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S. HRG. 101-555, PT. 4
ADMINISTRATION OF NATIVE
SELECT COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES SENATE
INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS
ONE HUNDRED FIRST CONGRESS
OVERSIGHT HEARING ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF NATIVE
AUGUST 10, 1989
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office
SELECT COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Chairman
DENNIS DECONCINI, Arizona
ALAN R. PARKER, Staff Director
ERIC EBERHARD, Minority Staff Director/Counsel
FRANK H. MURKOWSKI, Alaska THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi SLADE GORTON, Washington
COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
MORRIS K. UDALL, Arizona, Chairman
GEORGE MILLER, California
JAMES MCCLURE CLARKE, North Carolina WAYNE OWENS, Utah
BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL, Colorado
ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American
JAMES A. MCDERMOTT, Washington
Ranking Republican Member
DENNY SMITH, Oregon
BARBARA F. VUCANOVICH, Nevada
JOHN J. RHODES III, Arizona
STANLEY SCOVILLE, Staff Director and Counsel
RICHARD A. AGNEW, Chief Minority Counsel
CHRISTINE A. KENNEDY, Minority Clerk
23, 81, 87
Pi'ianaia, Ilima (with attachments).
Note.-Other material submitted for the record will be retained in committee files.
TESTIMONY FOR SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS
To Senator Inouye, to the members of this committee, to ka Lahui Hawai'i, and all others present today, aloha ia kakou a pau! My name is Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele. I am a full blooded Hawaiian born and raised in Hilo. I am a product of the Keaukaha Hawaiian Homesteads. I now live on the Hawaiian Homes farmlots of Waiakea/Pana'ewa.
As we were growing up in Keaukaha, the natural environment was an important factor in developing our character, likes and dislikes. The ocean was close at hand and we gather limu, pipipi, 'opihi and catch reef fish for our meals. The ocean was a major recreational element for us. Because of the lack of soil, gardening was not practical, instead raising pigs, chickens and ducks for food products or exchange products was more suitable. The streams were easy to drive to, therefore gathering ho'io, 'opae and 'o'opu added to our activities and diet. Hala was plentiful and we collected the leaves of the hala for making mats, hats, fans and slippers. The forest, which was cut away when the new airport runway_was put in, provided lehua, maile and medicinal herbs. Hawaiian Language was still spoken in the home, in churches and certainly among friends.
These activities were not unique for any one family but was a common practice among most of the families of Keaukaha. These activities was a lifestyle or way of life for us.
Another factor which insured and maintained this lifestyle is being comforted in the knowledge that we had a piece of land to live on, have your children, raise a family and recognize as an "one hanau" (birth place) by many generations.
Family identification gives one a feeling of pride and acceptance, however, place identification, such as ahupua's, 'apana or mokupuni, elevates ones self-esteem, he/she is then regarded as an 'onipa'a" (steadfast, dependable), "maka'ainana" (friend of the land), kua'aina (backbone of the land), or "keiki o ka ‘aina" (product of the land). Land identity is self identity
To connect one's self to the "Ancestral Land" is to acquire extreme pride and self-esteem, this is another level of land identification. When land becomes the home for the living and the bones of our kupuna (ancestors), as well, it is indeed "ancestral land". The archipelago is our (Hawaiian) "ancestral land". We have lived here for many generations, raised our children here, prayed to our gods, lived in harmony with our environment and we buried our love ones here. Their essence still remain in this ground we can no longer call our "ancestral land".