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“ You have travelled in Mexico," said he ; “ do rupted stream of the richest knowledge. On reyou not agree with me in the opinion that the calling it to my mind, after leaving, I was surfinest mountains in the world are those single prised to find how great a number of subjects he cones of perpetual snow rising out of the splen- had touched upon, and how much he had said or did vegetation of the tropics ? The Himalayas, seemed to have said-for he has the rare faculty although loftier, can scarcely make an equal im- of placing a subject in the clearest and most pression; they lie further to the north, without vivid light by a few luminous words-concerning the belt of tropical growths, and their sides are each. He thought, as he talked, without effort. dreary and sterile in comparison. You remember I should compare his brain to the Fountain of Orizaba," continued he;'“ here is an engraving Vaucluse-a still, deep and tranquil pool, withfrom a rough sketch of mine. I hope you will out a ripple on its surface, but creating a river find it correct." He rose and took down the by its overflow. He asked me many questions, illustrated folio which accompanied the last edi- but did not always wait for an answer, the tion of his " Minor Writings," turned over the question itself suggesting some reminiscence, leaves, and recalled, at each plate, some remi- or some thought which he had evident pleasure in niscence of his American travel. “ I still think,” expressing. I sat or walked, following his movehe remarked as he closed the book," that Chim- ments, an eager listener, and speaking in alterborazo is the grandest mountain in the world.”nate English and German, until the time which
Among the objects in his study was a living he had granted to me had expired. Seifert at chameleon, in a box with a glass lid. The animal, length reappeared and said to him in a manner which was about six inches long, was lazily doz- at once respectful and familiar, “ It is time," and ing on a bed of sand, with a big bluc-fly (the I took my leave. unconscious provision for his dinner) perched “ You have travelled much, and seen many upon his back. “ He has just been sent to me ruins," said Humboldt, as he gave me his hand from Smyrna," said Humboldt; “he is very again ; “ now you have seen one more.” “ Not listless and unconcerned in his manner.” Just a ruin," I could not help replying, “ but a pyrathen the chameleon opened one of his long, tub- mid.” For I pressed the hand which had touched ular eyes, and looked up at us. “A peculiarity those of Frederick the Great, of Forster, the of this animal,” he continued, " is the power of companion of Capt. Cook, of Klopstock and looking in different directions at the same time. Schiller, of Pitt, Napoleon and Josephine, the He can turn one eye toward heaven, while the Marshals of the Empire, Jefferson, Hamilton, other inspects the earth. There are many cler- Wieland, Herder, Goethe, Cuvier, La Place, gymen who have the same power.”
Gay-Lussac, Beethoven, Walter Scott-in short, After showing me some of Hildebrand's water- of every great man whom Europe has produced color drawings, he returned to his seat and be- for three-quarters of a century. I looked not gan to converse about American affairs, with only into the eyes which had seen this living which he seemed to be entirely familiar. He history of the world pass by, scene after scene, spoke with great admiration of Col. Fremont, till the actors retired one by one, to return no whose defeat he profoundly regretted. “But it more, but had beheld the cataract of Atures and is at least a most cheering sign,” he said, “and the forests of the Cassiquiare, Chimborazo, the an omen of good for your country, that more Amazon and Popocatapetl, the Altaian Alps of than half a million of men supported by their Siberia, the Tartar steppes and the Caspian Sea. votes a man of Fremont's character and achieve- Such a splendid circle of experience well befits nents.” With regard io Buchanan, he said: a life of such generous devotion to science. I “I had occasion to speak of his Ostend Mani- have never seen so sublime an example of old festo not long since, in a letter which has been age-crowned with imperishable success, full of published, and I could not characterize its spirit the ripest wisdom, cheered and sweetened by the by any milder term than savage.” He also noblest attributes of the heart. A ruin, indeed ! spoke of our authors, and inquired particularly No: a human temple, perfect as the Parthenon. after Washington Irving, whom he had once! As I was passing out through the cabinet of seen. I told him I had the fortune to know Mr. Natural History, Seifert's voice arrested me. “I Irving, and had seen him not long before leaving beg your pardon, Sir,” said he, “but do you New-York. “He inust be at least fifty years know what this is ?” pointing to the antlers of a old," said Humboldt. “He is seventy," I an- Rocky Mountain elk. “Of course I do," said swered, “ but as young as ever.” “Ah !” said I, “ I have helped to eat many of them.” He he, “ I have lived so long that I have almost then pointed out the other specimens, and took lost the consciousness of time. I belong to the me into the library to show me some drawings age of Jefferson and Gallatin, and I heard of by his son-in-law, Mühlhausen, who had accomWashington's death while travelling in South panied Lieut. Whipple in his expedition to the America.”
| Rocky Mountains. He also showed me a very I have repeated but the smallest portion of elaborate specimen of bead-work, in a gilt frame. his conversation, which flowed on in an uninter-1“ This," he said, “is the work of a Kirghiz
princess, who presented it to His Excellency when
VIA CRUCIS, VIA LUCIS. we were on our journey to Siberia.” “ You
FROM THE GERMAN. accompanied His Excellency then ?” I asked.
