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chap. xvi.] MR. PEASE VISITS KILLINGWORTH. 189

quired for George Stephenson, and was told that he must go over to the West Moor, and seek for a cottage by the roadside, with a dial over the door—that was where George Stephenson lived. They soon found the house with the dial; and on knocking, the door was opened by Mrs. Stephenson —his second wife (Elizabeth Hindmarsh), the daughter of a farmer at Black Callerton, whom he had married in 1819. Her husband, she said, was not in the house at present, but she would send for him to the colliery. And in a short time Stephenson appeared before them in his working dress, just out of the pit. He very soon had his locomotive brought up to the crossing close by the end of the cottage, – made the gentlemen mount it, and showed them its paces. Harnessing it to a train of loaded waggons, he ran it along the railroad, and so thoroughly satisfied his visitors of its powers and capabilities, that from that day Edward Pease was a declared supporter of the locomotive engine. In preparing, in 1823, the Amended Stockton and Darlington Act, at Mr. Stephenson's urgent request, Mr. Pease had a clause inserted, taking power to work the railway by means of locomotive engines, and to employ them for the haulage of passengers as well as of merchandise"; and Mr. Pease gave a further and still stronger proof of his conviction as to the practical value of the locomotive, by entering into a partnership with Mr. Stephenson, in the following year, for the establishment of a locomotive foundry and manufactory in the town of Newcastle—the northern centre of the English railroad system. The second Stockton and Darlington Act was obtained in

... - - * The first clause in any railway act, empowering the employment of locomotive engines for the working of passenger traffic.

the session of 1823, not, however, without opposition, the Duke of Cleveland and the road trustees still appearing as the determined opponents of the bill. Nevertheless, the measure passed into law, Mr. Stephenson was appointed the company's engineer at a salary of 300l. per annum, and the works were now proceeded with as vigorously as possible.

CHAP. XVII.

COMPLETION AND OPENING OF THE STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY.

MR. Stephenson now proceeded with the working survey of the improved line of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, laying out every foot of the ground himself, accompanied by his assistants. Railway surveying was as yet in its infancy, and was very slow and deliberate work. Afterwards it became a separate branch of railway business, and was left to a special staff of surveyors. Indeed on no subsequent line did Mr. Stephenson take the sights through the spirit level with his own hands and eyes as he did on this railway. He would start very early in the morning, and survey until dusk. Mr. John Dixon, who assisted in the survey, mentions that he remembers on one occasion, after a long day's work near Aycliffe, when the light had completely failed them, the party separated—some to walk to Darlington, four miles off, Mr. Stephenson himself to the Simpasture farmhouse, where he had arranged to stay for the night; and his last stringent injunction was, that they must all be on the ground to resume levelling as soon as there was light enough for the purpose. “You must not,” he said, “set off from Darlington by daybreak, for then we shall lose an hour; but you must be here, ready to begin work as soon as it is daylight.” Mr. Stephenson performed the survey in top-boots and breeches—a usual dress at the time. He was not at any time particular as to his living; and during the survey, he took his chance of getting a drink of milk and a bit of bread at some cottager's house along the line, or occasionally joined in a homely dinner at some neighbouring farmhouse. The country people were accustomed to give him a hearty welcome when he appeared at their door; for he was always full of cheery and homely talk, and, when there were children about the house, he had plenty of surplus humour for them as well as for their seniors. After the day's work was over, Mr. Stephenson would drop in at Mr. Pease's, to talk over with him the progress of the survey, and discuss various matters connected with the railway. Mr. Pease's daughters were usually present; and on one occasion, finding the young ladies learning the art of embroidery, he volunteered to instruct them. “I know all about it,” said he ; “and you will wonder how I learnt it. I will tell you. When I was a brakesman at Killingworth, I learnt the art of embroidery while working the pitman's button-holes by the engine fire at nights.” He was never ashamed, but on the contrary rather proud, of reminding his friends of these humble pursuits of his early life. Mr. Pease's family were greatly pleased with his conversation, which was always amusing and instructive ; full of all sorts of experience, gathered sometimes in the oddest and most outof-the-way places. Even at that early period, before he had mixed in the society of educated persons, there was a dash of speculativeness in his remarks, which gave a high degree of originality to his conversation; and sometimes he would, in a casual remark, throw a flash of light upon a subject, which called up a whole train of pregnant suggestions. One of the most important subjects of discussion at these meetings with Mr. Pease, was the establishment of a manufactory at Newcastle for the building of locomotive engines. Up to this time all the locomotives constructed after Mr. Stephenson's designs, had been made by ordinary

cIIAp. xv.11.] LOCOMOTIVE FACTORY PROJECTED. 193

mechanics working amongst the collieries in the north of England. But he had long felt that the accuracy and style of their workmanship admitted of great improvement, and that upon this the more perfect action of the locomotive engine, and its general adoption as the tractive power on railways, in a great measure depended. One great object that he had in view in establishing the proposed factory was, to concentrate a number of good workmen for the purpose of carrying out the improvements in detail which he was constantly making in his engine. He felt hampered by the want of efficient helpers in the shape of skilled mechanics, who could work out in a practical form the ideas of which his busy mind was always so prolific. Doubtless, too, he believed that the locomotive manufactory would prove a remunerative investment, and that, on the general adoption of the railway system, which he now anticipated, he would derive solid advantages from the fact of his manufactory being the only establishment of the kind for the special construction of railway locomotives. . He still believed in the eventual success of railways, though it might be slow. Much, he believed, would depend upon the issue of this great experiment at Darlington; and as Mr. Pease was a man on whose sound judgment he could rely, he determined upon consulting him about his proposed locomotive factory. Mr. Pease approved of his design, and strongly recommended him to carry it into effect. But there was the question of means; and he did not think he had capital enough for the purpose. He told Mr. Pease that he could advance a thousand pounds—the amount of the testimonial presented by the coal-owners for his safety-lamp invention, and which he had still left untouched; but he did not think this sufficient for the purpose, and he thought that he should require at least another thousand pounds. Mr. Pease had been very much struck by the successful performances of the O

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