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when demands come upon us for services of a sharp aud painful nature. "As thy days, so shall thy strength be:" and with every required duty a voice may be heard, saying, " Fear thou not: for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will keep thee; yea, 1 will uphold thee with the right hand of my righteousness."
In a number of instances, remarkable impressions were made upon Arthur Howell, OHe of "the by-gone generation," of which it is desirable some record should be kept and transmission made to posterity.
On one occasion, he, with several otherFricnds, went on board a ship about to sail for England, two or niore of whom were about to embark on a religious visit to that country, and were looking for a suitable ship. After going round and finding eomfortable accommodations, they all sat down in quietness in the cabin to endeavor to come to a right decision in relation to taking their p-issage in her. Hannah Fisher was one of the Friends thus convened, and she often repeated the circumstance. The silence was broken by one who said, "he could see no objection;" another thought the ship a good one, &c.; and for a time it appeared that a favorable decision might be come to. But at length, Arthur Howell, who hail not previously spoken, put out his cane and with motions as if he were writing with it, said: "If I had a piece of chalk, I would write on this cabin floor, this is not the ship, neither is this the time." This impressive sentence, and the feeling accompanying, settled the question. The Friends waited for another conveyance—and that ship was wrecked on that voyage."
Another very remarkable circumstance occurred, in which Arthur Howell yielded to the impressions made upon his mind, and in obedience to the pointings of Truth, in which ho had implicit faith, went furth in manner following :—
One morning he told one of his sons to get his chaise, saying ho was going into the country. When they were seated in it, his son asked him which way he was to drive. Arthur could not tell of any particular meeting or destination, but told him what direction to take, and they went on until they came to Germantown meeting, when the son naturally supposed he was to turn in there; but was told to " drive on." After a while they overtook a funeral, when Arthur said: "join that funeral"—which they did. And after the last rites wcra performed, and the minster had finished his service, Arthur stepped forward, and in his impressive manner said, that he was commissioned to come there and declare, that the woman whom they had just interred, teas innocent of the crime of which she had been charged! After thus delivering his message, he was turning to go away, being an entire stranger to all assent
bled; but the minister followed, and told him he esteemed him a prophet. That the person just buried wax a woman—and that she had in her life time been charged with a crime of which she always declared herself to be innocont ;—and i furthermore had told some of those about her in her last illness, that a stranger would appear at her grave and testify to her innocence of the charges which had been made against her.
The foregoing* facts are forcible and convincing evidences of the sufficiency of that internal guidance, in which we profess to have faith—and well would it bo for us if our faith were strong enough to produce corrspondent works.
THE WORLD WAS MADE FOR ALL.
Tn looking at our age, lam struck immediately with one commanding characteristic, and that is, the teudency of all its movements to expansion, to diffusion, to universality. To this I ask your attentiou. This tendency is directly opposed to the exclusivcness, restriction, narrowness, monopoly, which has prevailed in past ages. Human action is now freer, more unconfined.. All goods, advantages, helps arc more open to all. The privileged, petted individual, is becoming less, and the human race are becoming more. The multitude is rising from the dust. Once we heard of a few, not of the many; once of the prerogatives of a part, now of the rights of all. We are looking, as never before, through the disguised develope ments of ranks and classes, to the common nature which is below them; and are beginning to learn that every being who partakes of it has noble powers to cultivate, solemn duties to perform, inalienable rights to assert, a vast destiny to accomplish. The grand idea of humanity, of the importance of muu as man, is spreadiog silently but surely. Not that the worth of the human being is at all understood as it should be; the truth is glimmering through the darkness. A faint consciousness of it has seized on the public mind. Even the most abject portions of society are visited by some dreams of a better condition, for which they were designed. The grand doctrine that every human being should have the means of self-culture, of progress in knowledge and virtue, of health, comfort and happiuess, of exercising the powers and affections of a man; this is slowly taking its place, as the highest social truth. That the world was made for all; that the great end of government is to spread a shield over the rights of ail—these propositions are growing into axioms, aud the spirit of them is coming forth in all the departments of life.— Dr. Cltanning.