Through night comes the morning; if darkness en“ Yes," said he, “we were there in '29.” Sei
tomb, fert is justly proud of having shared for thirty With the veil of its horror, creation from sight, or forty years the fortunes of his master. There Never mind, never mind ! after midnight's deep gloca was a ring, and a servant came to announce a Comes the glory of sunrise, in love and in light. visitor. " Ah, the Prince Ypsilanti,” said he : Through storm comes the calm; when o'er earth and u don't let him in; don't let a single soul in; I o't let a single soul in: I
| The hurricane's thunder-wheel echoing goes, must go down and dress "His Excellency. Sir,
Never mind, never mind ! after storm-sounds are given, excuse me--yours, most respectfully," and comes the stillness, the calmness, the peace of rebowed himself out. As I descended to the
pose! street, I passed Prince Ypsilanti on the stairs. Through frost comes the spring: when the north wind
Benumbing the sap in the woodland and bowers, A poetical epistle from Henry Ware to his wife, writ- | Never mind, never mind ! after winter's fierce blast, ien in 1828, during a journey on horseback into Ver
Comes spring, whispering softly of leaves and of
flowers ! mont. TO MARY.
Through strife comes the conquest; when trials attend,
And dangers and conflicts around thee increase ;
Never mind, never mind! when the struggle shall end,
Comes the voice of rejoicing, the sweet tones er
peace. But not a word has come to tell
Through toil comes repose ; if at midsummer noon If those I left at home are well.
The heathas o'erpowered thee, and labor oppressed;
Never mind, never mind! for the cool evening soon
In the sweetness of slumber shall soothe thee to rest.
Through the cross comes the crown! when the cares
of this life, That many an evil may take place
Like giants in strength, may to crush thee combine, Within a fortnight's narrow space.
Never mind, never mind; after sorrow's sad strife, 'Tis true, indeed; disease and pain
Shall the peace and the crown of salvation be thine. May all this while have been your lot ; Through woe comes delight : if at evening thou sigb, And, when I reach my home again,
And thy soul still at midnight in sorrow appears; Death may have marked the spot.
Never mind, never mind! for the morning is nigh, I need but dwell on thoughts like these,
Whose sunbeams of gladness shall dry up thy tears! To be as wretched as I please.
Through death comes our life: to the portal of pain, But no,- a happier thought is mine ;
Through Time's thistle fields are our weary steps The absent, like the present scene,
driven; Is guided by a Friend Divine,
Never mind, never mind ! through this passage we gain
The mansions of light and the portals of heaven.
VOLCANOES—THEIR NATURE AND THE PRE-
NOMENA USUALLY ATTENDANT ON THEIR
A volcano is an opening in the earth's crust,
bearing the general appearance of a vent for its Back from the confines of the dead ?
subterranean fires. The geographical distribuLike us, who, 'mid the various hours
tion of volcanoes is very considerable. They are That make life's changeful wilderness, Have always found its suns and showers
found in every zone from the equator to the poles.. Alike designed to bless ?
Several thousands of them are known, some es. Led on and taught as we have been,
tinct, others still in a state of activity. Distrust indeed would be a sin.
The matters ejected by a volcano, consist of
But they should bring us no dismay;
companiments of thunder, lightning, violent conAnd then to pass away.
cussions of the earth, wind and rain. Oh, who will keep a troubled wind,
Smoke usually precedes all other eruptive apThat knows this glory is designed ?
pearances, and it consists for the most part of Then, dearest, present or apart,
steam, so long as it exhibits a wbitish color. A An equal calmness let us wear;
moderate degree of heat in the crater is capable Let steadfast Faith control the heart, And still its throbs of care.
of producing it. This steam is seldom pure, We may not lean on things of dust;
but generally associated with other gases, such But Heaven is worthy all our trust.
as sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrochloric acid Salisbury and Vergennes, Sept. 4th and 5th. gas. Sulphuretted hydrogen is easily recognised
by its disagreeable smell, and hydrochloric acid i ages elapsed, during which there was a continual gas, by its white fumes and stilling odor. I | loss of heat from the surface, by free radiation
The Ashes generally appear in the middle or into the stellar spaces; the condensing and cool. towards the end of a volcanic out-break, and con- ing processes consequently went on, and, ultisist of the substance of the lava finely divided. mately, that surface was cooled down to solid The ash resembles in appearance fine powder or crust, which now envelops the fiery nucleus. coarse gravel, and in this state is called volcanic The earth is, therefore, at present, an opaque or sand. In both forms the ash is carried upwards dark body, and, if these views be correct, it is by the force of the ascending vapor with which an extinguished star. It is, in fact, an intensely it is intermingled. This causes the dark ap- heated fluid spheroid, covered with a crust of pearance of the fumes, and the dim and troubled badly conducting solid matter from twenty to character of the sunlight during an eruption; thirty miles in thickness, which bears about the for the ash fills the air in such quantities, and same relative proportion to the bulk of its yet falls down again so slowly and in such a finely fiery interior, as the shell of an egg does to its divided condition, that it necessarily interrupts fluid contents. the free passage of light from the sun. The These views are not at variance with any known cause of this fine division of the lava is not facts, and are supported by the figure of the known. It is most probable that the ash is earth, which is really such as would be assumed formed in consequence of the sudden outbreak of by a fluid mass; and also by the fact, that its escaping gas through the melted laya, which temperature increases from its surface to its inscatters the particles of the fiery river asunder, terior. A series of observations made in several and these cooling, form those clouds of ashes of the principal lead and silver mines in Saxony, which descend on the surrounding plains. gave one degree of Fahrenheit for every sixty
Alluvium. During the eruption, or after the five feet of descent. In this case the bulb of the outbreak of the lava, enormous masses of steam thermometer was introduced into cavities purarise from the crater or mouth of the volcano, posely cut in the solid rock, at depths varying which is condensed by the cold atmosphere sur- from 200 to 900 feet. This increase of heat rounding its summit; this sometimes produces does not, however, follow the same law over the violent showers of rain, even in countries where, whole earth ; for in other mines it is necessary under other circumstances, these appearances are to descend thrice as far for each degree of temquite unknown. In this manner, floods are oc- perature. If we adopt M. Cordier's estimate of casioned, which, pouring themselves over the one degree Fahrenheit for every forty-five feet of dust-like ashes and light dross ejected from the depth, as the mean result, and assume that the volcano, ultimately develop into torrents of mud, temperature increases below in the same ratio, which on account of their rapid motion, are at the depth of two miles, the earth would have sometimes equally as destructive as the floods of the temperature of boiling water; and at the fiery lava.
depth of about twenty-four miles we should arLava.- This forms one of the most important rive at the melting point of iron, a heat suffiproducts of volcanic action, and is satisfactory cient to fuse rocks and all known substances. proof that in the inside of the earth a high de Volcanoes must therefore be regarded as opengree of heat predominates. Almost all volcanoes ings through the earth's crust, which communihave, as a common character, a conical outward cate directly with the fiery fluid in its interior. figure, and at their summit a funnel-formed de- The high temperature of the lava which, when pression called the crater, which penetrates to it first issues forth from the mountain, glows the depths of the earth, and forms a channel with the splendor of the sun, when compared through which the fiery fluid materials of the with the law of the increase of temperature from earth's nucleus are poured on the earth's sur- the surface to the interior, proves that it must face.
rise from vast depths in the earth. Lifted by A few explanatory remarks are required in great mechanical pressure, it rises in the tubular this place. The most distinguished scientific passages of the mountain, and if the sides of the men now living, favor the opinion that the earth cone be sufficiently strong to withstand the was at one time an immense sphere of nebulous hydrostatic pressure, it may overflow the walls of matter, and that all the elements which now the crater at the top of the volcano, as happened enter into the composition of its solid and fluid in the Peak of Teneriffe, to whose very summit parts then existed, comparatively speaking, un | Humboldt traced a stream of vitreous lava. But combined and in the gaseous form. In the generally the lava, owing to the accumulated course of immense periods of time, the attrac-hydrostatic pressure, makes for itself a lateral tive forces among the elements gradually pre passage through the flanks of the mountain; and dominated over the repulsive, the nebulous the thunder-tones and violent concussions of the matter condensed about a common centre, evolved earth which accompanied the effort at its elevaheat and light, and the earth became a radiant tion, gradually subside as the sun bright food star, or self-luminous body. Another cycle of rolls forth from its side.
