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Edward Pease — Projects the Stockton and Darlington Railway — The

"Quakers' Line " — The Act obtained — Mr. Stephenson's introduction to

Mr. Pease — The interview— Makes a new survey — Suggests improve-

ments — Proposes the use of locomotives — Mr. Pease visits Killingworth

— Mr. Stephenson appointed engineer to the Stockton and Darlington

Railway — The working survey of the line—Mr. Stephenson's conversa-

tion — Commencement of a locomotive factory at Newcastle — Rails —

Gauge — Tractive power — Completion of the line — Mr. Stephenson's

anticipations respecting railways — Opening of the line — The coal traffic

— Fiist railway coach, the " Experiment" — Rival coach companies — The

beginnings of passenger traffic — Middlesborough-on-Tees.. .. 118—145

CHAPTER IX.

Tramroad projected from Liverpool to Manchester — Immense increase of the

trade between these towns — Mr. Sandars — Mr. Wm. James surveys a

line — Difficulties of the survey — Mr. James visits Killingworth —

Becomes partner in the locomotive — Public meetings at Liverpool, &c.

A railway determined on — The first prospectus — Deputations to Killing-

Worth — The railway re-surveyed by Mr. Stephenson — Opposition to the

survey — Overtures of conciliation — The opposition of the Canal Compa-

nies organized — Newspaper articles — Opinions as to railway speed —

Article in the 'Quarterly' 146—160

CHAPTER X.

The parliamentary contest on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — The

evidence taken — Mr. Rastrick — Mr. Stephenson in the witness-box -

States his experience — Alarming speed of twelve miles an hour! — " Awk-

ward for the coo " — Is supposed to be mad — Mr. Harrison's speech — Mr.

Giles's evidence as to Chat-Moss — Mr. Alderson's speech — Evidence

against locomotives—Mr. Adam's reply — Defeat of the bill—New survey

— Messrs. Rennie employed — The Act passed—Sir Isaac Coffin's speech

— Mr. Stephenson appointed engineer of the railway .. .. 161—178

CHAPTER XI.

Description of Chat-Moss — The resident engineers — Mr. Dixon's journey
over the Moss — Mr. Stephenson's idea of forming a floating road upon it

— Commencement of the work — Drainage — Difficulty in forming an
embankment on the Moss — The directors contemplate the abandonment of

X CONTENTS.

the works — Mr. Stephenson urges them to persevere — The road formed

— Parr Moss— Cost of the work — The organizing of the labour — The

tunnel at Liverpool — Olive Mount cutting — Bridges — Sankey viaduct-

Mr. Cropper — The works pressed forward to completion — Mr. Stephen-

son's daily life and habits at Liverpool — Evenings at home .. 179—198

CHAPTER XII.

Discussions as to the tractive power to be employed in working the line —

Mr. Telford's report unfavourable — Variety of schemes suggested — Walker

and Rastrick's report in favour of fixed engines — Stephenson's defence of

the locomotive — Prize offered for the best engine — The conditions

proposed — The Newcastle factory — Robert Stephenson's return from

America — Improvements in the locomotive — The tubular boiler—Build-

ing of " The Rocket" — Ite steam-blast — The competition at Rainhill —

The "Novelty" —The "Sanspareil " — The "Perseverance " — Triumph

of " The Rocket," and congratulations of the engineer .. .. 199—220

CHAPTER XIII.

Completion of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — Acknowledgment of

Mr. Stephenson's skill and energy — The opening ceremony — Fatal acci-

dent to Mr. Huskisson — Commercial results of the railway — Details of

the working arranged — The road, carriage stock, and locomotive power —

The railway workmen — Alleged favouritism and monopoly — Public

interest excited by Liverpool and Manchester Railway — Alarming stories

circulated in rural districts — Increased speed of stage-coaches — Govern-

ment and the railways — The locomotive on common roads — Numerous

new lines projected — Canterbury and Whitstable — Leicester and Swanning-

ton — Railways in Lancashire — Grand Junction — London and Birmingham

project — The Messrs. Stephenson appointed engineers — Interview of a

deputation with Sir Astley Cooper — Opposition to the line — The Act

passed and the landlords "conciliated " — Formidable character of the works

— Blisworth cutting — Kilsby tunnel — English railway navvies 221—249

CHAPTER XIV.

Mr. Stephenson's residence at Alton Grange — Leases Snibston colliery—
Local improvements effected — Private life at Alton—Takes an office in
London — Surveys of new lines of railway — The Manchester and Leeds —

— Incident in Committee — The Littleborough Tunnel — North Midland

— Heavy character of the works — Bull-bridge — His interest in Midland
coal-traffic — York and North Midland — Estimates — Surveys of lines
in Scotland and the North of England — Habits of accurate observation

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PAGE

Portrait of George Stephenson—

Frontispiece Map of Newcastle District .. .. 1

High Street House 9

Colliery Gin 14

Whimsey 20

Newburn Church and Village .. 22

Coal Waggons 31

Signatures on Marriage Certificate.. 33 House at Wellington Quay .. .. 34

Killingworth High Pit 43

West Moor Pit, Killingworth .. .. 47 The Cottage at West Moor .. .. 52

San-dial at Killingworth 58

Davy and Geordy Safety-lamps .. 87 Tankard presented to Mr. Stephenson 95

Half.lap Joint 102

Old Locomotive still in use at

Killingworth 105

Portrait of Edward Pease . 119

The " Experiment" Railway Coach 138 The No. I. Engine at Darlington .. 142 Middlesborough-on-Tees 145

PAGE

22. Map of Liverpool District .. .. 146

23. Chat.Moss—Works in progress .. 134

24. Olive Mount Cutting 191

25. Sankey Viaduct 192

26. Forth.Street Works, Newcastle .. 207

27. The " Rocket" 218

28. Kilsby Tunnel 245

29. Alton Grange 251

30. Coalville, Snibston Colliery .. .. 253

31. Map of Railways in Midland Dis

trict 257

32. Littleborough Tunnel 261

33. Bull.bridge, near Ambergate .. .. 265

34. Tapton House, Chesterfield .. .. 289

35. Lime Worcs at Ambergate .. .. 292

36. Clay Cross Works 329

37. Clay Cross Village 330

38. Statue of George Stephenson at

Euston Square 336

39. Newcastle Literary and Philosophi

cal Institute 342

40. Tablet in Trinity Church, Chester

field 350

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CHAPTER I.

The Newcastle Coal District Village Of Wylam George Stephenson's Early Years.

The great northern coal-field of Durham and Northumberland extends in an almost unbroken direction from the Tees to the Tweed. It runs along, and indeed dips under, the coast-line of the German Ocean, extending irregularly inwards into both counties, in some parts to a considerable distance. This immense field underlies some eight hundred square miles of country; and the working of the coal from the various seams gives employment to a large number of workpeople.

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