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EARLY CRITICISM JEFFREY (Lord Francis), Edinburgh Review: No. 38, Art. 10, Childe Harold; No. 42, Art. 2, The Giaour; No. 45, Art. 9, The Corsair and Bride of Abydos; No. 54, Art. 1. Byron's Poetry; No. 56, Art. 7, Manfred: No. 58, Art. 2, Beppo; No. 70, Art. 1. Marino Faliero; No. 72, Art. 5, Byron's Tragedies. Also in his Critical Essays. — SCOTT (Sir Walter), Childe Harold's Pilgrimage; in the Quarterly Review, 1818. Also in his Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. — MACAULAY (T. B.), Moore's Life of Byron; in the Edinburgh Review, 1831. Also in his Essays. — SOUTHEY (R.), Essays, 1832. - HAZLITT (W.), Spirit of the Age. - Hugo (V.), Littérature et Philosophie, 1834.

LATER CRITICISM *ARNOLD (M.), Essays in Criticism, Second Series, 1888. — BRANDES (G. M. C.), Shelley und Lord Byron: Zwei litterarische Charakterbilder, 1894. — *BRANDES (G. M. C.), Die Hauptströmungen in der Litteratur des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Vol. IV; English translation, 1904. CHESTERTON (G. K.), Twelve Types: The Optimism of Byron, 1902. — DARMESTETER (James), Essais de Littérature anglaise. — DOWDEN (Edward), French Revolution and English Literature: Essay VI, 1897.

DOWDEN (Edward), Studies in Literature: French Revolution and Literature, 1878. --- HENLEY (W. E.), Views and Reviews, 1890. --HUTTON (R. H.), Literary Essays, 1871, 1888. - KINGSLEY (Charles), Works: Thoughts on Shelley and Byron. - LOFORTE-RONDE (Andrea). Nelle Letterature straniere, 1903. - MAZZINI (G.), Essays: Byron and Goethe. — *MORE (Paul E.), Atlantic Monthly, Dec., 1898: The Wholesome Revival of Byron; Introduction to the Cambridge Edition, 1905; Shelburne Essays, Third Series: Don Juan, 1906. --- *MORLEY (John), Miscellanies, Vol. I, 1871. -- *PYRE (J. T. A.), Byron in our Day; in the Atlantic, April, 1907. *SCHMIDT (Julian), Portraits aus dem neunzehnten Jahrhundert: Lord Byron, 1878. --- SWINBURNE (A. C.), Miscellanies: Wordsworth and Byron, 1886. — *SWINBURNE (A. C.), Essays and Studies, 1875. - *SYMONDS (J. A.), In Ward's English Poets, Vol. IV. — *TAINE (H.), History of English Literature, Vol. IV, 1863, 1871. — *TRENT (W. P.), Authority of Criticism: The Byron Revival, 1899. — *WATTS-DUNTON (T.), In Chambers's New Cyclopædia of English Literature, Vol. III, 1904, - *WOODBERRY (G. E.), Makers of Literature (1890), 1900.

AUSTIN (Alfred), The Bridling of Pegasus, 1910: Wordsworth and Byron, -- COLLINS (J. C.), Studies in Poetry and Criticism, 1905. - GENDARME DE BÉVOTTE (G.), La Légende de Don Juan: son Évolution dans la littérature des origines au romantisme, 1907. -— HANCOCK (A. E.), French Revolution and the English Poets, 1899. -- LANG (A.), Poets' Country, 1907. LEONARD (W. E.), Byron and Byronism in America, 1905. — Mengin (Urbain), L'Italie des Romantiques, 1902. — Moir (D. M.), Sketches of the Poetical Literature of the Past Half-Century, 1851. NISARD (Désiré), Portraits et Études d'Histoire littéraire. — PAYNE (W. M.), Greater English Poets of the Nineteenth Century, 1907. - SCHUYLER (Eugene), Italian Influences. — SYMONS (A.), Romantic Movement in English Poetry, 1909. BYRON'S INFLUENCE ON THE CONTINENT See BRANDES, Elze, CASTELAR, TAINE, MENGIN, NISARD, MONDOT, LESCURE, Hugo, etc., above; and LAMARTINE and GAUTIER, below.