HOW TO BE BEAUTIFUL.
If man, or woman either, wish to realize the full power of personal beauty, it must bo by cherishing noble actions and purposes—by having something to do, and something to live for which is worthy of humanity, and which, by expanding the capacities of the soul, gives expansion and symmetry to the body which contains it.—Professor Vpham.
PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 7, 1857.
We have received the 16th Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, and take pleasure in transferring to our columns, an abstract of the results which have attended the treatment of the patientsin that Institution during the past year. It is now satisfactorily demonstrated that Insanity is a disease which in its first stage is curable in a majority of cases, and the Pennsylvania Institution, under the care of Dr. Kirkbride, was among the first to adopt those mild and Christian means of treatment which have been so successful.
About three years ago, the managers published an appeal to their fellow citizens, in which it was stated that the applicants for admission into the present building, exceeded the means of accommodation, and opened a subscription for $250,000, which it was intended to apply for the erection of another Hospital on the same premises. We learn from the present report that $219,000 have been generously subscribed since the "appeal" was issued, and the managers commenced the new building in 7th month last. The foundations were laid, and a large portion of the culverts and underground ventilating ducts completed before the close of the building season.
It is estimated that the new hospital shall accommodate 200 male patients, while the present building will be appropriated exclusively to females.
Among the statistical tables in the Report we are informed that ill health continues the most prominent cause of Insanity. The next most prominent cause is intemperance, and upon this subject Dr. Kirkbride remarks:
"The ruined health of many of its victims, the entire loss of property, the blasted hopes of whole families, the domestic difficulties so generally following in its train, the ill treatment of wives and children—these, and a thousand other sources of mental anxiety, are often among the sad results of this ruinous habit." The use
of opium and tobacco are also recorded as producing Insanity.
"Common as is the use of the latter article/'says Dr. Kirkbride, "its injurious influence on many constitutions is much more serious than is commonly supposed, and not unfrequently the cause of exceedingly troublesome and obscure nervou* afiections, which cannot be cured, while its use is persisted in.
The effect in many insane patients is so striking, that an intelligent attendant is often able to say without difficulty, when it has been used to any extent.
When occasionally gratified, the craving f<>r it is very strong; but an entire disuse of \\ for & week, will commonly obviate all serious annoyance from abandoning the habit, and I have never known any injury to result from its sudden discontinuance. I have no doubt that much advantage is gained from its being strictly interdicted within the walls of an Institution for the Insane."—P. 25.
We would refer our readers to the short abstract which we have made in another part of this number, referring those who may desire a copy of this interesting Report to a member of the Board of Managers.
Married,—On 5th day, the 26th of 2d Month, at the house (if Willam Holmes, Upper Greenwich, N. J., according to the order of Friends, Samuel Haines to Anna Eliza Holmes, both of that place.
Difd,—Of consumption, at his residence in Galen, N. Y., first day of Firs (month, 1857, Tho.-.iab ShotWell, in the 71st year of his age—a member and Elder of Junius Monthly Meeting and Genesee Yearly Meeting. He was diligent in the attendance of all our religious meetings for worship and discipline; and in his removal, sociity has sustained a loss sensibly felt in the little meeting to which he belonged. Our dear Friend was an affectionate husband and father and a kind neighbor.
A new year has taken him into its train, where years of conflict have no beginning and days of glory no end.
, At her residence, near Darby, Pa., on Fifth
day, the 19th inst., Naomi Passmo&e, in the 69th year of her age.
A Staled Meeting of the Committee of Management of the LibraryAssociation of Friends will be held in the Library Room on Fourth day evening next, the 11th inst., at 7£ o'clock.
Third mo. 7, 1857.
THE THREE PHYSICIANS.
The celebrated French physician, Dunmoulin, on hifl deathbo'l, when surrounded by the most distinguished citizens of Paris, who regretted the
loss which the profession would su-taiu in his death, said :—My friends, I leave behind me three physicians much greater than myself."— Being pressed to name tliem, each of the doctors supposing himself to be one of the three, he answered, " Water, Exercise, and Diet."
For Friends' Intelligencer.
Review of the Weather, Sfc. for Second Month.
