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yet it should be remembered that it does not cost much more to grow a good quality of pears, than of apples. A sound, bearing tree, will produce almost as much fruit as an apple tree, and it will live many years. There are now more than eighty distinct varieties cultivated in this country, many of which may be had at every nursery.
The principal varieties known in this State, are: the Bartlett, the Bergamotte, the Beurre, the Basse, the Napoleon, the Virguleuse, the St. Germain, the Pound Pear, the Dix, the Seckel, etc.
As far as it has hitherto been cultivated, the quince seems to be hardy and productive. It is a small tree, or large shrub, is very slow in coming to a bearing condition, but is one among the oldest fruittrees known in the country. Some very good and plentiful crops have already been produced, in cases where proper management has been bestowed.
The cultivation of the plum, as a grafted fruit-tree, has not as yet become so extensive as to give much for experience to say on the subject. A fruit-grower in Peoria County says, that in that region, wild plums were, for eight or ten years after the settlement of the country, found in great abundance. During the progress of civilization, he says, came the plum Curcusio, and now one will not meet with a sound wild plum in a whole season. Our cultivated plum trees grow well and blossom abundantly; the young fruit is often very promising, but the insect above named is so universal, that very little of it ever comes to maturity. North of latitude 41° the Curcusio is not so troublesome, and, in those parts, plums have therefore been cultivated in many places with success.
The climate best adapted to from that suited to the peach. region of the plum.
the plum, seems to be nearly distinct North of latitude 41° is the proper
This variety of fruit is of German origin, and among fruit-growers the opinion has been prevalent, that it degenerates in this country,
and that a fruit would be produced which in shape and quality would perfectly resemble our common plum, but this has been fairly refuted by an experienced fruit-grower, who goes as far as to protest that within. his own knowledge and experience, prune crops have even surpassed apple crops, and that splendid results have been attained with imported young trees. This must necessarily lead to the conclusion that both soil and climate, in this country, are exceedingly good for the culture of this fruit. It may also be observed that the prune tree is one of the fruit-trees which do not suffer from frost, and that its fine appearance makes it desirable as an ornament, in gardens.
Most of the large wood cherries grow so fast as to be liable to winter kill, and can only be grown with success on thin, poor soil, or in a grass plat. The Morilles, and May Cherries, are hardy and productive. It is a great drawback, that a large portion of the crop is consumed by the birds.
The principal varieties of cherries are, the Mayduke, the Early Whiteheart, the Late Duke, &c.
The Blackberry is abundant and fine in all the groves where the timber has been partly cut away.
The Raspberry. The black variety is common in the open woods, but the red is not found here, except as a cultivated plant; where planted, it thrives and grows luxuriantly. There are several varieties, foreign as well as domestic, well known in this State.
The Strawberry. The prairie soil is well adapted for the cultivation of this delicious berry, which may at the same time be found in very great abundance, growing in the woods, in a wild state. Several experiments which were made with the cultivation of the strawberry, have proved, that apple orchards are very proper places for planting them, especially for those northern varieties, the leaves of which are much affected by very hot sunshine. If strawberry plants of almost any variety are planted upon orchard land, (no matter how close the trees stand, for the shade is not at all injurious, but on the contrary, quite beneficial to strawberry growth,) a crop of about 25 or 30 bush
els may be obtained upon an acre. The varieties most admired are the Hovey's Seedling, Mammoth Alpine, Burr's, New Pine, Black Prince, and Hudson.
The Currant. This bush grows exceedingly well and vigorously, and should be shaded a little from the intense heat of the sun, that it may mature well. The common red currant gives the highest yield, but requires a cool situation, and a moistened, loose soil.
The Gooseberry. It is not much found in the southern part of this State, and requires almost the same properties of soil as the currant bush. The berry, as it grows hereabouts, is smooth and of medium size. It is found in abundance in the groves, but is much improved by cultivation. Some of the large foreign sorts are subject to mildew, but the natives and smaller class of imported sorts, flourish and bear well.