ACKERMANN (Richard), Lord Bryon; sein Leben, seine Werke, sein Einfluss auf die Deutsche Litteratur. BLAZE DE BURY (H.), Tableaux romantiques de Littérature et d'Art, 1878: Lord Byron et le Byronisme; from the Revue des deux Mondes, Oct. 15, 1872. — CLARK (W. J.), Byron und die Romantische Periode in Frankreich, Inaugural Dissertation, Leipzig, 1901. - DUMAS, Mémoires, Vol. IX, Chap. 6, 7 and 8. — *ESTÈVE (E.), Byron et le romantisme français - essai sur la fortune et l'influence de Byron en France de 1812 à 1850, Paris, 1907. — *GOETHE, Conversations with Eckermann. — HOHENHAUSEN (E. P. A.), Rousseau, Goethe, Byron, ein Kritisch-literarischer Umriss aus Ethischchristlichem Standpunkt, 1817. – KAISER, Byror's und Delavigne's Marino Faliero, Dusseldorf, 1870. — LAMARTINE, Le dernier Chant de Childe Harold, 1824. — - LORENZO y D'AYOT (Manuel), Shakspere, Lord Byron, y Chateaubriand, como inodelos de la Juventud Literaria. - MELCHIOR (Felix), Heinrich Heine's Verhältnis zu Lord Byron, Berlin, 1903. — MUONI (Guido), La Fama del Byron, e il Byronismo in Italia, 1903. — MONTI (G.), Studi Critici: Leopardi e Byron, 1887. – MUSSET (A. de), La Coupe et les Lèvres (Dédicace), Lettre à Lamartine, Namouna, etc. – OCHSENBEIN (W.), Die Aufnahme Lord Byrons in Deutschland und sein Einfluss auf den jungen Heine, 1905. - Pichot (A.), Essai sur la Vie, le Caractère, et le Génie de Lord Byron. Pons (Gaspard de), Annales romantiques, 1826: Bonaparte et Byron. RIGAL (Eugène), Victor Hugo et Byron; in the Revue d'Histoire littéraire de la France, July-Sept., 1907. ---SAINTE-BEUVE, Chateaubriand et son Groupe littéraire, Vol. I., Chap. 15, 1848. ---SAND (George), Histoire de ma Vie, Vol. III. - SAND (George), Essai sur le drame fantastique: Goethe, Byron, Mickievicz; in the Revue des deux Mondes, Dec. 1, 1839. -SIMHART (Max), Lord Byrons Einfluss auf die italienische Literatur, 1909. — STENDHAL, Racine et Shakspere, 1823. — SCHMIDT (G. B. 0.), Rousseau und Byron: Ein Beitrag zur Vergleichenden Litteratur-Geschichte des Revolutions-zeitalters, 1890.– WEDDIGEN (Friedrich H. O.), Lord Byron's Einfluss auf die Europäischen Litteraturen der Neuzeit, 1884.

TRIBUTES IN VERSE LAMARTINE, Méditations poétiques, 1820: L'Homme, à Lord Byron. SHELLEY, Julian and Maddalo, 1818; Fragment to Byron, 1818; Sonnet to Byron, 1821. Keats, Sonnet to Byron. GAUTIER, Poésies, Vol. I.

MALONE (W.), Napoleon and Byron. --- WATSON (William), Epigrams: Byron the Voluptuary. CROWNINSHIELD (F.), A Painter's Moods: To Byron. - NOCL (R.), Byron's Grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY *COLERIDGE (E. H.), in Vol. VII of his edition of the Poetical Works. --ANDERSON (J. P.), Appendix to Noel's Life of Byron.


