repeated, not only in church worship but also in the home circle and in private devotion, than is the formal statement of belief, or the exposition of theology from the pulpit. Our favorite hymns thus become a part of ourselves, and thereby give expression to principles which, from our inner experience and study of the Word, we recognize to be true, although often without having previously defined them clearly in our thought.

Martin Luther recognized this; and under his leadership hymn-singing attained its first widespread popularity among the people. With all Germany singing the hymns of justification by faith to the stately German chorales, the protest against the doctrines as well as the pernicious practices of Rome

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