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maple and pine, the perennial, deciduous, fruit, and ornamental trees, in all their varieties, are more or less useful, and impart a degree of embellishment and beauty to the humblest dwelling, and greatly enhance the comfort and enjoyment of its inmates. The feeblest plant or shrub contains within itself a germ of that perfection which we so much admire in the grandest tree. Every leaf that flutters in the forest, every shrub or plant, every spear of grass or grain that waves in the valley, and the entire floral kingdom whose fragrance perfumes the air. as they rise from one degree of perfection and beauty to another, point towards heaven, and the seal of the divine architect is clearly inscribed upon them. " Behold the lilies of the field ! they toil not neither do they spin, yet Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these." What earthly gift or treasure can be more beautiful or desirable than a well cultivated fruit garden, field, or orchard richly laden with delicious fruit, bowing their branches towards the earth seemingly to invite us to receive their treasures. The grape, the peach, the plum and the pear, richly laden with their treasures, and the various delightful fruits which adorn the valley and borders of the garden, are gifts from the divine hand, and should teach us that we too in like manner should abound with the precious fruits of the Holy Spirit. The fruits of the earth, however beautiful and desirable they may be, are bending towards the earth from whence they sprang, nourish and sustain animal life and remind us of the Giver. What does this delightful state of perfection in the vegetable kingdom teach us? does it not teach us that they came from the Author of creation perfect, and that they remain passive to the forming hand ? and this passive example further teaches the necessity of passive obedience to the divine will in order that we may fulfil the moral and Christian obligations that devolve upon us. Then would the distilling dews of heaven continue to rest upon the tender buds and branches of moral and Christian virtues, causing them to expand; and even as the rose of the valley and lily of the field unfold their leaves and impart their fragrant perfume to the air, so would every Christian example of piety holiness and virtue diffuse its sacred influence, and rise up as sweet incense before the Lord, while the attention would be invited to this unerring standard and many would flee unto it. It is simply the design of this article to bring the subject of the beauty and order of the optwurd and visible creation into view, that we may, in moments of retirement, contemplate upon its vast magnitude, sublimity and grandeur. As the mineral kingdom holds an essential and important rank in its order, it should not be entirely overlooked. Its treasures are mostly enclosed in the bosom of the earth. They are gradually revealed through diligent search and
labor, and are wisely adapted to the wants of man. Deprived of the mineral kingdom, man with all his boasted wisdom and scientific knowledge could never fill the void. All the works of the Creator are the fruits of his love, conferred upon us for a wise and noble purpose. But in order that our peace and enjoyment may become full and our happiness complete, we must love and adore the Giver more than all His gifts. Fairfield Co., Con., 3d mo. 2Sth, 1857.
For Friends' Intelligencer.
BY JOSEPH FOCLKE.
It would be very desirable that the " Life of Thomas Story" might be made more public. The work was written by himself and publishod by his executors, John Wilson, James Wilson and William Williamson, out of funds set apart for the purpose in his " will," in pursuance of which, it appears by an advertisement prefixed to the work, that "they have accordingly printed a certain number of copies of the said Journal, to be bestowed upon the public as the Author's Legacy, of which uumber this volume is one."
The volume now before me is entire, except the title page, and contains 768 pages, folio. I propose making some extracts from it for "Friends' Intelligencer," in the hope that some way may open for the whole work to fall into the hands of the rising generation. The name of Thomas Story stands high in the estimation of Friends and others who are acquainted with the early history of Pennsylvania. The appointments conferred on him by William Penn, when the government was in a critical state, show the confidence that eminent worthy reposed in him.
His executors above named, in their address to the readers of his Journal, say of him, that "he was known to be a man of excellent understanding and extensive learning;" and yet, like th; apostle, he accounted all these accomplishments "like dross, that he might win Christ." H > begius his Journal as follows :—
"That which I intend by the following work, is to record the tender mercies and judgments of the Lord ; to relate my owu experience of his dealings with me through the course of my life; and to write a faithful Journal of my travels and labors in the service of the gospel, which I design for my own review, and likewise for the serious perusal of all those who may incline to enquire into tilings of this nature.
"I have solid evidence to believe that tbe Lord in his great mercy and kindness had an eye upon me for good, even in my infancy, inclining my heart to seek after him in my tender years; from whence I may reasonably conclude arose that early inclination I had to solitude, where I sometimes had religious thoughts, and frequently read in the holy Scriptures, which I ever loved and still do, above all books, as most worthy aud roost profitable, especially the New Testament, in which I chiefly delighted.
