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forces in the Persian Gulf, followed offer their cheek to the smiter : but this fearful example. He was an if they returned our fire, every canexcellent officer; and his melancholy non-ball that passed over our heads end, following so soon after General would land on the Turkish side of Stalker's, cast a gloom over the whole the river; and it was reported that expedition.

several Turks were actually killed The garrison of Bushire was placed in this manner, for they naturally under the command of General crowded the banks to witness a Jacob of the Bombay Artillery, who spectacle such as they had never arrived in Persia soon after the ex- seen in their lives before, and we pedition to Borasjoon. This officer hope will never see again. Either had already developed talents of with or without permission from the very highest order, both as a the Turks, the English frigates soldier and administrator, and might steamed up the Shat-ul-Arab, and have risen to great distinction had the well-laden transports followed. he not been cut off prematurely soon Had the Persian gunners worked after his return to India, in the fol- their guns properly, the vessels lowing year.

ought never to have passed the Another officer joined the Persian embouchure of the Karun. field force about the middle of Febru- No doubt the advantage, as reary. He was then unknown to fame, gards weight of metal, was on our and not destined to see the beginning side ; but the batteries which shelof another year. But a few months tered the Persian.guns and gunners sufficed for Major - General Have- were admirably constructed of a lock to achieve a name, which will clayey earth, and able to stand a last while the English language is far heavier battering than the woodread or spoken.

en walls of our frigates. NevertheMohummerah lies on the north side less the latter, with little injury to of the river Karun, close to its junc- themselves, but not altogether untion with the Shat-ul-Arab, here from scathed, had very sensibly reduced 600 to 800 yards wide. It is about the enemy's fire after three hours' thirty miles from the sea. There cannonade; and the transports with were no defences at the mouth of the troops on board were ordered the river ; but for a quarter of a to pass up the river to the spot semile, both above and below the lected for disembarkation above the junction of the Karun, some ex- batteries. cellent earthworks had been thrown This they did without any acci. up, and were lined with artillery and dent; and the water being very deep musketry. To take Mohummerah it close to the bank, they soon had was necessary to sail up the Shat-ul- discharged their living cargoes. The Arab past the embouchure of the Persians offered no opposition, beKarun, and land the troops on the yond a few musket-shots, to the left bank, so that a very heavy fire landing. would be encountered from these de- The ground was a good deal infences. The left or east bank of the tersected near the river by small Shat-ul-Arab, forsixty miles from its irrigation canals for supplying the mouth, belongs to Persia, the right date groves, so the troops got clear bank to Turkey, which further up of these and halted, while the genepossesses both sides. The delicate ral reconnoitred. The enemy had question arose whether it was not a large force, some five or six thoubreaking the laws of neutrality to sand men, but they had lost heart sail up such a river in hostile guise. at finding their batteries were unWe had no intention, certainly, of able to cope with our ships. The firing upon the Turkish side; but we tremendous size of our 68-pounder intended to pound the Persian shores shot astonished and terrified them with all our might; and the Persians not a little ; and more than one evidently could not be expected to specimen of these iron messengers were brought to the Shazadah com- require to be conducted with great manding, that he might see what judgment, and cause a heavy drain sort of work was going on in the on our resources. Fortunately for batteries. They seem to have given both countries, our English stateshim a disrelish for the combat alto- men and the Persian plenipotentiary gether; and before Sir James had who had been sent to Europe to made his preparations for attack, treat for peace, had discovered, even the Persian army, which he at first before the capture of Mohummerah, descried drawn up as if for battle, how unwise it was to continue the had retreated up the right bank of struggle ; but the news of the prethe Karun, leaving all their camp- liminaries of peace having been equipage and stores as booty to the signed did not reach Sir James conquerors. The loss on our side Outram in time to prevent blood in this action was ten men killed, being spilt in vain at Mohummerah and Lieutenant Harris and thirty-just as, in 1814, the news of the men wounded, all belonging to the abdication of Napoleon reached the Indian Navy. The enemy had up- English and French armies too late wards of three hundred killed—most to prevent the battle of Toulouse. of the wounded escaped. “The few After the action at Mohummerah, found by us,” says Captain Hunt, the English army could not follow

were taken care of, though so per- the Persians, for they had no means fectly misunderstood was this kind- of providing the necessary land-carness at first, that, imagining they riage. But as the retiring army was were only reserved for greater tor- certain to follow the course of the ture, they for some time resisted all Karun, both for the sake of water kind of treatment, even water, from and because they were known to the hands of their conquerors.” have supplies at Ahwaz, a hundred From this we may conclude that the miles higher up, the General ordered modern Persians have not altered three flat-bottomed river steamers, the treatment of prisoners which is under the command of Captain represented in the old sculptures Rennie, of the Indian Navy, to ascend from Nineveh at the British Mu- the Karun, and annoy the enemy if seum—where successful generals are he could find opportunity. Three seen amusing themselves, after a hundred of the 64th and 78th regivictory, by cutting off the heads and ments, under the command of Caplimbs of their captives.