I left you,


“ Ill-starr'd, though brave, did no visions

foreboding AWAY, ye gay landscapes, ye gardens Tell you that fate had forsaken your of roses !

cause?” In you let the minions of luxury rove; Ah! were you destined to die at Culloden, Restore nle the rocks, where the snow- Victory crownd not your fall with flake reposes.

applause: Though still they are sacred to freedom Still were you happy in death's earthly and love :

slumber, Yet, Caledonia, beloved are thy moun- You rest with your clan in the caves of tains,

Braemar; Round their white summits though The pibroch resounds, to the piper's loud elements war ;

number, Though cataracts foam 'stead of smooth- Your deeds on the echoes of dark Loch flowing fountains,

na Garr. I sigh for the valley of dark Loch na Garr.

Years have rollid on, Loch na Garr, since Ah! there my young footsteps in infancy

Years must elapse ere I tread you wander'd;

again: My cap was the bonnet, my cloak was

Nature of verdure and flow'rs has bereft the plaid ; On chieftains long perish'd my memory

you, ponder'd,

Yet still are you dearer than Albion's As daily I strode through the pine

plain. cover'd glade;

England ! thy beauties are tame and

domestic I sought not my home till the day's

To one who has roved o'er the moundying glory

tains afar: Gave place to the rays of the bright

Oh for the crags that are wild and polar star;

majestic ! For fancy was cheer'd by traditional

The steep frowning glories of dark story,

Loch na Garr.

1807.1 Disclosed by the natives of dark Loch na Garr.

MAID OF ATHENS, ERE WE PART. « Shades of the dead! have I not heard

Ζώη μου, σας αγαπώ Rise on the night-rolling breath of the

gale? ” Burely the soul of the hero rejoices,

Maid of Athens, ere we part,
And rides on the wind, o'er his own

Give, oh, give me back my heart!
Highland vale.

Or, since that has left my breast, Round Loch na Garr while the stormy Keep it now, and take the rest ! mist gathers,

Hear my vow before I go, Winter presides in his cold icy car :

Ζώη μου, σας αγαπώ. Clouds there encircle the forms of my fathers;

1 The dates for Byron's poems are made ui They dwell in the tempests of dark

chiefly from the very full accounts of their writ,

ing and publication given in the notes to E. H Loch na Garr.

Coleridge's splendid edition.

your voices

By those tresses unconfined,
Woo'd by each Ægean wind;
By tliose lids whose jetty fringe
Kiss thy soft cheeks' blooming tinge ;
By those wild eyes like the roe,
Ζώη μου, σας αγαπώ.

The better days of life were ours;

The worst can be but mine ;
The sun that cheers, the storm that

Shall never more be thine.
The silence of that dreamless sleep
I envy now too much to weep ;

Nor need I to repine,
That all those charms have pass'd away;
I might have watch'd through long


By that lip I long to taste ;
By that zone-encircled waist ;
By all the token-flowers that tell
What words can never speak so well;
By love's alternate joy and woe,
Ζώη μου, σας αγαπώ.
Maid of Athens ! I am gone:
Think of me, sweet! when alone.
Though I fly to Istambol,
Athens holds my heart and soul;
Can I cease to love thee? No!
Ζώη μου, σας αγαπώ.

1810, 1812.



“ Heu, quanto minus est cum reliquis versari

quam tui meminisse!"

AND thou art dead, as young and fair

As aught of mortal birth ; And form so soft, and charms so rare,

Too soon return'd to Earth! Though Earth received them in her bed And o'er the spot the crowd may tread

In carelessness or inirth, There is an eye which could not brook A inoment on that grave to look.

The flower in ripen'd bloom unmatch'd

Must fall the earliest prey ;
Though by no band untimely snatch'd,

The leaves must drop away;
And yet it were a greater grief
To watch it withering leaf by leaf,

Than see it pluck'd to-day;
Since earthly eye but ill can bear
To trace the change to foul from fair,
I know not if I could have borne

To see thiy beauties fade ;
The night that follow'd such a morn

Had worn a deeper shade ;
Thy day without a cloud hath passid,
And thou wert lovely to the last ;

Extinguish'd, not decay'd ; As stars that shoot along the sky Shine brightest as they fall from high. As once I wept, if I could weep,

My tears might well be shed,
To think I was not near to keep

One vigil o'er thy bed ;
To gaze. how fondly! on thy face,
To fold thee in a faint embrace,

Uphold thy drooping head;
And show that love, however vain,
Nor thou nor I can feel again.
Yet how much less it were to gain,

Though thou hast left me free,
The loveliest things that still remain,

Than thus remember thee !
The all of thine that cannot die
Through dark and dread Eternity

Returns again to me,
And more thy buried love endears
Than aught except its living years.