"In this state my mind suffered many Sowings and ebbings, and as I grew up towards a young man, I found myself under great disadvantages in matters of religion as I was then circumstanced, for my father, intending me for the study of the law, which being esteemed a genteel profession, he first sent me to the fencing school as a fashionable and manly accomplishment. Here I became a considerable proficient in a short time, and obtained the chief vogue over all my neighboring cotemporaries in that faculty, by which my mind was greatly drawn out, and too much alienated from those beginnings of solidity which I had once known ; and having acquired some skill also in music, the exercise of that occasioned an acquaintance and society not profitable to religion, though I was hitherto preserved from such things as are generally accounted evils among mankind.
After this, I was put to the study of the law under a counsellor in the country, thereby to be initiated, witha design to be entered afterwards into one of the inns of Court, and to make further progress and finish there. But being much in the country, and the family sober and religious in their way, of the most moderate sort of Presbyterians, I had again the advantage of .solitude and little company, and that innocent, so that my mind turned to its former state and further search after the truth. And though I had at times some youthful airs, yet through secret grace I was preserved from gross evils and gained respect from all the family. (He next records occurrences of 1158G.)
To be continued.
For Friends' Intelligencer.
It awakens an awe amounting to reverence for the divine gift, with love and teuder regard for its adherents, to contemplate their lives and the incidents attending them, where the wonderworking power of the Creator has been marvellously displayed through his servants, by their unswerving obedience to His spirit's re'vealings. The most powerful potentates aruoug heathen nations, whose gods were gold and silver, vrood and stone, have been brought to acknowledge the superior power of the "one true and living God" by the steadfastness of those that believed in His name, and stood in their stability in times of trial. Upborne by a holy confidence and clothed with the panoply of innocence, they feared no threats from such as swayed the sceptre of human power, and ruled the nations as with a rod of iron.
Among the bright and shining lights that emit a radiance as from the presence of the Father of light and spirit, stands the prophet
Daniel. In the vigor of youth he, with others, was taken captive, and carried from the inheritance of their fathers and their revered Jerusalem to a land of strangers. There his devotion, his wisdom, and manly beauty attracted attention from those in high places, and gained for him that esteem and preferment which eventually brought him to the king's court, and raised him in the estimation of lords and counsellors ; he was then chosen as one upon whom favor shined, to be instructed in the language and science of the Chaldeans, and then to stand in the palace royal.
In this situation his dedication and adherence to the customs of his ancestors were conspicuous; he would not partake of the king's provisions, deeming it a defilement, and begged instead of the assigned portion of meat and wine from his majesty's table, he might have pulse and water, which request was granted, because of the favor he had obtained. Ten days he proposed to prove the effects, and when examined, after religiously declining what might have tended to weaken their faith, he and his companions appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than the full fed.
When the days of preparation were fulfilled, they were brought before the king, and he found them ten times better than the magicians and astrologers of his realm. This was soon to be proved by a circumstance wherein life and death were at issue. The time had arrived when it pleased the Almighty to show this lofty sovereign his power was limited; that a greater than he could overthrow kings. The visions of his head upon his bed troubled him, and the subjects that caused disquiet were not made clear enough to divulge. Now were the wise men of his broad domain called upon, and their power to propound difficult questions tested.
But ah ! a rare and hard thing was required, both to tell the dream and to show the interpretation, or endure his displeasure who would destroy them utterly. Now were these presuming men brought into a great, strait, and they entreated him to show the dream, and then, after their manner, they would presume to tell the interpretation; he still answered them, "The thing is gone from me, and I certainly know ye would gain the time" to disclose the mystery. Seeing they could not do it, a decree went out that all the wise men of Babylon should be slain.
Then came forth Daniel inquiring why the decree was so hasty from the king, and appearing in his presence, desired he would waive the execution and give him tim"e, and he would show the whole matter.
