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librarians who have united great sheets, which are to make perfectly learning to a love of books, is the capable public servants, be enriched best practical answer to all sneers by such terms as the following: about the two being incompatible. Abridgement, Alcoran, Aldus, AlexNor, while we count among us such andrian Library, Annals, Back-title, names as Pannizi, Laing, Birch, Ballad, Bestiarium, Bibliography, Halket, Bandelo, and Tod, is the Binding, Black-letter, Block-book, race of learned librarians likely to Boards, Breeches, Bible, British decay.

Museum, Broadside, and so forth; It will be worth while for the nor omitting, in their proper order, patrons of public libraries, even in calf, cut copy, gilt top, morocco, appointments to small offices, to tooling, and Turkey. The technology have an eye on bookish men for -or, as the profane will perhaps infilling them. One librarian differs sist in terming it, the slang or jargon greatly from another, and on this having been officially sketched, difference will often depend the may be remitted to an adept to entire utility of the institution, and revise and report; and then the the question whether it is worth thing is completed, and a departkeeping it open or closing its door. ment of the public service is inOf this class of workman it may be sured against incompetency, idlesaid quite as aptly as of the poet, ness, and dishonesty for all time to Nascitur, non fit. The usual testimonios to qualification-steadiness, Thus would the propensity which sobriety, civility, intelligence, &c.— heretofore has been a laughingstock may all be up to the mark that will and a scorn be raised to the dignity constitute a first-rate book-keeper of a qualification for public office. in the mercantile sense of the term, Should this fortunate result, howwhile they are united in a very ever, not be achieved—should matdreary and hopeless keeper of books. ters take, as they more probably Such a person ought to go to his will, the totally opposite direction, task with something totally differ- and the bibliomaniac book-fancier, ent from the impulses which induce book-hunter, bibliophile, or by whata man to sort dry goods or make ever name you choose to call him, up invoices, and enable him to do be subjected to the special attention so with perfect success. In short, of those wise men who so disinyour librarian would need to be in terestedly propose to take all their some way touched with the malady more erring brethren in charge, and which has been the object of these subject them to the treatment suitdesultory remarks.

able to their unhappy conditionPerhaps this may afford a hint to then shall we put in these, our ramthe Civil Service Commission. We bling remarks, as a plea for gentleare not aware that they have yet and leniency towards the set forth the qualifications of the special class of patients of which librarian with the same judicious we have been discoursing, hoping and practical success with which that their rigid custodiers will at they have pointed out the peculiar least admit that their malady is in departments of learning suitable to itself comparatively harmless, and the tide-waiter and the letter-carrier. that, however improper it may be They have nothing to do but to to permit any set of human beings adopt the precedent they have so to depart from the line which phisuccessfully followed in other cases losophy and physiology and other -to find the most famous book con- ologies have laid down, yet this nected with the department, and particular kind of aberration has make a judicious selection from its the palliative quality of being atindex. Thus may the examination tended with beneficial results.




THE observation is not quite new, that there is a wonderful power in print. We have called the Press the Fourth Estate of the Realm. But the power of print does not so much consist in the putting of written characters into type, as in the fact that when in that state they are capable of almost infinite multiplication or reproduction. So the power resides not in print, as such (for Mr Weller senior could print, though he could not even write), but in published print. Yet, further, publication is a term capable of misleading as to the power of published print; for, whereas it necessarily only denotes one process, it is often taken to imply two; and thus a power is unduly ascribed to all published print, which can only be applied to such print as is published under favourable conditions. The Germans, whose language, though more lengthy and clumsy, is more purely logical than ours, say that a book is "given out" (herausgegeben) by such and such a publisher; whereas "publication" implies not only the giving out on the part of the publisher, but taking in on the the public; and, as all publishers know, this second process does not always follow the first. So that, if we wish to be strictly correct when referring to the power of published print, it must be understood that we imply that general public reception. In that case, a book is the real Proteus of our times, which, though a bold spirit may bind, none can entirely quell, since as soon as it is suppressed in one form or edition it slips away into others, until it wearies out the patience of the power that would imprison it. Proteus was conquered at last by Ulysses; but any man of modern times, endowed with half the wisdom of that wily Greek,

would give up in despair the attempt to put down a book. The most patient man in the world wished that his enemy had written a book; in modern times he might wish his enemy to have the task of suppressing one, and learn by doing so the peculiar trials of patience. We are all familiar with the ways by which a book is forced on the public by its friends, but none is so effectual as to get some disguised friend or indiscreet enemy to endeavour to put it down. There is only one effectual way of putting a book down-that of proving, by extracts from itself, that it is unreadably dull. But let it be understood either that it is generally wicked or particularly mischievous, and it is sure to run through half-a-dozen editions at least, and, perhaps, be translated into as many languages. These observations may seem to involve superficial truism, and yet it is strange how persons in eminent position often act in violation of their principle. We recollect the solemn burning of a presumed heretical book in one of the halls at Oxford, and its consequence, that in a day or two every undergraduate had read it, the majority being greatly disappointed at finding it not half so bad as they expected. If the heretic had been caught and burned instead, there being no second copy of him, it would have been more to the purpose, and there would have been a certain grim satisfaction of justice. And, lately, the volume called Essays and Reviews, now so well known in the controversial world, has, we understand, been driven through eight or nine editions by the fulminating powder of episcopal denunciation; and, furthermore, the intended prosecution of one of the writers in the Court of Arches will