Rain during some portion of the 24 hours, 2d's 6d's
Cloudy days without storms, ..66
The mean Temperature of this month the present year, per Penn Hospital has been 41.03° that of last year, 26.10°, while the average ditto for the past sixty-eight years has been 30°, shewing the present year to have been eleven degrees above the average; a height of temperature not to be found on our record for any Second month, as far hack as 1790 inclusive!
The mean Temperature of the three winter months of thin season has been 32.04°, that of last season 29°, while the average winter temperatures for the past sixty-eight years has been nearly 31°. Notwithstanding the First month of this year had no parallel for intensity of cold during that entire period, the Twelfth and Second months of the winter season just closed were so mild that it will he perceived the present winter Temperature has been one dejrec above the average.
The amount of rain for the Second month of this year was .79 inch, (about three quarters of an inch,) same month last year with fewer rainy days, 1.23 inches. J. M. E.
Philadelphia, 2d mo. Sd, 1857.
bility. The peculiar stitch or bend of the worsted fibers in knit work, and the hot water and washing to which they are subjected during their stocking existence, has the effect of producing a permanent elasticity in the product, which no new wool can bo found to equal; and this fact may be of value to those who manufacture blankets for printing-presses, and the like permanently elastic sheets. By this trade Dewsberry has increased from a little village to a city of 30,000 inhabitants. Garments from all parts of Great Britain, Europe, and even America, are there torn up and assorted.
The little town of Dewsberry in Yorkshire, England, is chiefly responsible for whatever merit or demerit attaches to the utilizing of cast off woolens, which generally passes in Eugland by the name of the Dewsberry trade. Immense warehouses are filled with old stockings, worth $35 to 950 a ton; white flannels, worth $50 to $100; and carefully assorted black cloth, worth ♦ 100 to 8150; while all the rubbish, consisting of seams, linseys and nondescripts, are worth $10 to $15 per ton for manufacturing prussiate of potash. All the better materials are ground or "pulled up" into a loose mass resembling the original fibers. Generally speaking, this material is far inferior to new wool, and its admixture into almost every species of cloths, now extensively practiced, while it detracts but little from their appearance, has a serious effect upon their dura
Report of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the In' sant for the year 1856. By Thomas S. Kirk" Bride, M. D., Physician to the Institution.
At the date of the last report there were 230 patients in the Institution; since which 166 have been admitted, and 17-i have been discharged or died, leaving 224 uuder care at the close of the year.
The total number of patients in tho Hospital during the year was 39G. The highest number at any one time was 244; the lowest was 224; and the average number under treatment during the whole period was 233.
From the beginning to the end of the year the Hospital has been full, generally crowded, and for some weeks we were compelled to decline nearly every applicant. Since the last report was made, as many as fifty suitable cases have applied who could not be received, and although we were fully aware of the serious loss they were likely to suffer by being retained in the positions they then occupied, the extreme annoyance often suffered by their families and friends on this account, and occasionally the great risks to which the comniunity were exposed by their unprotected situation, still, justice to those already under care, and a proper regard to the character of the Institution, left no alternative.
Of the patients discharged during the year 1856, were
Cured, .... 89
Stationary, . . . 13
Died, .... 22
Total, . \ . . 172 Of the patients discharged "cured," thirtyfour were residents of the Hospital not exceeding three months; twenty-five between three and six months; twenty-two between six months and one year; and eight for more than one year.
Of those discharged "much improved," three were under treatment less than three months; nine between three and six months; five between six months and one year; and five for more than , one year.
Of the " improved," seven were under care less than three months; four between three and six months; four between six months and one year ; and eleven for more than one year.
Of those discharged and reported "stationary," two were under care less than three months; one between three and six months; two between six months and one year; and eight for a longer period than one year.
Eight males and fourteen females have died during the year. Of these deaths, seven resulted from that form of acute mania, which is always so dangerous in its character; three from organic disease (softening) of the brain; three from tubercular consumption; three from chronic diarrhoea; one from congestion of the brain; one from suicide ; one from dysentery ; and three from gradual exhaustion, induced by high mental excitement, want of sleep, and a steady refusal of food.
