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Farewell, farewell, my gude Lord Scroope
My gude Lord Scroope, farewell ! he cried. *I'll pay you for my lodging-mail
When first we meet on the border-side,'
We bore him down the ladders lang;
I wot the Kinsmon's airns played clang.
• I have ridden horse baith well and wood ;
I ween, my legs have ne'er bestrode.
'I've pricked a horse out ower the firs,
I never wore sic cumbrous spurs.'
When a' the Carlisle bells were rung,
Cam wi' the keen Lord Scroope along.
Even where it flow'd frae bank to brim,
And safely swam them through the stream.
And at Lord Scroope his glove flung he :--
In fair Scotland come visit me.'
He stood as still as rock of stane;
When through the water they had gane.
Or else his mother a witch maun be;
For a' the gowd in Christentie.'
As fine a specimen of the ancient ministrelsy as can be given is what Coleridge called “the grand old ballad of Sir Patrick Spens.” It is one of the historical ballads, the precise occasion of which is wrapped, however, in mystery, except that it has some relation to the Scottish princess who was seated on the throne of Norway, thus occasioning an intercourse between those two countries.
It is a nobleexample of the unknownminstrel's powers of description:
“ The king sits in Dunfermline town,
Drinking the blude-red wine ;
To sail this new ship of mine?'
Sat at the king's right knee :-
That ever sail'd the sea.'
And seal'd it with his hand, And sent it to Sir Patrick Spens
Was walking on the strand. • To Norroway, to Norroway,
To Norroway o'er the faim ; The king's daughter of Norroway,
'T is thou maun bring her hame.'
Sae loud, loud laughéd he;
The tear blinded his e'e.
And tauld the king o' me,
To sail upon the sea ? "• Be it wind, be it weet, be it hail, be it sleet,
Our ship must sail the faim;
'T is we must fetch her hame.' “ They hoysed their sails on Monenday morn,
Wi' a' the speed they may:
Upon a Wodensday.
In Norroway, but twae,
Began aloud to say,“ • Ye Scottishmen spend a' our king's gowd,
And a' our queene's fee.' • Ye lie, ye lie, ye liars laud,
Fu' laud I hear ye lie. “For I brought as much white monie
As gars my men and me; And I brought a half-fu' of gude red gowd
Out ower the sea wi' me.
SIR PATRICK SPENS.
"• Make ready, make ready, my merry men a',
Our gude ship sails the morn ;' *Now ever alack, my master dear!
I fear a deadly storm. " " I saw the new moon, late yestre'en,
Wi' the old moon in her arm;
I fear we 'll come to harm.'
A league but barely three,
And gurly grew the sea.
It was sic a deadly storm ;
Till a' her sides were torn.
To take my helm in hand
To see if I can spy land ?'
To take the helm in hand,
you 'll ne'er spy land.' “He had na' gane a step, a step,
A step but barely ane, -
And the salt sea it came in.
Another o' the twine,
And let na' the sea come in.'
Another o' the twine,
But still the sea cam in.
To weet their cork-heel'd shoon; But lang or a' the play was play'd
They wat their hats aboon.
That flutter'd on the faim;
That never mair cam hame.
“The ladyes wrang their fingers white,
The maidens tore their hair,
For them they 'll see nae mair.
'Tis fifty fathoms deep,
Wi' the Scots lords at his feet."
Let me take leave of these ancient strains with one very short fragment,--Armstrong's “Good-night,”—in which, if I have been presuming too much upon your patience, you may find a wish of your own expressed for you :
“ This night is my departing night;
For here nae longer must I stay ;
But wishes me away.
I never, never can recall;
SPENSER'S DEATH AND SHAKSPEARE'S BIRTH-INFLUENCE OF THE AGE-INDE
PENDENCE OF HIS IMAGINARY CREATIONS-SMALL KNOWLEDGE OF THE INDIVIDUAL-UNSELFISHNESS OF GENIUS-A SPIRITUAL VOICE IN ALL TIMESHAKSPEARE TRADITIONS—HIS BIRTH, A. D. 1564-DEATH, A. D. 1616-CERVANTES'S DEATH-EPITAPH-EDUCATION - BEN JONSON-POWER OVER LANGUAGE-THE DRAMATIC ART CONGENIAL TO HIS GENIUS-KENILWORTH AND QUEEN ELIZABETH-SHAKSPEARE IN LONDON—THE ARMADA-HIS PATRIOTISM AND LOYALTY -SUBJECTIVENESS OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN MIND-SHAKSPEARE AND BACON-VENUS AND ADONIS-LUCRECE-THE DRAMAS—THE SONNETS-DRAMATIC ART IN ENGLAND-SACRED DRAMAS-MYSTERIES AND MORALITIES-HEYWOODMINOR DRAMATISTS_“THE GENTLE SHAKSPEARE”-THE ACTING DRAMA-PRIMITIVE THEATRES-MODERN ADAPTATIONS-LEAR AND RICHARD III.-THE SUPERNATURAL OF THE DRAMA-MACBETH-THE TEMPEST HIS LAST POEM.
T the very time when, in an obscure lodging in London, the
sorrows and the worldly troubles so meekly complained of in various passages of his
poems, there was dwelling under some humble roof of the same city the mightiest of his many contemporaries among the poets,-WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE. The beginning of his dramatic career dates about the time of the publication of the “Fairy Queen,” not far from the close of the sixteenth century. The term of his authorship belongs not, like Spenser's, exclusively to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but, beginning in that reign, it survives during a portion of that of her successor, James I.
At the outset of these lectures I took occasion to recognise as one of the offices of criticism to trace the correspondence between the spirit of a great author and that of his age and country, as well as the course of his personal life. The historical and biographical illustrations have a value which no careful student should overlook ; for often he will find that a knowledge of the temper of the times, the characteristics of the age, and the individual position of the author, will give a deeper insight into his genius. But, important as this process of criticism is, it is essentially subordinate to the higher functions of criticism,--the philosophy of judging the creations of genius by immutable principles of truth, above the range of all that is local, personal, or temporary. It is a prime element of the best order of intellectual endowment to dwell,