Then Daniel went to his house and called upon his companions to unite with him in desiring mercy of the God of heaven, that He would reveal to him the secret, lest they also should perish, and He in whom they trusted listened to theirentreaty and revealed thesecret to Daniel in a night vision. Then did he burst forth in acclamations of thanksgiving to that being who knoweth what is in the darkness, and light dwelleth with Him; "I thank Thee and praise Thee O! thou God of my fathers, who hath given me wisdom and might, and made known unto me what I desired of Thee." Then was the decree reversed, and this captive of Judah presented before the king to testify that no man of the class called upon could answer the demand, but the God of heaven only,—He will make known what shall be in the latter days. How he clearly described the image, the form, proportions and the materials of whi«h it was composed, and though the form was terrible, the materials were such as could not long adhere together. The head was gold, the breast and arms silver, the body brass, the feet of iron and clay. Thou sawest till a stone cut out without hands smote the feet and broke them in pieces, then was the whole of this mighty structure broken to pieces and became like chaff of the summer threshing floor, and the wind carried them away, but the stone became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.
Thou 0 ! king art this head of gold. The God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and glory; but strong as is thy power, it shall be severed and rent asunder, and He who is King of kings and Lord of lords shall set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed.
But as for me this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have, more than any living, but for thee 0 ! king, that thou mightest know the thoughts of thine heart. 0 ! sweet humility to bow reverently and give God the glory. Then the king bowed before Daniel and said, of a truth your God is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldst reveal this secret.
Then the king made Daniel a great man, gave him many gifts and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief governor over the wise men, and by his request W6re his companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego set also over the affairs of the province, but Daniel sat in the gate of the king.
Thus did the everlasting Father magnify himself in the eyes of a mighty monarch, by the unwavering integrity of a young man, who stood before Him in simple obedience without fear or favor, a humble captive, subject to his will whose sway was absolute. Ah! in the exercise of thespiritof meekness the haughty was brought to bow before the humble, and to acknowledge "the Most High ruled."
4th mo. Yltli, 1857.
[To be continued.]
If you follow Satan, you will find the tempter prove a tormentor; if you follow the Spirit, you
will find the counsellor prove a comforter. — Juhn Mason.
FRIENDS' I NTELLIGKNCER.
PHILADELPHIA, FOURTH MONTH 25, 1857.
There were those in ancient time who thought the " former days were better than these," and the preacher declared, thit they "spake not wisely," and it is probable there have been those in every period of "the world since that time, who regarded the former days better than those in which they lived, and there are those who are inclined to look upon the men and the institutions which preceded them, as superior to any of their own time. How far this may be the result of temperament, of association, or of circumstances which surround us, it may not be necessary to enquire, but such is the fact.
In comparing the past with the present by the light which history has handed down to us, we arc not prepared to take so discouraging a view of the subject. We believe it is not profitable, nor will it tend to our advancement either in knowledge or goodness, to believe that the human race are making no right progress, but are in a constant state of degeneracy.
It is true that old heads cannot transmit all the lessons which they have learned to younger ones. It seems to be a necessary part of our probation that each succeeding generation should learn many things by experience, and this experience is often purchased by the things we suffer, and yet we believe that history teaches that there is not only a gradual advance in the Arts and Sciences, but in the elements of substantial goodness. It is true that mankind are slow to learn, yet each generation leaves a legacy to its successor. While the same evils which afflicted the race in the early period of the world, are still exerting their influence, and producing the same bitter fruits, we incline to believe that they are generally ameliorated, and that there is a better appreciation of what is honest, just and true.
Notwithstanding the slow advance which it would appear Christianity has made since the advent of the Prince of Peace, we may be encouraged by the view of the evangelical prophet, when he saw in prophetic vision the ushering in of the Redeemer's Kingdom, and declared that of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end.
The^e remarks have been suggested by an arti'•lein the present number entitled "1756," which ''urnijhes a portion of some phases of English society which we can hardly think could be reenacted in 1857.
Died, On the 1st of Third month, 1857, Caroline, wife of David Davis-, in the 36th year of her age, a Member oi Evesham Monthly Meeting, New Jersey.
, At his residence, near Fall Creek Meeting of
Friends, Indiana, Solomon W. Roberts, in the C2d year of t. is age.
, At his residence in Clearfield County, Pa.,
■<n the 3uth_ ult., Wm. Cleaver, aged 45 years 11 months and 10 days. He was n Minister and Elder "f Centre Quarterly Meeting, a branch of Baltimore Yearly Meeting.
He was ill nearly two weeks with various diseases, and although his sufferings were extreme, he was □ever hca d to complain; and he remained quiet and his mind clear to the last.