Of the patients who died, fourteen were admitted for mania, one for melancholia, one for monomania, and six for dementia.
Of these cases, seven, being those who died of acute mania, terminated in periods varying from four to thirty-seven days; one case which was with us but live d:iys, was a very striking example of the highest grade of acute mania, supervening on a chronic form of insanity of some standing; four other cases were in the Hospital less than three months; two between six months and one year; two between one and two years; four between three and five years; one for seven years; one for ten, and one for more than fifteen years.
Among the causes which produce insanity, the following arc noted :—
The term mental anxiety, although somewhat indefinite, is sufficiently explicit for our purpose, embracing a great variety of causes which, in this way, manifest their influence in producing insanity. The anxiety often felt by mothers watching sick children, till the power to sleep is lost, of a merchant whose all is staked on a desperate venture, of any, where the prospects of an entire family are dependent on a long deferred judicial decision, are examples of what are referred to. Many of the delusions of the day, without being dignified with a separate title, also come under this category. "Millcnsm," in its day, sent many victims to most of our hospitals, and what is now called "spiritual investigations," is not a' » prolific cause of the disease. In reference to this last, no impartial person, who reads the records or sees the cases that enter institutions for the insane can doubt but that, wih many excellent and honest minded persons^ the pursuit of these "investigations" —whatever else may result from them—does seriously involve the mental integrity, and that it may be again, as it already has been in many
cases received here, destructive of the happii of whole families, the ruin of bright prospects, and subjecting the sufferers to a long period of distressing disease, if not of hopeless insanity.
The curability of insanity depends so much upon the period at which it is placed under proper treatment, that it is gratifying to find that so large a number as 1,552 cases were sent here within three months of the attack; 203 between three and six months; and 350 between six months and one year. When the disease has existed longer than the time last named, without proper treatment, the chances of restoration are greatly diminished. Although a case does occasionally get well after three, five, seven, or even ten years, no one has a right to expect such a result. Many of the cases of longstanding received here came to this Institution from the Hospital in the city, when insane patients ceased to be received there, or were brought from their own houses, or other places of residence, more for the purpose of having a comfortable home than with any prospect of their being perfectly restored.
nit. Kane's Arctic Explorations.
Two volumes—forming one of the most beautiful products of the American press—have just been added- to the already extensive series which comprises the annals of arctic adventure. These I very remarkable books contain a narrative of the proceedings of the second Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, and they are the record of a talo of endurance and noble effort, which has had no parallel, at least since the days when the lamented object of the search made good his retreat from the outskirts of the remorseless frost-land, which now holds him, it is to be feared, for ever in its depths.
The expedition, under the command of Dr. Kane, sailed from New York on the 30th of May, 1853. It consisted of eighteen chosen men, besides the commander, embarked in a small brig of 144 tons burden, named the Advance, which was furnished by Mr. Grinnell, other expenses being contributed by Mr. Pea body and several generous individuals and societies. Dr. Kane's predetermined course was to enter the strait discovered the previous year by Captain Inglefield, at the top of Baffin Biy, and to push as far northward through it as practicable. He engaged the services of a native Esquimaux, of the name of HansChristetisen,atFisk"i najs, and then crossed Melville Bay, in the wake of the vast icebergs with which the sea is there strewn. These huge frozen masses are often driven one way by a deep current, while the floes are drifted in another by winds and surface-streams, disruptions being thus necessarily caused in the vast ice-fields. The doctor's tactics were to dodge about in the rear of th:se floating ice-mountains,
holding upon them whenever adverse winds were troublesome, and pressing forward whenever an opportunity occurred. This plan was so skilfully and pertinaciously followed, that by the 28th of August the brig was lodged in a small bay on the eastern coast of Smith's Strait, some forty or fifty miles beyond Captain Inglefield's furthest position. There the Advance became untrue to the prestige of her name, for having been snugly placed in the midst of a cluster of islands, she turned into a fixture, and obstinately refused to bu'lge another inch. Where she was berthed in September of 1853, she now remains.