Lettre sur l'Histoire de France, par HENRI D'ORLEANS (Duc d'Aumale). Berlin, Julius Abelsdorff. 1861.

popularise effectually the matter of on a hundred occasions—and, some the book, and cause it to become indeed add, unsaid also—what he the talk of every club, reading has done and is going to do, and room, and even pothouse parlour, the reasons for which he adopts in the kingdom. And we cannot this and that line of policy ; so think that Louis Napoleon's mini- that, after all, his attributed silence sters—for we cannot suppose that is only relative, as consisting in a so injudicious an order originated contrast to the excessive talkativewith himself-displayed their know- ness of other individuals. The ledge of the world in the condem- elder branch of the Bourbons, in nation of the printers and pub- its unbending scorn of the age in lishers of the Duc d'Aumale's letter, which it lived, or in its incapacity and by the infliction of an imprison- to keep pace with it, seems to have ment which the good sense of the disappeared for ever from the pubEmperor has thought fit to revoke, lic eye, and to be quietly drifting though the mischief has already to that limbo of oblivion prepared been done as far as the advertise- for Bourbons and Popes, and all ment of the offending pamphlet is such institutions of the past as are concerned. Here it is in our hands incapable of assuming a character in a Berlin reprint, and it exists which fit them to the present. also in a German translation. And But when a prince of the younger yet it does not seem to us that there branch presides at literary dinners, is much in to force it on public and condescends to make use of attention, independently of the rank the press as an instrument of of its author and the attempt of attack against his political enemies, the French Government to suppress he evidently wishes to make it it. We do not apprehend that understood that the vitality of the the facts it states are new, or put hollow parent tree has departed before its readers in a new light. into the sucker, and the sucker In one respect it is worthy of may have yet several generations of its author_namely, in its clear life before it. We cannot shut our straightforwardness and its mode- eyes to the parallel of the Stuarts. rate and gentlemanly. tone, con- The dynasty had become so tough sidering the great provocations to that it would not yield to external bitterness which the Orleans family change ; but a collateral dynasty, have received from the reigning partly sprung from the same root, dynasty of France. It is, however, is flourishing at present on the suggestive of many thoughts in throne of England. The Royal European politics, and reminds us Oak of England has perished at that he younger branch of the Boscobel, but there is a vigorous Bourbons are not willing to retire tree still in the prime of arborescent as yet from the world's arena as life, on which an inscription repractically obsolete, in imitation cords that it sprang from one of perhaps of the example of the the acorns of the original tree, elder. To talk and lecture and write, is considered one of the func

“Wherein the royal Charles abode

Until the paths were dim. tions of a leading man of the nineteenth century, and it seems to be If the House of Orleans accept tacitly acknowledged by great men the omen, it would appear to throw in general, that in whatever other a cheerful light on their future way they may be before the public, destinies. Like the elder branch they are not therefore excusable of the Bourbons, they were expelled in wrapping their thoughts and by a revolution, but the Revolution actions in the cloak of taciturnity. of 1848 differed from that of 1830 Even Napoleon III. himself, by in this, that it was the expression some accounted the William the of a sudden, unreasoning, and unSilent of this generation, has said reasonable gust of popular passion,

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and not the mere outburst of the licly insulted, and with it the past long-gathering elements of dissolu- of France? This injurious attack, tion and destruction. Or was the which a power so strong, and which Revolution of 1848 the mere comple- inspires in you so much confidence, tion of that of 1830? Democracy has endorsed, propagated, placarded had endeavoured to listen to reason on all the walls, can my answer folfor eighteen years, and, knowing low it, and produce itself in conformfrom experience what its own ex- ity to the laws, on the very soil of cesses had produced before, had my country? I wish to make the stopped for that interval in mid experiment. If this does not succarter, until the removal of some ceed as I wish, and if, in contempt slight check precipitated the con- of the simplest notions of justice summation.