He left a widow and five children to mourn his loss. In the death of this friend society and the commnnity deeply feel the bereavement.
. On 7th day, 11th inst., at the residence of
Thomas Ballenger, Evesham, N. J., Phebe Glover, a Minister, in the 44th year of her age. Her illness, which was short, she bore with Christian resignation, often expressing that all was " peace." Her daily life was such as adorns a Christian—meek, gentle, faithful and obedient, yet unassuming and humble in estimation of herself. Though her offerings in public were in great simplicity, yet as they were of her living cast into the treasury, they were accepted as the "widow's mite."
. At his residence in Cecil County, Md., on the
15th ulu, Daniel C. Denny, in the 43d year of his age.
, On Fourth day 15th inst., Hannah Smith,
wife of James Smith, Salem, N. J., in the 71st year of her ajre. after a lingering illness, which confined her to her bed, of 9 years.
000; one $12,000; one $14,000 ; six $15,000; four $20,000; five $30,000; two $40,000. The names of twenty-five others are given, and" it is stated that these and many others, whose names are not mentioned, have property ranging in value from three to twenty thousand dollars.
THE COLORED POPULATION OF CINCINNATI.
The Cincinnati Sun says the colored people of that city number about 5000 souls. Of their occupations and wealth it is stated—there are live physicians, one of whom has a very large practice among both whites and blacks; twelve fTOcers; thirty music and school teachers; five daguerrcotypists; one patent roofer; five bricklayers and stone-masons; two trunkmakers; twelve dealers in market; five or six boot and ihoemakers; a number of excellent tailors, blacksmiths and carpenters; and one hundred milliners, dress-makers, shirt-makers and tailoresses. Among them are Henry Boyd, one of the largest wd best cabinet manufacturers in the city, who i» worth at least $40,000; J. P. Ball, R. G. Ball and J. C. Ball, who take as fine daguerreotypes as are taken in the world, and who are worth $30,000 at least. The names of 13 of tHe*e colored people are given, whose property is valued at $10,000 ; three $6,000 ; five $5,000; -ne S 1,000 ; one §3,000 ; one $9,000 ; one $8,
8EVENTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SIX.
The final day of the period known and to be chronicled in the world's history as Anno Domini 1856, is quickly waning away into the irretrievable region of the past; and the deep-toned bells are ready to announce, with pealing chime, the advent of another January, the first day of a new year—a day of solemn and serious consideration, if you will, yet one also of social greetings and innocent enjoyment. In all seemliness and propriety, we may mingle gaiety with gravity, and be merry as well as meditative, while hopefully wending our way by this prominent landmark in the pilgrimage of life; for whatever individual suffering or distress we may have encountered in the passing, or may naturally expect to meet with in the corning year, we console ourselves with the reflection, that the aggregate amount of human misery is gradually decreasing—that the world is annually becoming wiser, better, and happier. As the careful merchant, at the close of a year, enumerates his stock, balances his books, and congratulates himself on his gains, or sighs over his losses, so it might not be amiss if we made a few inquiries respecting our progress in civilization and refinement, in the improvement of the individual and society at large. We can do so only by summoning up the past, and comparing it with the present; and though it be true that the coming year opens with fairer prospects than its forerunner, inasmuch as peace is preferable to war, yet a single twelvemonth, however important an item in the lifetime of a man, is but an infinitesimal portion in the age of the world. Consequently, we must, if we wish to estimate properly our advancement or retrogression, include a much greater scope of time. Let us, then, looking back one hundred years, examine the records of 1756, and we shall find that our advance has been prodigious, and learn that all silly maundering about the good old times is worse than nonsense.
Though the French and their savago Indian allies were ravaging the frontiers of our then American colonies—though the governor of Pennsylvania, a British officer and gentleman, was offering a bounty of 150 dollars for every male French or Indian scalp, and the third of that sum for every female one, that could be taken an4 brought to him—though English ships-ofwarwero capturing and destroying French merchantmen wherever they could bo met with, yet the two nations were at peace—such a peace !— during nearly the first five months of 1756. As heartless Horace Walpole remarks of this period, the English and French ministers were crossing over, and figuring in—in politics. Each country, in fact, was sedulously preparing for war, while deceitfully, or diplomatically, which is much the same sort of thing, endeavoring to gain time by pretending to treat for peace.