The Cranberry will succeed very well in the most northern parts of Illinois, on a swampy soil.
Nurseries. The number of nurseries in this State is truly a matter of astonishment. In Northern Illinois, nurseries are found capable of supplying the surrounding country with apple, as well as other fruit, and ornamental trees, and flowering plants. And yet, more trees are planted from Eastern nurseries, than from home establishments. It is a fact, however, that as far as our principal variety-the apple-is concerned, the eastern trees are worth less, and cost much more than those of the same size or age at home. They are worth less, because usually more attenuated in form, and unacclimated here, and when badly handled—which is often the case with those peddled about the country-they have less vitality, and are more apt to die, or become diseased; and they cost more, because heavy charges and large commissions have to be added to the nursery price. It is known that eastern apple trees, which are "peddled" through the West, at from 20 to 30 cents per tree, are bought East at from $80 to $100 per thousand.
The principal nurseries in the State of Illinois, are:
The Grove Nursery, of J. & O. Kennikott, at West Northfield, Cook County, office No. 47 Clarkson Street, Chicago.
The Lake Nursery, at Waukegan, Robert Douglas, proprietor; this nursery is thirty-five miles north of Chicago, on the Chicago and Milwaukie Railroad. The Franklin Grove Nursery, A. R. Whitney, proprietor. Franklin Grove, Lee County, is located but one mile south of Franklin Station, on the Chicago and Dixon Air Line Railroad.
The Pleasant Ridge Nursery, Perry Aldrich, proprietor, five miles east of Hennepin, one mile east of Swaney, on the Hennepin and Indiantown road, town of Aripze, Bureau County.
The Bloomington Nursery, F. K. Phoenix, proprietor, at Bloomington, Ill. The Kankakee Nursery, at Kankakee, Ill. McGrew, Leas & Co., proprietors, where first-rate Osage plants for hedging may be had at reasonable prices. The Dupage Nurseries, Lewis Ellsworth & Co. proprietors, at Naperville, Dupage County, Ill.
The Persimmon Grove Nursery, at Princeton, Bureau County, Ill., Arthur Bryant, proprietor.
In any of the above-mentioned establishments, fruit trees of good parentage and germ, as well as shrubs, and various plants for hedging and ornamental purposes, may be had; and all those that are engaged in the cultivation of choice trees or plants, will do well to get their supplies as little away from these places as possible.
AFTER many tiresome attempts that have been made in the west * and southwest of the United States, to promote this important branch of culture, it may now be considered as a department of national agriculture, whose progress cannot be checked.
Experiments in the cultivation of the grape were made many years ago in this State; it appears that the first trials to introduce it were made in the years 1830 to 1836, in the neighborhood of Belleville, by Germans, who had emigrated to this country from the banks of the Rhine. They at first only planted such varieties as may be found on the banks of the Rhine. These grape vines grew but poorly, for some years bore very little fruit, and gradually died away. This want of success created discouragement. It was generally believed that the climate of that part of the country was altogether unfavorable to the grape, and hence no farther attention was bestowed on that branch of agriculture, until a few years since, when it became known that the grape culture, near Cincinnati, made rapid and encouraging progress. Therefore in the years 1845 to 1847, this culture was resumed by the grape-growers near Belleville, and for that purpose they had some cuttings of the American Catawba sent to them from Cincinnati. The Catawba derives its name from a variety growing wild near the Catawba River. The soil near Belleville, and that in St. Clair County, seems to be particularly adapted for the grape, since it is a sandy loam, containing neither too little nor too much moisture. The open prairieland seems to be less adapted for grape culture, and this may frequently prove so, on account of the too great fertility and richness of the soil. With regard to the best mode of cultivation, it should be remembered that it is not necessary to lay out the land in ridges, by trench ploughing. It will be sufficient to dig holes two feet square, or to make them three feet long, and two feet deep.