It has been shown that the word smoke, as of Grand street. At 2 o'clock in the morning applied to volcanic appearances, must be under- a Grand-street boat left the New York side and stood in a peculiar sense ; that the smoke of a) did not return again until 2 o'clock A. M . volcano consists of steam intermingled with vari- On Saturday afternoon the river at Wall stres ous gases and volcanic ashes, or lava, in a finely / ferry was blocked up and hundreds of people comminuted state; so also the word flame is some-1 were crossing upon the ice. The ships Union what restricted in its application. The flames from New Orleans, and Charles Holmes from of a volcano are rarely, if ever, derived from in- Havana were stuck in the ice for some time, and flammatory gases, but are rather the result of the finally were obliged to make the best of their light emitted from the showers of incandescent way to Jersey City. or red-hot rocks and fragments of lava, which it
| The Staten Island boats up to Saturday even.
The is perpetually throwing upwards; and the reflec
ing have made their trips with considerable reg. tion of the solar splendors of the lava in its in
ularity. Yesterday but one trip was made. The terior, by the clouds surrounding its summit.
Huguenot come up to the city from Port RichThere is something tremendous in the thought
mond in the morning, and left again at 11 A. M. that we are only separated by a few miles of solid
on her return. There were no boats from Quarrock from a fiery fluid, which makes its appear
antine in consequence of the north-east wind ance at the mouth of the volcino, and whose
forcing immense masses of ice upon that shore, stormy undulations produce earthquakes, by which
also preventing the arrival and departure of the solid strata of the earth's crust are shattered and dislocated. Every region of the globe bears
vessels. proof of the fierceness of these internal fires,!
The Hamilton Avenue, South of Wall Street which have piled up the rocks into hills, and the
| ferries were laid up yesterday. hills into mountains. When nature is thus con- The Herald gives the following account of vulsed, the earth is draped in mourning; the the ice-crossing on Saturday: heat and poisonous exhalations destroy all vege- ' “ Notwithstanding the large quantities of ice tation and animal life. For miles around a that usually makes its appearance in our harbor volcano, after an cruption, nothing is visible but and rivers, it is very unusual for it to accumu. sterility and death. With the return of a more late in such large quantities as to admit of a peaceful era, the earth again becomes covered passage-way across either of the great rivers with fertility and life. Vegetation, in all its end- that wash our shores. This phenomenon. how. less diversified forms of beauty, once more adorns ever, occurred once in the year 1852, when the its surface, and hides from vulgar observation the East River was frozen across from shore to shore. terrible convulsions of the past, and amidst those and thousands of people passed over to the trees and flowers animal life again disports itself | other side-it being considered a great feat to in its wonted security and happiness. Thus is a do so. green, lovely, but flimsy mantle been repeatedly
“The same circumstance occurred yesterday, thrown as it were in charity and kindness over
and it is estimated that 20,000 persons must the evidence of former disturbances, and over
have taken advantage of the circumstance to walk, the proofs of the convulsive throes through which
instead of sail, from New-York to Brooklyn and our planet has passed in the several stages of its gestation.
On the change of the tide yesterday morning, the vast floes of ice in the bay were swept up the East River, which being already full of ice,
soon wedged together and formed a homogeneous : THE ICE IN THE EAST RIVER.
mass, extending from shore to shore, and boundDuring yesterday forenoon the East River was ed on the North by the Fulton Ferry, and on the almost entirely blockaded with ice, and the ferry-south by the South Ferry. The fact that the boats were only able to make occasional trips. river was frozen across soon became known, and In the afternoon the north-easterly wind started about 103 o'clock the first adventurous traveller some of the ice down the river and allowed more made his way over to the Brooklyn side. The frequent passage of the boats on some of the news spread, and soon a continuous stream kept upper ferries. About 4 o'clock the beam of one pouring across from the foot of Wall street, most of the Houston street ferry-boats stopped on the of whom landed at Thompson's slip on the other centre, and she was drifted to a dock some dis- side. The novelty of the exhibition soon drew tance below the Navy Yard. The Peck-slip crowds to witness it, and the docks and ships boats made occasional trips during the day-time soon became filled with interested spectators. and were withdrawn at dark. On Saturday eve. For five hours the travel was kept up, the ice to ning the trips on this ferry were discontinued all appearance being strong enough to support a about dark, and hundreds of persons were com- horse and cart on any part traversed by the mulpelled to cross the Fulton ferry or go by the way titude who were crossing. Not only were men
and boys taking advantage of this state of things, NORTH POLE-NO SUCH THING AS APPARENT but females also ventured on the ice, and over a TIME—THE SUN FOREVER IN THE MERIDIAN. hundred of them passed to the other side. The crowds on the docks cheered the courageous
Professor Sontag, Astronomer to the “Grinnell women loudly, and everybody seemed to think it
Pink it Expedition,” in his narrative says, “As the land
adjacent to the Pole is all terra incognita, it is all very fine fun. “ The sight was a magnificent one. Below lay
impossible to say what additions to the stores of an unbroken mass of ice, covering an area of five
natural science a visitor to those regions might square miles. The surface, though of but one
be able to make. Certain it is, however, that a color, was variously tinted, and relieved here and
new and wide field would be opened for his inthere by moving specks for such the men and / vestigation. Every thing there would be novel : boys on the river seemed to be. The shores on and
and that circumstance alone would be well caleither side were lined with people shouting, hur
culated to stimulate his attentive faculties. The rahing and having a good time of it generally,
difficulties which would present themselves to and the utmost hilarity prerailed.