On the 10th of September, the thermometer was down to 14 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, and all the fr.igmentary floes and ice-masses were so cemented together by young ice, that the men could walk and sledge anywhere round the ship. It had therefore become obvious to all concerned, that there remained nothing else to be done but to make the best preparations for the winter that were possible in the circumstances. The hold was unstowed, a storehouse was prepared on ono of the islands close by, and a snug deck-house was built over the cabin. A dog-house was also constructed for the accommodation of nine Newfoundland and thirty-five Esquimaux dogs, which formed the quadrupedal element of the expedition. Upon another island, an observatory was erected, a very ingenious plan being adopted for the preparation of an extemporaneous adamant to serve as the piers of the astronomical instruments. Gravel and ice were well rammed down into empty peminican casks, and there left to be consolidated hy the intensity of the cold. They were soon transmuted into a material as free from tremor as the densest rock.
On the 20th of September, seven men were sent out with a sledge to deposit a store of provisions in advance, in preparation for an cxploring-party that was in progress of organisation. The party was out twenty-eight days, and succeeded in placing 800 pounds of provison in cache a hundred miles towards the north, near the debouchure of a huge glacier, which was discovered shooting out from the Greenland coast over an extent of thirty miles. This was within the eightieth parallel of latitude.
While the advanced-party were absent upon this duty, the commander seized the opportunity to endeavor to rid the brig of a troublesome colony of rats, which had attached themselves to the explorers' fortunes. Three charcoal fires were lit in the fore-peak, and the hatches and bulk-heads hermetically closed. The doctor soon after detected a suspicious odor; and upon looking into the cause, found a square yard of the inner deck one mass of glowing fire, which was extinguished only after great exertion and risk from the uiophitic vapor. The result of the experiment was the dead bodies of twenty-eight
rats, which the experimentalist gloated over at tho time. Before he escaped from his arctic quarters, however, bo had learned to be less prodigal of rat-life. Onee, upon a more recent occasion, when starting upon a .sledge-journey with a companion, he recorded that he had added to the stores, for his own especial consumption, a luxury which consisted of 'a few rats chopped up and frozen into a tallow ball.'
Direct sunlight visited the deck of the brig for the first time on the last day of February, after an absence of 1-10 days. The earliest trace of dawning twilight was seen as a fleeting dash of oraugo tint on the southern horizon on the 21st of January. Dr. Kane climbed a lofry crag to catch sight of the returning sun on the 21st of February, and describes his nestling there for a few minutes in the sunshine as like 'bathing in perfumed water.' The mean temperature of the month of February in this high latitude of 78 degrees 37 minutes, the most northern station iu which any body of civilised men have ever wintered, was 67 degrees below zero. The thermometer occasionally stood 102 degrees below freezing. The mean temperature of the year was two degrees lower than that of Sir Edward Parry's winter-station at Melville Islaud. The shores and islands were hemmed in, in the spring, by a continuous ice-belt 27 feet thick and 120 feet wide. In sheltered positions, freezing was never intermitted for a single instant throughout the year, and snow was fulling on the 21st of J une.
During the winter's residence in this severe climate, the interests of science were not overlooked. Resides such observations of the heavenly bodies as were essential for the exact determination of the position of the observatory, a continued series of magnetic observations was made and registered. The doctor gives a very graphic description of the proceedings on what he calls the magnetic 'term-days.' A fur-muffled observer sat upon a box on those momentous days, with a chronometer in his bare hand, and with his eye fixed to a small telescope, noting the position of a fine necdlo upon a divided arc every six minutes, and registering the observation in a note-book; the process being carried on uninterruptedly by two sets of eyes for twentyfour hours at a stretch.
On the 19th of March, continuous day having set in, a travelling-party was seut off to increase the deposits of provison at the advanced cache. On the 31st, three of th<> ■>,y returned, swollen, haggard, and hardly able to speak. The utmost they had been able to accomplish was the deposit of their burden some fifty miles away from the ship. They had been enveloped in 'most impenetrable snow-drifts, and four of th i' companions were now lying frozen aud disabled among the drifting hummocks somru-hcre to the northcast, with one attendant in better plight to look