tain Hunt, embarked in the steamers, A strong moral effect was produced and left Mohummerah on the mornby the capture of a place like Mo- ing of March 29. The river Karun, hummerah, which the Persians ima- flowing from the high range of the gined they had rendered impreg- Backliari Mountains, is subject to nable, by the massive batteries they periodicalinundations from the melthad erected, the number of guns ingofthe snows. Forthe last hundred they had placed in them, and the miles of its course it flows through strength of the garrison. But this a rich level soil, like that of Egypt, was the only blow which we could and irrigation alone is required to have struck after the capture of make its banks rival those of the Bushire without invading the coun- Nile in fertility. Yet the followtry, where the wide plains and ing is Captain Hunt's account of precipitous mountains would have it a short way above Mohummerah : proved more formidable obstacles 6 The Karun is here about one hunthan the opposition of their inhabi- dred yards wide, and from twelve to tants. It is true that these obstacles twenty feet deep, with a powerful are by no means insurmountable, current, its banks fringed on both or an invasion of Persia from Bush- sides with dwarf poplar and willow ire, right up to Teheran, an impos- jungle, which extends but a little sibility, if necessity demanded it; distance from the bank. Beyond, but an expedition of the kind would nothing is seen but the wide desert,


here and there patched with tufts of The steamer was then about halfcoarse grass. Such is the prospect as way to Bagdad, and getting under far as the eye could reach, the date, weigh after anchoring as usual for trees even ceasing after leaving Mo- the night. The horse was not hummerah three or four miles, and missed for half an hour, but was no sign of cultivation or human then descried ashore in what seemed abode appears to give animation to very unpleasant proximity to a the dreary wilderness, seldom trod- splendid lion. The lion circled den by the foot of man. Game, round and round him, always closhowever, of many kinds abounds, ing in. The horse remained moand immense flocks of duck and tionless, beyond turning his head teal are always on the river. The sufficiently to watch the lion's movelion, too, is said to be not unfre- ments. Suddenly the latter gave a quently found in the jungle upon tremendous bound, but the horse the banks.”

was too quick for him, and escaped Captain Rennie went up the river with a slight scratch; but instead to Ahwaz, where there is a barrier of galloping away, he only went a of rocks, the only impediment in the hundred yards, and again stood still. navigation of the river for a hundred The lion commenced his former miles. Here the remains of an an- tactics with a similar result, only cient bridge, which is said to have his bound was less vigorous this spanned the river in the time of time. The horse did not even yet Alexander the Great, are still to be take completely to his heels : he seen. The party actually saw the seemed either tied by some strange Persian army there ; but the latter fascination, or inclined to tantalise retired at their approach, and, after an enemy, from whom a few midestroying some magazines of pow. nutes' canter would have entirely der and provisions, Captain Rennie freed him. Again the lion comreturned to Mohummerah on the 4th menced his circles; but ere they March. The same day Sir James were narrowed to springing distance Outram received a despatch, in- a party had landed from the steamer, forming him that peace had been and the instant the horse descried concluded at Paris, and the Persian them he came galloping down as war was at an end. Sir James im- fast as he could, while the lion mediately commenced operations stalked breakfastless away towards for evacuating Mohummerah, which the jungle. was finally quitted in the beginning The voyage from Koma (where of May. The place is very un- the Tigris and Euphrates join, and healthy during summer, and we had form the Shat-ul-Arab) to Bagdad no object in retaining a garrison is about thirty miles. Not one sinthere. The General himself pro- gle house is passed on either bank ceeded up the Tigris to Bagdad to during the whole of this journey. confer with Mr Murray, the British We doubt if there is any other part ambassador to Persia, who was to of the world—the Great Desert not return to that court, and receive an excepted—where so great a distance apology for some insults offered to could be traversed without seeing him before the interruption of dip- some permanent human habitation ; lomatic intercourse between Great yet this is not a desert, condemned Britain and Persia. A very curious by an unproductive soil, an absence incident occurred during the voy- of water, and a tropic sun, to hopeage of the Planet, a small river less sterility. It is a desert whose steamer which followed the one soil is rich and climate genial-a conveying Sir James. There were desert through which mighty rivers some horses on board belonging to roll their fertilising treasures to the Major Kemball, the consul-general ocean. Perhaps when the West has at Bagdad, one of which got loose been filled up, the overflowings of and leaped overboard just at dawn. European population may turn to



