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swallow, and, finding he made villanous wry faces, and would not do it, fell upon him and beat him like fury. After this, he made the house so disagreeable to him, that Jonathan, though as hard as a pine-knot and as tough as leather, could bear it no longer. Taking his gun and his axe, he put himself in a boat and paddled over the mill-pond to some new lands to which the squire pretended some sort of claim, intending to settle them, and build a meeting-house without a steeple as soon as he grew rich enough.
When he got over, Jonathan found that the land was quite in a state of nature, covered with wood, and inhabited by nobody but wild beasts. But, being a lad of mettle, he took his axe on one shoulder and his gun on the other, marched into the thickest of the wood, and, clearing a place, built a log hut. Pursuing his labors, and handling his axe like a notable woodman, he in a few years cleared the land, which he laid out into thirteen good farms; and, building himself a fine frame house, about half finished, began to be quite snug and comfortable.
But Squire Bull, who was getting old and stingy, and, besides, was in great want of money, on account of his having lately been made to pay swinging damages for assaulting his neighbors and breaking their heads,—the squire, I say, finding Jonathan was getting well to do in the world, began to be very much troubled about his welfare ; so he demanded that Jonathan should pay him a good rent for the land which he had cleared and made good for something. He trumped up I know not what claim against him, and, under different pretences, managed to pocket all Jonathan's honest gains. In fact, the poor lad had not a shilling left for holiday occasions; and, had it not been for the filial respect he felt for the old man, he would certainly have refused to submit to such impositions.
But, for all this, in a little time Jonathan grew up to be very large of his age, and became a tall, stout, double-jointed, broadfooted cub of a fellow, awkward in his gait and simple in his appearance, but showing a lively, shrewd look, and having the promise of great strength when he should get his full growth. He was rather an odd-looking chap, in truth, and had many queer ways; but everybody that had seen John Bull saw a great likeness between them, and swore he was John's own boy, and a true chip of the old block. Like the old squire, he was apt to be blustering and saucy, but in the main was a peaceable sort of careless fellow, that would quarrel with nobody if you only let him alone.
While Jonathan was outgrowing his strength, Bull kept on picking his pockets of every penny he could scrape together; till at last one day when the squire was even more than usually pressing in his demands, which he accompanied with threats, Jonathan started up in a furious passion, and threw the TEA-KETTLE at the old man's head. The choleric Bull was hereupon exceedingly enraged ; and, after calling the poor lad an undutiful, ungrateful, rebellious rascal, seized him by the collar, and forthwith a furious scuffle ensued. This lasted a long time; for the squire, though in years, was a capital boxer, and of most excellent bottom. At last, however, Jonathan got him under, and, before he would let him up, made him sign a paper giving up all claim to the farms, and acknowledging the fee-simple to be in Jonathan forever.
WILLIAM TUDOR, 1779-1830.
The family of Tudor is of Welsh origin. John, the first of the name in America, came to Boston early the last century. His son William, baving graduated at Harvard College in 1769, commenced the practice of law in Boston, and married Delis Jarvis, a lady of refinement and of taste congenial with his own. Their son William, the subject of this biographical sketch, was born in Boston on the 28th of Jannary, 1779, was fitted for college at Phillips Academy, in Andover, and graduated at Harvard in 1796. Being destined for commercial life, he entered the counting-room of John Codman; and when he was twenty-one, he was sent by him to Paris, as his confidential agent in a matter of great business interest. After being abroad nearly a year, he returned home, and soon after went to Leghorn on commercial business; visiting also France, Germany, and England, and returned to America, confirmed in his love of letters, which, amid all the turmoil of business, he ever continued to cherish. A few of his friends and associates had for some time contemplated the formation of a literary club: he entered warmly into their views, and soon the Anthology Society was formed, of which he was one of the most efficient as well as earliest members.