February, 1812. 1812.

I will not ask where thou liest low,

Nor gaze upon the spot; There flowers or weeds at will may grow,

So I behold them not : It is enough for me to prove That what I loved, and long must love,

Like common earth can rot ; To me there needs no stone to tell, . 'Tis Nothing that I loved so well.

Yet did I love thee to the last

As fervently as thou, Who didst not change through all the

past, And canst not alter now. The love where Death has set his seal, Nor age can chill, nor rival steal,

Nor falsehood disa vow : And, what were worse, thou canst not

see Or wrong, or change, or fault in me.


WHEN we two parted

In silence and tears Half broken-hearted

To sever for years,

Pale grew thy cheek and cold,

Colder thy kiss ;
Truly that hour foretold

Sorrow to this.
The dew of the morning

Sunk chill on my brow-
It felt like the warning

Of what I feel now. Thy vows are all broken,

And light is thy fame: I hear thy name spoken,

And share in its shame.
They name thee before me,

Aknell to mine ear;
A shudder comes o'er me-

Why wert thou so dear ?
They know not I knew thee,

Who knew thee too well: Long, long shall I rue thee,

Too deeply to tell.
In secret we met-

In silence I grieve,
That thy heart could forget;

Thy spirit deceive.
If I should meet thee

After long years,
How should I greet thee ?--
With silence and tears.

...... 1816.

And the voice of the nightingale never

is mute : Where the tints of the earth, and the

hues of the sky, In color though varied, in beauty may

vie, And the purple of ocean is deepest in

dye; Where the virgins are soft as the roses

they twine, And all, save the spirit of man, is divine? "T is the clime of the East ; 't is the land

of the SunCan he smile on such deeds as his chil.

dren have done? Oh! wild as the accents of lovers' fare.

well Are the hearts which they bear, and the

tales which they tell.
Begirt with many a gallant slave,
Apparell d as becomes the brave,
Awaiting each his lord's behest
To guide his steps, or guard his rest,
Old Giaffir sate in his Divan :
Deep thought was

his aged eye; And though the face of Mussulman

Not oft betrays to standers by The mind within, well skill'd to hide All but unconquerable pride, His pensive cheek and pondering brow Did more than he was wont avow.



* Had we never loved so kindly,

Had we never loved so blindly,
Never met or never parted,
We had ne'er been broken-hearted."- BURNS.


KNOW ye the land where the cypress and

myrtle Are emblems of deeds that are done in

their clime ? Where the rage of the vulture, the love

of the turtle, Now melt into sorrow, now madden to

crime ! Know ye the land of the cedar and vine, Where the flowers ever blossom, the

beams ever shine: Where the light wings of Zephyr, op

press'd with perfumo, Wax faint o'er the gardens of Gúl in her

bloom ; Where the citron and olive are fairest of


· Let the chamber be clear'd."--The

train disappear d. “Now call me the chief of the Harani

guard." With Giaffir is none but his only son, And the Nubian awaiting the sire's

award. * Haroun--when all the crowd that wait Are pass'd beyond the outer gate, (Woe to the head whose eye beheld My child Zuleika's face un veil'd !) Hence, lead my daughter from her

tower ;
Her fate is fix'd this very hour :
Yet not to her repeat my thought;
By me alone be duty taught!”
• Pacha! to hear is to obey."
No more must slave to despot say
Then to the tower had ta'en his way,
But here young Selim silence brake,

First lowly rendering reverence meet; And downcast look'd and gently spake,

Still standing at the Pacha's feet :
For son of Moslem must expire,
Ere dare to sit before his sire !

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