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seen it, but as tricked out in the meretricious dresses which these equally meek and gentle parties have prepared for it-because they are ignorant of it as it is in its own native simplicity, and they will renounce it till it is represented to them, not as corrupt and impious priests have made it, but as its pious founder first constituted it.
Popery is considered as having nothing to do with principle, and as consisting in a certain round of formalities.
The author's remarks on French agriculture are very con. cise, and not much to the credit of the French farmers. Their general practice is reprobated; and Mr. H. pronounces that, till they'acquire a taste for roast-beef, manure must be scarce, and the agriculture of France cannot advance. Considerable difficulties seem to obstruct this mode of improvement.
It may appear singular, (says Mr. H.) but I have not the smallest doubt upon the subject, that whole departments in France could not furnish Smithfield with its accustomed supply for three months : no where but in the meadows about Liseux, in Normandy, where they are fattened for the Paris market, do we perceive what may be considered an adequate proportion of cattle, and these are collected together from Mayenne, Anjou, and parts yet more remote, perhaps, from a semicircle of 100 miles radius ;--and here, I may add, I saw the only fiue cattle which I met with on the continent.'
The result of Mr. H.'s observations is that the English agriculturist has nothing to learn in France, but there is much which he might teach.'
On the whole, after having fairly stated advantages and dise advantages, Mr. Hughes decidedly pronounces France to be less eligible than his own country where, among other bles. sings, we enjoy that material comfort of which the subjects of the Chief Consul cannot boast --Security.
As the Departments constitute the subject of this volume, the curiosities of Paris are dispatched in a note, and in this note we observe two mistakes; the Palace of the Tribunate (ci-devant Palais Royal) is called Palais du Tribunal; and Ly. sippus is said to have lived 3000 years ago, whereas he flourish, ed only about 325 years before the Christian æra.
The engravings inserted in this volume exhibit the mode of yoking oxen to the plough in France, and the manner of loading and drawing the wine-carts. A hint may be borrowed from the former, for the improvement of carriages, with respect to the facility of loading them with heavy articles.
Art. VI. Scripture Illustrated, by Engravings referring to Na.
tural Science, Customs, Manners, &c. By the Editors of Calmet's History of the Bible. Parts i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi.
4to. 58. each Part. C. Taylor. HA AFING finished their dictionary *, together with the frag
ments and other supplemental additions, the industrious editors here introduce a new work, prosecuting a similar design with the former, but adopting rather a different method, Its plan and design may be comprehended from the introduce tory remarks:
• It is divided into two parts; one of which, containing engravings, is published without any present attention to regularity, but merely as convenience permits ; yet is so marked, that it may be reduced to order at pleasure. The other division of our work pursues a differ. ént course, and takes those passages of holy.writ, which it proposes to illustrate, in the order of the books, as they lie in the bible. lt cannot have escaped the reader, that such a companion, as well to the bible itself, as co those numerous commentaries which are extant among us, has long been wanted; neither indeed can such an omis. sion well be accounted for, without fully understanding the difficulty of procuring the materials and the expence of presenting them to the public. Our wish is to set before the eyes of our reader what he must otherwise consult numerous volumes to procure, and what, when procured, should he be so fortunate, will cost him great labour and much leisure to arrange. We venture also to predict, that in no very distant period of time, a compendious digest of natural knowlege will be thought as necessary an appendix to the holy bible, as necessary a companion in the study of sacred literature, as an atlas of maps to geography, or portraits of animals to natural history. In proportion as the knowlege of the bible is important, whether we consider its origin or its effects, its injunctions or its prohibitions, its influence on the heart or its tendency in society; in such proportion the knowlege of natural things contained in the bible is important also. Consider its extent ; it ranges through all the kingdoms of nature : consider its accuracy ; often it comprises the very minutia of art, and art, too, enveloped in technical terms ! There will ever be new discoveries to be made in the bible; not, indeed, in the principles of faith---that neither desires nor admits of novelty; nor, perhaps, in the explication of those principles ---that should not now be supposed unsettled. In the application of historical facts, somewhat new may be attempted, perhaps may be accomplished; but chiefly in natural science is much to be expected.'
The editors appear to be aware of the obvious danger of giving too much liberty to fancy in a work of this kind : indeed, they ought to be peculiarly guarded, and sacredly attentive to truth of representation. They justly observe: • Let no man
* See Rev. Vol. xxxvi. N. S. p. 308.
fear that increase of knowlege will occasion decrease of picty; we deny the fact; it will augment true religion, the religion of the heart, though it may indeed diminish superstition, that canker of strong passions, and of weak understandings'
If our confined pages would admit, we should willingly pro duce a greater variety of specimens from these interesting dis. cussions than we can now insert: but we shall make room for a few : though even they must be somewhat abridged,
Genesis, xlix. 21.
He giveth goodly words. • That this passage requires illustration, will be evident from a slight examination of its grammar, or inquiry into its meaning. Napthali is a hind, a hind is a female deer; he, the sign of the masculine gender, giveth goodly words. Napthali is here both masculine and feminine : but in what sense, or to what purpose is it here said of a deer, whether male or female, he giveth words and how are these words goodly ?-What idea has the reader annexed to this passage? where is the unity of the whole, or the propriety of the parts ? how does this allusion correspond with nature, or with the subsequent situation or history of this tribe? We receive but little assistance if we turn to the versions, ancient or modern.'