the investigator may be appreciated at home; but ". This continued until 4 o'clock. when the they would be greater or less according to circumtide began to turn and the water sensibly to stances
istances of which we know nothing. We know lower in the slips. The more cantions left the not, for example, whether the Pole is covered ice and came ashore, but it seemed impossible te
with open water, or icy sea, or dry land; nor do warn the boys and men who were in the center
we know which of these three conditions would of the stream.
be most favorable for investigation. It may be “ In a little while the ice near the docks be
a little while the ice near the docks be presumed, however, that an open sea would be, came fissured on the New York side, and it was in sever
in several respects, the most disadvantageous. evident that the ebb tide would soon make short In the irst place, ?
Wort. In the first place, it would in all probability be work of the ice. The people on the dock saw
so deep that the ship would be unable to anchor; this, and shouted to those on the ice to come
and the current might be too strong to permit off immediately;' but they had done so much
her to keep stationary long enough to make acshouting before that they were not heeded. In
curate observations. In the second place : if she a little while there was a great chasm near the could
m near the could not maintain her position steadily at one shore this side. when the alarm spread to those point, the commander would experience a new on the ice to run to the other side. At this time embarrassment, viz., as every meridian must ex. nearly five hundred persons were on the ice and tend
he ice and tend southwardly, he would be apt to lose that on running for the Brooklyn shore, where a few which he had appro
which he had approached the Pole—and consegot off: but the ice broke there also, and mat- quently he would be at a loss how to shape his ters began to look serious, as all communication
course homeward. with the shore was cut off, and the five hundred Tbe occurrence of this strange difficulty will were running wildly from side to side, not know- naturally present itself as one among many novel ing what to do—the ice, in the mean time, drift- phenomena which will arrest the adventurer's ating slowly down the river with a precious freight tention, and the following observations would of human lives upon it.
probably occur to him on the spot. The time of " At this time the anxiety of the people on day (to use that phraseology for want of any the docks was intense, as it was feared that many other that would be more appropriate) would no lives would be lost. While this fear was at its longer be marked by any apparent change in the height, however, as if by magic, three tow-boats altitude of the sun above the horizon ; because to and numberless small boats made their appear- a spectator at the Pole no such change would apance for the purpose of taking off the now ter- pear, except to the small amount of the daily rified ice bridge travellers. They were all un. Change of declination. Thus, not only to the successful, until one of the tugs, named the eye, but also for the practical purpose of obtain. Ratler, dashed down the river with the tide, ing the time by astronomical observations, the and pushed into the floe so as to bury her bow sun would appear throughout the twenty-four in the thick drift. A ladder was then put out, hours neither to rise nor fall, but to describe & and soon the adventurers were seen clambering circle round the heavens parallel with the horizon. up to her decks. All this was witnessed with Therefore, the usual mode of ascertaining the breathless interest by the excited crowd, and as time would utterly fail; and indeed, however the men and boys were taken off, one by one, startling may be the assertion, it is nevertheless loud cheers were given and much enthusiasm true, that time, or the natural distinction of time, betrayed.
would be no more. This will appear from the " At last the whole five hundred were taken consideration that the idea of apparent time reoff by the different boats, and the river in an fers only to the particular meridian on which an hour's time was entirely clear of ice. The South observer happens to be placed ; and is marked or Fulton and Grand street Ferries were all running determined only by the distance of the sun, or without much difficulty last night.”
some other heavenly body, from that meridian.