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RAILWAY SYSTEM AND ITS RESULTs. 549

however minute in itself, becomes of the greatest importance, when multiplied by the extent of work performed. You must consider that every farthing saved upon the train mileage of our country represents to the railways no less an aggregate than 480,000 per annum. This fact may help to realise to you how important it is that your attention should be directed carefully to every department of the railway system. The perfection of the permanent way, its maintenance in sound condition, the durability of materials of construction, the simplification and improvement of locomotives, the economy of fuel,-even the consumption of grease and cotton waste, – all these are items in which economical arrangements may be turned to the highest advantage. There are other points which will, doubtless, suggest themselves to many who are present; and I can only say, for my own part, that nothing will afford me higher satisfaction, than to feel that any observations I have addressed to you may elicit practical suggestions for the improvement of the system with which my name, chiefly in consequence of my Father's works, is so intimately associated. For it is my great pride to remember, that whatever may have been done, and however extensive may have been my own connection with railway development, all I know and all I have done, is primarily due to the Parent whose memory I cherish and revere. When I consider how intimately associated is the railway system with the profession to which I have the honour to belong —when I reflect, not only how much that system owes to the profession, but also how much the profession owes to railways, I cannot doubt that the Civil Engineers of England will fulfil their duty. For, looking around to-night, who can doubt that, whilst Railways owe their construction to Civil Engineers, they, in return, owe to railways a large proportion of that improved position, that increased intelligence, and that familiar knowledge of abstract science, which within the last twenty years, has so largely developed itself both within and without these walls? Our business, from a craft, has become a profession; and that profession, I rejoice to say, is daily exhibiting itself, not only as one of increased importance, but also as one of increasing cordiality and co-operation. There was a time, amid the many exciting competitions occasioned by railway enterprise, when the spirit of rivalry amongst the Civil Engineers of England was carried so far as to occasion some feelings of estrangement. I am happy to think that those feelings have given way to more friendly and confidential relations amongst us all; that our intercourse is now characterised by mutual forbearance and conciliation; and that, if rivalry does exist, it is no longer entertained in an unbecoming spirit, but is an honourable competition in the path of enterprise, and for the fair rewards of successful skill To this Institution, and to the opportunities afforded by these meetings, we are mainly indebted for this improved spirit.

IN DE X.

Accidents in mines, 97. 133.
Accidents, railway, 196. 543.
“Active,” the (locomotive), 205.
Adam, Mr. (barrister), 226. 241.
Adhesion of wheel and rail, 75.81.88.
143.
Advantages of railways, 348. 546.
Agility, feats of, 52.474.
Agriculture, experiments in, 469.
Alderson, Mr. (afterwards Baron), 226.
230. 238.
Allen's, Thomas, locomotive machine,
68.
Alton Grange, 356.
Anderson, Dr. James, on railways, 69.
Atmospheric railway, 269. 405. 428.
442.
Autobiographic speech at Newcastle,
426.

Babbage, Mr., on scientific culture, 147.
Barrow, Sir John, letter on railway
speed, 222.
Battle of the gauges, 401. 442.
Beaumont's wooden tramroads, 60.
Benton, 48.50. 54. 106.
Belgium, railways in, 455.
Belper Mechanics' Institute, 421.
Bible, the Stephenson family, 4.
Birds'-nests and nesting, 5.8.18, 359.
470. 507.
Birkenshaw's patent rail, 195.
Bishop Auckland, 162. 206.
Blackett, Mr., of Wylam, 77.
Black Callerton, 9. 23.
Blast, invention of the steam, 90. 276.
285. 291. 300.
Blenkinsop's locomotive, 73.85. 157.
168. 231.
Blowers, experiments on, 104. 108.
Board of Trade and railways, 439.

Boilers (locomotive), 286.
Booth, Mr. Henry, 211. 289. 290. 494.
Bradshaw, Mr., 210. 216.
Braithwaite, Mr., C.E., 296. 312. 322.
403.
Brakesman at Callerton, 23; at Wil-
lington, 29 ; at West Moor, Killing-
worth, 35. 40.
Brake, invention of railway, 411. 486.
Brandling, Messrs., 121. 429.
Bridges, railway, 517.
Bridgewater, Duke of, and canal, 63.
174. 210. 246.
Broad gauge, 401. 442.
Bruce's school, Newcastle, 50. 151.
Brunel, Mr., C.E., 322. 399. 428.
Brunton's locomotive, 76.
Brusselton incline, 196. 198.
Brussels, railway celebration at, 457.
Buckland, Dr., 477.
Burrell, Mr., partnership with, 171.