1 The Monthly Anthology was begun by Mr. Phineas Adams, a graduate of Harvard, and then a schoolmaster in Boston. The first number, under the title of ** The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review, edited by Sylvanus Per-se," was published in Boston by E. Lincoln, in November, 1803. At the end of six mooths, he gave it up to the Rev. William Emerson,* who induced two or three gentlemen to join with him in the care of the work, and thus laid the foundation of the Anthology Clab. The club was regularly organized and governed by rules; the number of resident members varied from eight to sixteen. rules that every member should write for the work, and nothing was published witboat tue consent of the society. The club met once a week in the evening, and, after deciding on the merits of the manuscripts offered, partook of a plain supper, and enjoyed the full pleasure of a literary chat. The following were the nembers of the club, some for a short time only, others during the greater part
. Mr. Emerson was pastor of the "First Church" in Boston from 1799 to 1811. It was on hie motion, in the Anthology Club, seconded by Wm. Smith Shaw, that the vote to establish a library of periodical publications was adopted; and this constituted the first step towards the establishment of the Boston Atheneum, whose library is now one of the best in the ountry. While this poble institution endures, it will perpetuate the memory of the • Anthology Club."
In the year 1805, Frederick Tudor, the brother of William, formed the plan of establishing a new branch of commerce, by the transportation of ice to the tropical climates. The plan was, of course, ridiculed by a large portion of the community; but he persevered. William was sent as his agent to the West Indies; and though many obstacles, as might be expected, were encountered, yet the perseverance of Frederick finally triumphed over all. He established the traffic, acquired in it great affluence, and created for his country an important branch of commerce, of which he was unquestionably the author and founder.
On his return from the West Indies, William Tudor rejoined the Anthology Club, was chosen a member of the Massachusetts Legislature for the town of Boston, and, at the request of its authorities, delivered an oration on the 4th of July, 1809. In 1810, he again went to Europe, in the employ of Stephen Higginson, Jr., an eminent Boston merchant, upon commercial business; but returned, the next year, to devote his time to pursuits more kindred to his genius. Indeed, general literature and the political relations of his country now became the chief obiects of his attention : and to open a field for the discussion of these subjects, he formed, in 1814, the design of establishing the “North American Review," which still continues a noble monument of his industry, intellectual power, and varied learning. In May, 1815, it first made its appearance. Mr. Tudor took upon
of its existence:-Rev. Drs. Gardiner, Kirkland, and McKean, Professor Sidney Willard, Rev. Messrs. Emerson, Buckminster, S. C. Tbacher, and Tuckerman; Dre. Jackson, Warren, Gorbam, and Bigelow; Messrs. W. S. Sbaw, Wm. Tudor, Peter Thacher, Arthur M. Walter, Edmund T. Dana, Wm. Wells, R. H. Gardiner, B. Welles, J. Savage, J. Field, Winthrop Sargent, Thomas Gray, J. Stickney, Alex. H. Everett, J. Head, Jr., and George Ticknor. This work undoubtedly rendered great service to our literature, and aided in the diffusion of good taste in the community. It was one of the first efforts of regular criticism on American books, and it suffered few productions of the day to escape its notice. The writers, of course, received no pay: they worked in this field for the love of it; for the profits of the Review did not pay for their suppers.
The “North American Review came out, under Mr. Tudor's editorship, in May, 1815. It was published at first every two months, and was thus continued to the twenty-first number, (inclusive,) which was the number for September, 1818. Three numbers constituted a volume : consequently, the first seren volumes are of the bi-monthly issue. With December, 1818, commenced the eighth volume with the quarterly issue. The tenth volume begins with January, 1820, and is called the first of the "new series," probably because it passed over December, in order that the volumes might thenceforth correspond with the years, there being two volumes in the same year. The following have been the editore of this ablest and oldest of American periodicals:
William Tudor............ from May, 1815, to March, 1817, inclusive, 4 vols. Jared Sparks ...............
« May, 1817, to March, 1818, Edward T. Channing.... ~ May, 1818, to Sept., 1819, Edward Everett........ « Jan., 1820, to Oct., 1823, Jared Sparks ......... " Jan., 1824, to April, 1830, Alex. H. Everett....... « July, 1830, to Oct., 1835, John G. Palfrey ..........
« Jan., 1836, to Oct., 1842, Francis Bowen.......
« Jan., 1843, to Oct., 1853, Andrew P. Peabody...... " Jan., 1854, to Oct., 1858,
10 « Total volumes to 1858, inclusive... 87 The Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, of Portsmouth, N. H., still continues the editorship of this review, of whom it is praise enough to say that he fully sustains its previous high reputation.
himself, avowedly, the character of editor, and sustained the work with little external aid. Of the first four volumes, three-fourths of the articles are known to be wholly from his pen.