A different account has been given of the passage by Bochart, Houbigant, Durell, Michaelis, &c. in agreement with the LXX. “ Napthali is a spreading (terebinthine) tree, giving beautiful branches." This, it is here added, renders the simile uni, form; but the allusion to a tree seems to be purposely reserved by the venerable patriarch for his son Joseph, who is compared to the boughs of a tree. Now Joseph would be assimilated to an inferior object, if Napthali had been compared to a parent tree before him : which repetition of idea is every way unlikely.'
Having witnessed the embarrassment of interpreters, the present editors apply to natural history; first offering some remarks on the Hebrew: • The word aileh may be like our word, deer, i, e. applicable to either sex ;'--the word rendered, let loose, imports an active, motion,-ap emission, a dismission, a sending forth to a distance : be giveth : this word may denote siouting forth : it is used of production, as of the earth, which shoots forth, yields her increase, Lev. xxiv. 4.-goodly words ; they here acquiesce in the version, goudly branches; and on these principles, the whule passage will read thus :
• Napthali is a deer roaming at liberty,
He shouteth forth woble branches (majestic antlers • The English word branches is applied to the stag, with exactly the same allusiou as the Hebrew word; the French say bois, wood, for a
stag's, stag's-horns. To justify this version, observe, that the horns of a stag are annually shed, and annually re-produced ; they are ample, according to the plenty and nutritious quality of his pasturage, or are stinted in their growth, if his food has been sparing or deficient in nourishment. Buffon reasons at length on this subject; Art. Cerf.'
Accordingly, after a quotation from this naturalist, the writer directs these remarks to the prediction of Jacob :
• Napthali shall inhabit a country so rich, so fertile, so quiet, so unmolested, that, after having fed to the full, on the most nutritious pasturage, he shall shoot out branches, i.e. antlers, &c. of the most magnificent, and even majestic magnitude. Thus does the patriarch denote the happy lot of Napthali, not directly, but indirectly; not by energy of immediate description, but by inevitable inference, arising from observation of its effects. In fact the lot of this tribe was rich in pasture, and “ his soil," as Calmet observes, “ was very fruitful in corn and oil." So that we have both correct verbal propriety, and subsequent fulfilment of the prophecy, in favour of our interpretation of this passage.' 'I presume now to conclude, that we are under no necessity of recurring to the simile of a tree, in order to reduce this passage to clear and simple meaning : still less are we obliged to retain the mistaken rendering of our public translation, which presents us with an impossibility, and a contradiction ; especially while we have such evident marks of verisimility, and propriety iq favour of the translation we have proposed.'
The plate annexed to this article exhibits three heads of the deer kind, said to be from Ridinger, a famous German painter of animals ; one of which is the head of a stag that, having fed at pleasure in a forest of Germany, has acquired very large antlers, very thick stems, very broad horns, so spreading that the points they form amount to no less a number than sixtysix: let him, then, stand as a proof of the effects of liberty and plenty, like the son of Jacob, to whom he forms an object of comparison. This is a very ingenious comment, to justify the exhibition, in the plates, of stags-heads with spreading antlers: but the annotator should have known that the number of branches on the horns of the stag depends on the age of the animal. The translation of the LXX, and other versions which banish the deer from the text, lead to a preferable explanation ; as it ing cludes a metaphor peculiarly adapted to the woodland situation of Naphthali.
The dissertation which follows relates to the Hebrew word in tannin, or in the plural tanninim, and translated sene monsters, as Lament.iv. 3. Now, (says the writer,) philosophy knows noțbing of monsters; whatever is capable of posterity, of having young ones to suckle, is no monster. I know that the word tannin is supposed, by those who have endeavoured to understand the natural history of the bible, to denote a whale, or the whale-kind * : but I rather wish to restrain it to the amphibia ; to that class of animals which haunt the shores, as well as frequent the waters.' He then proceeds to inquire how the tannin, or tannim, are described in the Scripture; and the result is that lie fixes on the Seal as answering, in some of its varieties, to many particulars. The reader will recollect that I have not presumed to determine the species, but have merely attempted to establish the propriety of rendering tannin by the class of amphibia.'
In a comment on i Samuel, ch. vi. the carriages (wheelcarriages) of Eastern countries fall under notice. The geleh, waggon, covered waggon, is first mentioned ; and, among other remarks, it is said ;-That this kind of waggon was used for carrying considerable weights, and even cumbersome goods, (therefore fairly analogous to our own waggons-tilted waggons,) we le.ırn from the expression of the Psalmist, xlvi. 10.
• He maketh wars to cease to the end of the earth ;
The chariot (ogeluth) he burneth in the fire.' In thus mentioning the instruments of war, the bow and the spear, the writer adds : « The waggons (for the word is plural) which are used to return home loaded with plunder, these share the fate of their fellows, the bow and the spear, and these are burned in the fire,--the very idea of the classic allegory; peace burning the implements of war! and intro, duced here with the happiest effect : not the General's marecabeh (state chariot), but the plundering waggons. This is still more expressive if these waggons carried captives, which we know they did in other instances; women and children: “ The captive-carrying waggon is burnt." There can be no stronger description of the effects of peace, and it closes the period with emphasis.' The Hebrew word niggy is rendered by the LXX Supezs, scuta, which makes the enumeration complete ; 'the bow, spear, and shield. The word in the original most probably signifies a kind of carriage, it being derived from by my circulavit : but there is still more reason for referring it to a war-chariot than to a weggon.
The Hebrew words recab, and marecabeh, (the latter evi dently a derivative from the former,) next offer themselves to attention ; and the first is supposed to denote a carriage or chariot with two horses, sometimes the horses, and at other
Not always. In more places than one, it denotes a dragon or serpent : see Deut. xxxii. 33, and Exod. vii. 10. ; in the latter place, the words are in my Et fuit in serpentem :