Callerton, Black, 9. 23.
Canal opposition to railways, 210. 216.
323. 329.
Canny (Newcastle), 3.
Canterbury and Whitstable Railway,
321.
Capital of railways, 516.
Cast-iron railroads, 62.
Chapman's locomotive, 76.
Chat Moss, 178. 235. 249.
Chester and Birkenhead Railway, 379.
Chester and Holyhead Railway, 389.
Chesterfield Mechanics' Institute, 421.
Civil Engineers, Institute of, 510.
Clanny's, Dr., safety-lamp, 113. 130.
134.
Clay engines, models, 8.18.
Clay Cross Colliery, 375. 414.
Clay Cross Workmen's Institute, 480.
Cleveland, Duke of, 165. 190.
Clock mending and cleaning, 32.41.
Coach, the first railway, 201.
Coal, theory of formation of, 478.
Coal traffic on railways, 200. 374. 414.
Coalbrookdale iron railroad, 62.
Coe, William, 12. 21. 32.
Competition of locomotives at Rain-
hill, 296.
Controversy as to invention of safety-
lamp, 113–133.
Correspondence, Mr.
265. 360.
Cottage at West Moor, Killingworth,
5l.
Courage, determined, 27.101. 107.499.
Cropper, Mr. Isaac, 261. 277. 299.
Crowdie night, 474.
Cubitt, Mr. (Sir William), 213. 234.
Cugnot's locomotive, 66.
Curr's, Mr., cast-iron railway, 62.

[graphic]

Stephenson's,

Dagger-money, Newcastle, 2.
Darlington and Stockton Railway, 162.
183. 197.
Davy, Sir H., and the safety-lamp,
113–133. -
Davy lamp contrasted with the Geordy,
133.
Death, Mr. Stephenson's, 493.
Decaus, Solomon, 64.
Denman, Lord, 472.
Deputation to inspect Killingworth
locomotives, 211.
Terby, Earl of 215. 309. 328.
Dewley Burn, 6.8.
Difficulties useful in education, 17.
148. 498.
Directors, railway, 432.
Direct lines, mania for, 442.
IDixon, Mr. J., C.E., 191. 197. 250, 321.
I)odd, Ralph, 44. 49. 93.
I}rayton Manor, visits to, 476. 486.
Dynamometer, invents, 141.

Earle, Mr. Hardman, 309.
East Coast route to Scotland, 384. 428.
Economy, habits of, 26. 50. 502.
Edgeworth's, Mr. L., views on rail-
ways, 64. 70. 159. -
Education, self, 19. 26. 31.49. 496.
Education of his son Robert, 40. 50.
56. 151. 501.
Fggs, hatching of, by artificial heat,
18. 470.
Electric telegraph on railways, 539.

Electric kite cxperiment, 57.
Emerson the American, interview with,
491.
Emigration to America, contemplates,
39. 71.
Engineers, Institute of Civil, 510.
Engineers, qualities of English, 395.
Engine, study of 14. 17. 26.42. 497.
Engine at Killingworth High Pit, cure
of, 43.
Enginemen, the Stephenson, 315.
Estimates, railway, 336. 378.412.
Evans', Oliver, proposed steam car-
riages, 67.
Experiments on inflammable gas, 103.
Explosions of fire-damp, 97.

Family of Stephenson, 2. 11.30. 37.
Fares, railway, 523.
Fast school of engineers, 398.
Feats of strength and agility, 12. 52.
474.
Felling Pit explosion, 100.
Fight with Ned Neilson, 27.
Financial results of railways, 546.
Fire-damp, explosions of, 97.
Fixed-engine system, 173, 196.271.
Flanders, West, Railway, 461.
Follett, Sir W., 477.
Forth Street Works, Newcastle, 194.
Foster, Jonathan, Wylam, 78.
Friction on common roads and rail-
ways, 141. 345.

Gardening, 51.468.
Gauge, railway, 195.400.
Generosity, Mr. Stephenson's, 502.
Geordy safety-lamp, 102. 133.
Ghent, railway festival at, 457.
Giles, Mr. F., C.E., 176. 236.
Goods traffic on railways, 518.
Gradients, railway, 144. 408.448.
Grand Allies, 43.53.
Grand Junction Railway, 322. 381.
Gray, Andrew, 20. 30.34.
Gray, Thomas (of Nottingham), 167.
3.14.
Great Western Railway, 399. 489.
Gurney, Mr., opposition to railways,
423.