In 1819, Mr. Tudor published Letters on the Eastern States ; in 1821, a volume of Miscellaries; and in 1823, the Life of James Otis, a most instructive and interesting piece of biography, which may indeed be regarded as a history of the times. In the same year, he conceived the design of purchasing the summit of Bunker Hill, and erecting thereon a monument commemorative of the battle. Not having the means himself, he communicated his views to some wealthy friends, and the result was the organization of the “Bunker Hill Monument Association."
In 1823, he was appointed Consul at Lima and the ports of Peru, the duties of which office he discharged with singular ability. There he remained till, in 1827, he received the appointment of Chargé d'Affaires of the United States at Rio Janeiro, where he died on the 9th of March, 1830, of a fever incident to the climate.
In William Tudor, the qualities of the gentleman and the man of business, of the scholar and the man of the world, were so manifestly and so happily blended, that, both in public conduct and private intercourse, his character commanded universal respect and confidence. And when we look at the part he took in sustaining the “ Monthly Anthology," at a time when we hardly had any literature of our own, and subsequently as the founder of the “North American Review," and the chief writer of its earlier volumes, we must say that to no one is the causo of American literature more deeply indebted."
INFLUENCE OF FEMALES ON SOCIETY.
From an accurate account of the condition of women in any country, it would not be difficult to infer the whole state of society. So great is the influence they exercise on the character of men, that the latter will be elevated or degraded according to the situation of the weaker sex. Where women are slaves, as in Turkey, the men will be the same; where they are treated as moral beings, where their minds are cultivated, and they are considered equals, the state of society must be high, and the character of the men energetic and noble. There is so much quickness of comprehension, so much susceptibility of pure and generous emotion, so much ardor of affection, in women, that they constantly stimulate men to exertion, and have at the same time a most powerful agency in soothing the angry feelings, and in mitigating the harsh and narrow propensities, which are generated in the strife of the passions.
The advantages of giving a superior education to women are not confined to themselves, but have a salutary influence on our sex.
1 Read an excellent sketch of his life in “ The History of the Boston AtheDæum," by Hon. Josiah Quincy.
The fear that increased instruction will render them incompetent or neglectful in domestic life, is absurd in theory and completely destroyed by facts. Women, as well as men, when once established in life, know that there is an end of trifling; its solicitudes and duties multiply upon them equally fast; the former are apt to feel them much more keenly, and too frequently abandon all previous acquirements to devote themselves wholly to these. But if the one sex have cultivated and refined minds, the other must meet them from shame, if not from sympathy. If a man finds that his wife is not a mere nurse or a housekeeper; that she can, when the occupations of the day are over, enliven a winter's evening; that she can converse on the usual topics of literature, and enjoy the pleasures of superior conversation, or the reading of a valuable book, he must have a perverted taste indeed if it does not make home still dearer, and prevent him from resorting to taverns for recreation The benefits to her children need not be mentioned; instruction and cultivated taste in a mother enhance their respect and affection for her and their love of home, and throw a charm over the whole scene of domestic life.
CHARACTER OF JAMES OTIS. James Otis was one of the most able and high-minded men that this country has produced He was, in truth, one of the masterspirits who began and conducted an opposition which at first was only designed to counteract and defeat an arbitrary administration, but which ended in a revolution, emancipated a continent, and established, by the example of its effects, a lasting influence on all the governments of the civilized world. He espoused the cause of his country not merely because it was popular, but because he saw that its prosperity, freedom, and honor would be all diminished, if the usurpation of the British Parliament was successful. His enemies constantly represented him as a demagogue, yet no man was less so; his character was too liberal, proud, and honest to play that part. He led public opinion by the energy which conscious strength, elevated views, and quick feelings inspire; and was followed with that deference and reliance which great talents instinctively command. These were the qualifications that made him for many years the oracle and guide of the patriotic party. It was not by supple and obscure intrigues, by unworthy flatteries and compliances, by a degrading adoption of plebeian dress, manners, or language, that he obtained the suffrages of the people, but by their opinion of his uprightness, their knowledge of his disinterestedness, and their conviction of his ability. He vindicated the rights of his countrymen, not in the spirit of a factious tribune, aiming to subvert established authority, but as a Roman