There were few newspapers in those days ; and indeed there were little if any of that literary, scientific, and social intelligence we now include under the denomination of home news. The leading announcements, referring to domestic affairs, in the journals of 1756, are little more than records of crimes and punishments, and the proceedings of press-gangs. According to our modern notions, Loudon could not have been a very pleasant place to reside in at that time. Highwaymen labored in their vocation at Kniglitsbridge; well-guarded mails were stopped, and robbed at Netting Hill. Some parts of the metropolis were'continual scenes of riot and disorder. Spitalfields was a complete Alsatia. The denizens, principally weavers of that locality, whom we now associate with ideas of feeble misery and helpless poverty, were then the terror of London. In organized bodies, and armed with cutlasses and bludgeons, these Ishmacls of the gutter fought with hordes of Irish, crowds of soldiers, and crews of sailors; and even afforded a sanctuary to numbers from the formidable pressgang. They were known by the appellation of Gutters, because they levied a frequent blackmail, from the master manufacturers, of four shillings on each loom employed in the district; and if the money were not promptly paid, they cut into pieces the cloth or yarn in process of manufacture. The Cutters reigned till 1769, when their leaders were attacked in their headquarters, a public-house named the Dolphin, by a posse of magistrates and constable*, supported by a detachment of soldiers. The preliminary summons to surrender being treated with contemptuous indifference, a brisk firing commenced from both sides. The Cutters, barricading the lower part of the house, fired out of the windows, till the door was forced; they then retreated over the adjoining house-tops, firing as they went. By this bold defence, they succeeded in escaping to a man; but one soldier was shot dead on the spot, and others were severely wounded. In consequence of this affray, the parish church was converted into a temporary barracks, and occupied by a strong body of troops, who succeeded at last in putting down the pugnacious Cutters.
The bill for building Blackfriar's Bridge was passed in 1756—of course not without great opposition from ' vested interests'—and one of the arguments .adduced in favor of the project was, that between Fleet Street and the Thames on one side, and Holborn on the other, there were noth
ing but ruins, filth, alleys, and dung-hills—the lurking-places of the most desperate and flagitious characters. Even the best parts of London were frequented by footpads; and gentlemen, when out at night, in preference to riding in a carriage or chair, walked, with their drawn swords in their hands, so as to be better prepared to repel an attack; for then almost every male adult wore a sword—a custom which, allowing no time for passion to subside or reason to reflect, led to frequent and fatal encounters. Every tavern, gaming-house, and disreputable haunt was the scene of sanguinary contests between wine-maddened duellists. So common and so little thought of were these occurrences, that we seldom meet with notices of them in the newspapers of the time, except in connection with some other circumstance; as for instance: 'The cook at the Shakspeare, who was run through the body in endeavoring to prevent two gentlemen from fighting a duel, is in a fair way of recovery.'
A few years previous to the time of which we write, the king, in his speech to parliament, said: 'It is with the utmost regret I observe that the horrid crimes of robbery and murder arc, of late, rather increased than decreased.' As a remedy for this state of affairs, a reward of L.40 was given to every one who arrested a thief, and prosecuted him to conviction and the inevitable gallows. The suburban districts also formed societies, and gave L.100 more, if the offence took place five miles distant from the city. Moreover, every one who captured a highwayman was entitled to the culprit's horse, whatever might be its value, or whoever might have been its legitimate owner. The highwaymen, being well mounted and well armed, were seldom captured, except in their hours of recreation. But these rewards gave rise to a regular business of ' thief-making' and ' thieftaking.' Gangs of villains, conspiring together, trepanned simple youths into seeming robberies; and succeeded in hanging numbers of lads, for the purpose of pocketing the price of their guiltless blood. As may be supposed, those ancient English institutions, the gallows, pillory, and whipping-post, flourished exceedingly one hundred years ago.
In Maitland's History of London, published in 1756, there is an engraving of Newgate, as it then appeared, and on the top of the building we see a large machine resembling the sails of a wind-mill. This was a ventilator, to dissipate the vitiated air of the prison, which it did, to the great annoyance of the neighborhood. The cause of this machine being erected was, simply, that in the spring of 1750, the jail-distemper, a kind of typhus now unknown, caused by crowding and insufficient air, found its way from the jail to the sessions-house, and killed two judges, one lordmayor, several aldermen, jurymen, and others, to the number, in all, of sixty persons. The building of this ventilator, though a step in the right