Habits, 263. 471.
Hackworth, Timothy, 92.297.
Half-lap joint, 137.
Harrison, Mr. (barrister), 226.234.241.
Hatching of eggs, artificial, 18. 470.

INDEX. - 553

Hawthorncs, Messrs., 6. 13. 45.
Hedley, Wm., Wylam, 80.
Henderson, Fanny, 25. 29. 35.
Heppel, Kit, 44. 102.
Hetton Railway, 171. 240.
High Street House, Wylam, 2.
High-level bridge, Newcastle, 430.
Horse and locomotive power, 89. 184.
269. 274.
Horse traffic on railways, 202. 205.
Horticultural experiments, 468.
Hudson, Mr. (Railway King),377.446.
Humboldt's suggestion of safety-lamp,
l 13.
Huskisson's, Mr., advocacy of rail-
ways, 175. 244.
Huskisson, Mr., fatal accident to, 306.

Inclines, self-acting, 54.
Insight, search for, 26, 497.
Institute of Civil Engineers, 510.
Irish Gauge, 405.

James, William, 159. 174. 214.

Jessop's, Mr., railway at Loughbo-
rough, 63.

Joint-stock railway companies, 320.
393. 432.

Jolly's Close, 10.

Joy, Mr. (barrister), 226. 232.

Keels, Newcastle, 60.
Kennedy, Mr., Manchester, 211.279.
Kenton Colliery locomotive, 85.
Killingworth, West Moor, 35.97. 151.
Killingworth High Pit, 43.55.
Killingworth Railway, 83. 136. 157.
Killingworth locomotive, 87.93. 138.
156. 179. 189. 213.
Kilsby tunnel, 333. -
Knight of the Order of Leopold, 456.
Knight's, C., Description of Old Mers-
tham Railroad, 158.

Lambton, Mr. (Earl of Durham), 122.
200.
Lamp, invention of the Geordy safety,
103; first lamp, 105; second lamp,
11 l; third lamp, 1 12; controversy
as to the invention, l 13–133.
Land, effect of railways on, 308. 350.
423. 533.
Lardner, Dr., 313. 343. 407. 409.
Last-making, competition in, 52.
Leather, Mr., C.E., 238.
Leeds Mechanics' Institute, 149. 491.

Leeds, Middleton Railway at, 76. 168.
231.
Leeds and Selby Railway, 168.
Leeds and Bradford Railway, 392.437.
Legh, Mr., Legh Park, 177.
Legislation, railway, 529.
Leicester and Swannington Railway,
356.
Leisure, improvement of, 16. 24, 26.
41. 49. 497.
Lemington, 77.
Leopold, King of the Belgians, 455.
460.
Liddel, Sir Thomas (Lord Ravens-
worth), 53, 56. S6. 127.
Liddell, Hon. Mr., 424.
Literary and Philosophical Institute,
Newcastle, 56.69. 110. 117. 501.
Liverpool, notices of 174. 178. 209.
Liverpool and Manchester Railway,
its necessity, 175; survey, 176;
public declaration of merchants,
209; prospectus issued, 211; second
survey, 214; the bill in committee,
226; bill withdrawn, 242; third
survey, 245; bill passed, 247; rail-
way constructed, 249; controversy
as to fixed and locomotive engines,
273; locomotive competition at
Rainhill, 295; the public opening,
305; the traffic, 307.
Locke, Mr. Joseph, C.E., 250. 381.
Locomotive engine : —early attempts
and suggestions, 64–7; Trevithick's,
70; Blenkinsop's, 75; Chapman's,
76; Brunton's, 76; Blackett's, 77;
Stephenson's first engine, 87;
second engine, 93; improved patent
engine, 138; the “Rocket,” 288 ;
improved engines, 311. 488.
Locomotive and horse power, 89.
Locomotive and fixed engines, 173.
273.
Locomotive engine factory at New-
castle, 192. 280. 3.14.
London and Birmingham Railway,
324.
London and Blackwall Railway, 372.
539.
London and North-Western Railway,
490. 494.
Losh, Mr., Newcastle, 137. 179.

Macadam's improvements in roads,
156.
Maclaren, Mr. (Scotsman), 219.

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