and honour, you stifle my voice in It would be doing but scant jus- France, with so fair a cause to tice to the House of Orleans not to plead, it will at least have some recognise the fact that, whatever echo in Europe, and reach the their personal merits or demerits, heart of honest people in every they were driven from power by a country.” most impertinent and purposeless Every reader will acknowledge in revolution. Whether they observed the tone of this exordium to the the standard of political innocence Orleans Manifesto either a studied that the Duc d'Aumale claims for moderation, as if it were written to them, must depend on the truth or conciliate Europe more than to exfalsehood of the allegation that cite France, or else an incapacity to Louis Philippe was, in some degree, put the case more strongly, which implicated in a conspiracy which is a peculiarity of some minds and was the lever of the popular rising tempers, even when they have rethat drove Charles X. from his ceived the strongest provocation. throne. Certainly, as far as subse- Some men are capable of pleading quent events are concerned, they any cause better than their own. If were, as the Duc d'Aumale observes, there is anything that stamps the far more sinned against than sin- house of Buonaparte with a charning

acter the reverse of chivalry and ". While the chief of your dynasty magnanimity, it is this very conduct (I borrow his own words) was ex- of the reigning dynasty towards the piating at Ham, by an imprison- Orleans family. The fault alleged ment of six years, his reckless de- by the Revolution against that fafiance of (su témerité contre) the mily, as the cause of their fall, was, laws of his country, he made use that Louis Philippe was ill-advised without restriction of his civic in not suffering the Reform Banquet rights, and freely criticised in the to take place in 1848—a cause perpublic prints the Government which fectly puerile for so great a consehe had begun attacking by open quence. The remote cause of Louis force. My situation is very diffe- Philippe's fall may have been the Pent, and I do not lay claim to any premature death of the Duc d'Orsuch privileges. Banished from my leans, who may have possessed more country without having done vio- firmness of character than the rest lence to any law, without having of the family evinced; but it was deserved my lot by any fault, I am more specially a general family inonly known to France as having capacity to cope with the exigencies been educated under her standard, of their position, and to hold the and having faithfully served her up reins of government with a suffi. to the day when I was violently ciently firm hand, considering the sparated from her. But has this peculiar constitution of the French exile caused me to forfeit the most nation. Eliot Warburton, in his natural and sacred right of all, that Crescent and the Cross, remarks, that of defending my family when pub- in the East, mildness in taking an

affront is sure to be taken for weak- might soon have need of the blood of ness, and justifies himself for strik- all her children; and considered, being an Arab over the face with his sides, how far removed were minds whip who spilled his bowl of milk used to the gentle movement of free with his spear. It is so with the government from the hard maxims impulsive and superficial French and unmerciful proceedings which nature. The nepotism of Louis the corrupting spectacle of so many Phillippe in his later days —the fortunate acts of violence has caused Spanish marriages, in particular, since that time to find their way and the general official corruption into every heart!” which he had allowed to steal over To Frenchmen of high Legitimist public life in France, caused him to sentiments, it may seem almost like become unpopular in England, and a divine retribution that the king our people to forget the general fair- who was set up by the Barricades ness and moderation of his govern- should find himself awestruck and ment-qualities which generally find unable to act in the face of the same ready sympathy in Great Britain. power when it chose to rear its head It may be presumed, as the Duc again; but if, as a believer in the d'Aumale complains, that the real principles of constitutional monfaults of that government vis-à-vis archy would assume, kings govern, of the French people, were those of not for their own good, but for the a magnanimous or a pusillanimous sake of the people, and embody in weakness. The Orleans dynasty their persons, at all events, the might have occupied the French divine right of the law, then it is throne now, if, in the first place, inexcusable weakness for a monarch Louis Napoleon, instead of being to abdicate at once, at the first sumconfined in a place from which he mons from any rebellious power, could escape, had been summarily however irregular, when one or two sent, when he was taken at Boulogne, sharp blows struck at the right time to a bourne from which there is no would set all right again. And posreturn; and, in the second place, if terity, in judging those events, will the Orleans princes, instead of los- be less severe on the old king than ing their spirits in the hour of trial, on the princes of the Orleans family, and running away from the helm, who, if they had it in their power, had ordered a few discharges of ar- as we believe they had, to cannontillery on the sovereign people and ade the National Guard, if not to the National Guard in 1848. The bring back the Algerian army, were lesson had to be taught the French bound, not only by the duties of in 1851, by another and less scru- their position, but even by the voice pulous hand, that assaults on a gov- of humanity to do so. Of course it ernment are not to be met as mildly is not a question of the physical as those on a private individual. courage of these princes; but there It is only to be regretted that the was certainly a failure, if not of fusillade of the Boulevards did not moral courage, at least of that firmtake place in defence of established ness of character which is indisorder, instead of the aggression of pensable to all command of others. the President on the so-called con- Although it may be adopted as an stitution of the Republic. The Duke extreme constitutional principle, hits the mark when he says: “As that a ruler chosen by the people is to his sons (those of Louis Philippe), to rule only during the pleasure of you doubtless blame them for not the people, yet, even putting the having cannonaded the National case so strongly, it would seem to Guard of Paris in 1848, or for not be requisite that the people should having endeavoured to bring back find its expression in some organthe army of Africa; for having, in a ised constitutional body, such as a word, preferred exile to civil war, parliament of some sort or other, when they thought that France and not in the first posse of howling

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