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wards the East, and quarry amid tality among the troops was
the ruins of Babylon for materials greater than if they had been in a
to build new cities in the Mesopo- temperate climate. The occupation
tamian plains.

of Bushire lasted till October, when Bagdad is the capital of a Turkish it was made over to the Persians. pachalic, or district under the gov- A single native infantry regiment ernment of a pasha. The country remained at the small island of nominally swayed by this function- Karrack till the beginning of 1858. ary is enormous, comprising a great So ended the Persian war of part of Arabia; but in reality he can 1856-57. Like the little child in scarcely make himself obeyed be- Southey's “famous victory," our yond the walls of Bagdad, and fre- readers may ask, “ And what good quently trusts to the English con- came of it at last ?" And we cansuls to transmit his despatches to not tell, any more than the old Bussorah, the second town of the man could, except that it certainly district ; for messengers between was not a famous” victory. It the British officials are more civilly is not much to boast of, that, by an treated by the Arabs than those of expenditure of two or three milthe Turkish Government. Sir James lions sterling, we equipped a force Outram found Bagdad a more con- sufficient to harass the shores of a venient place than Bushire at which barbarous empire, which had not a to wind up his diplomatic functions, single war-galley. We made the as the posts from England are a Persians give up Herat; but what week sooner in arriving. He had benefit either her Majesty's Indian nearly completed his business, or English empire received we canwhich, as it only referred to the not comprehend. What little intereturn of the embassy to Teheran, rest we have in Persia should be was of no great importance, when friendly, and make it an object to he received one morning a packet strengthen her ; but by depriving containing intelligence of fearful her of Herat, we of course weakenimport. It was the first news of ed her, and alienated her affections. the Indian mutiny and massacre at Formerly English officers used to Delhi. Sir James at once perceived drill the Persian battalions; but that his experience and services lately a whole staff of Frenchmen might be required in a wider field have been summoned to Teheran. than he was now engaged in, made By making Herat independent we his final arrangements regarding have added one more to the turbuthe treaty with Persia as rapidly as lent principalities of Central Asia, possible, and started with his Staff and therefore made one more chance for Bushire the beginning of June. of a disturbance. This would matter He there handed over the command little to the English public or Inof the forces in Persia to General dian ryot (who, as he has to pay Jacob, and proceeded to win fresh the war charges, is a principal party honours and rewards in India, interested), were it not for the unwhich we trust he may be long fortunate inclination our statesmen spared to enjoy.

evince to meddle in these matters, General Jacob had no enemy to which concern them not. contend with in the field, His The British Embassy returned to principal attention was directed to Teheran in July, and a mission providing effective shelter for the under Lieut. - Colonel Taylor was troops against the burning sun, despatched to Herat to see the forwhich strikes so fiercely on the mer dynasty re-established, and the Persian Gulf for four months of Persian occupation properly termithe year. By the energy of Colonels nated. This object was successHill and North, and the officers of fully accomplished, and we trust the Bombay Engineers, this was so these are the last Englishmen who well accomplished that the mor- will visit that inland princedom in

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an official capacity, until a Teheran the 64th and 78th regiments, with and Herat railway, with branch the gallant Havelock, to Bengal, lines to Bokhara and Samarcand, and saved Lucknow from the fate shall give Central Asia some closer of Cawnpore. The war with China ties with the civilised world than had summoned a large force from it at present possesses, or perhaps Great Britain, who were diverted cares to enjoy.

from their course at Singapore, and There were two circumstances so placed under the Indian governdisposed of by Providence at this ment by orders of Lord Elgin. Our time as materially to sustain our statesmen have taken measures to empire in the East : one was the prevent another Indian mutiny. conclusion of the war with Persia; We trust that public opinion will the other, the commencement of prevent our statesmen from comthe war with China. The first sent mencing another Persian war.



AIR--The Looking-Glass.

'Tis strange how men and things revive

Though laid beneath the sod, O!
I sometimes think I see alive

Our good old friend Monboddo!
His views, when forth at first they came,

Appeared a little odd, O!
But now we've notions much the same;

We're back to old Monboddo.


The rise of Man he loved to trace

Up to the very pod, O!
And in Baboons our parent race

Was found by old Monboddo.
Their A B C he made them speak;

Then learn their Qui, quce, quod, O!
Till Hebrew, Latin, Welsh, and Greek

They knew as well's Monboddo.

The thought that Men had once had tails

Caused many a grin full broad, O!
And why in us that feature fails,

Was asked of old Monboddo.
He showed that sitting on the rump,

While at our work we plod, O!
Would wear th' appendage to the stump

As close as in Monboddo.

2 B

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