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this country, while health is often trifled with. The multitude either have no disposition or no time to adopt the course best calculated to invigorate both body and mind, and thus to lengthen out the span of human existence.—Pennsylvania Inquirer.

Dr. Livingstone's Discoveries.

The secret of Africa has ceased to be. That mysterious quarter of the globe, last in civiliza-1 tion—for in the geography of human advancement, as well as in physical geography, Egypt has always been a part of Asia—fortified against foreigners by its compact form, its fatal fevers, the fabulous savagery of its inhabitants, and more than all, the uncertain terror which is everywhere projected like a shadow from the unknown, has, within a few years past, lost a great part of its Know Nothing character. The sources of the Nile have been almost reached. The countries to the south of Sahara have been crossed and recrossed by white men. Steam has vexed a thousand miles of the waters of the Niger, and Tribunes have been regularly sent to within three or four hundred miles of the geographical center of the country. North of the Cape of Good Hope, Lake Ngami has recently added something to our knowledge, and its discoverer, Dr. Livingstone, is now astonishing the lovers of heroic perseverance and perfect maps, by his details of a walk of 2,000 miles, from St. Paul de Loando, on the Atlantic, to Quillimane, on the Indian Ocean.

Dr. Livingstone is nearly forty years old. His face is furrowed by hardships and thirty fevers, and black with exposure to a burning sun. His left arm is crushed and nearly helpless from the too cordial embrace of an African Lion, and sixteen years among savages have given him an African accent and great hesitancy in speaking English. Passing through all privations with the heart of a true hero, not as sacrifices, but as victories, he reached St. Paul de Loando, in May, 1854, after a foot journey of a thousaud miles from his mission among the Bechuanas. Ho remained at St. Loando until the clase of the year, when he set out for the unknown East. In March he arrived at Quillimane, where he was taken up by a British man of war. On his way he traced the Leeambye down to the Zambeze, thus demonstrating the existence in the center of this unknown land of a river some two thousand miles long.

This immense stream, whose discovery is the great fruit of the journey, is in itself an enigma without parallel. But a small portion of its waters reach the sea-coast. Like the Abyssinian Nile, it falls through a basaltic cleft, near the middle of its course, which reduces its breadth from 1,000 to 20 yards. Above these falls it ppreadsoul periodically in to a great sea, filling hun

dreds of lateral channels; below it is a tranquil stream of a totally different character. Its mouths seem to be closing. The southermost was navigable wben the Portuguese first arrived in the country, 800 years ago, but it has long since ceased to be practicable. The Quillimane mouth has of late years been impassible, even for a canoe, from July to February, and for 200 to 300 miles up the river, navigation is never attempted in the dry season. And in this very month of July, when the lower portion of the river, after its April freshets, has shrunk to a mere driblet, above the falls the river spreads out like a sea over hundreds of square miles. This, with frequent cataracts, and the hostility of tho natives, would seem to be an effectual bar to the high hopes of fat trade and filibustering in which English merchants and journals are now indulging.

During this unprecedented march, alone and among savages, to whom a white face was a miracle, Dr. Livingstone was compelled to struggle through indescribable hardships. The hostility of the natives he conquered by his intimute knowledge of their character, and the Bechuana tongue to which their's is relatod. Ho waded rivers and slept in the sponge and ooze of marshes, being often so drenched as to be compelled to turn his armpit into a watch pocket. His cattle were destroyed by the terrible tse-tsc fly and he was too poor to purchase a canoe. Lions were numerous, being worshipped by many of the tribes as the receptacles of the departed souls of their chiefs; dangerous,- too, as his crushed arm testifies. However, he thinks the fear of African wild beasts greater in England than in Africa. Many of his documents were lost while orossing a river in which he came near losing his life also, but he has memoranda of the latitudes and longitudes of a multitude of cities, towns, rivers and mountains, which will go far to fill up the " unknown region" in our atlases.

Toward the interior he found the country more fertile and more populous. The natives worshipped idols, believed in transmigrated existence after death, and performed religious ceremonies in groves and woods. They were less ferocious and suspicious than the sea-board tribes, had a tradition of the deluge and more settled Governments. Some of them practiced inoculation, and used quinine, and all were eager for trade, being entirely dependent on English calico for clothing, a small piece of which would purchase a slave. Their language was sweet and expressive. Although their women, on the whole, were not well treated, a man having as many wives as he chose, they were complete mistresses of their own housesand gardens, which the husband dare not enter in his wife's absence. They were fond of show and glitter, and as much as $150 had been given for an English rifle. On the arid plateaus of the interior, water-melons supplied the place of water for some months of the year, as they do on the plains of Hungary in Summer. A Quaker tribe on the river Zanga, never fight, never have consumption, scrofula, hydrophobia, cholera, small-pox or measles. These advantages, however, are counterbalanced by the necessity of assiduous devotion to trade and raising children to make good their loss from the frequent inroads of their fighting neighbors.

Dr. Livingstone's discoveries, in their character and their commercial value, have been declared by Sir Roderic Murchison to be superior to any since the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, by Vasco de Gama. But greater than any commercial value is the lesson which they teach —that all obstacles yield to a resolute man.— Tribune.

FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER.

PHILADELPHIA FIRST MONTH 24, 1857.

The New Meeting House.—It may be a matter of interest to many of our roaders to learn that the North Room of the new Meeting House is ready for occupation, and that it is proposed to hold the first meeting for worship there on the first day of the Second month.

The middle portion or Central Building is also nearly completed, and will probably be ready for use during the present month. The South Room is not so nearly finished, and it will probably be some weeks before the carpenter work and the painting will be completed; an additional number of workmen are now employed in this part of the building, and the committee having the work in charge have no doubt of the whole being finished timely enough for holding the next Yearly Meeting. The ground around the building needs grading and paving, but this work cannot be done to any advantage until spring opens, and the frost is out of the ground.

The cost of the lots and building, with an outlet of twenty feet to Race Street, as first contemplated, will not exceed the estimates, and it is very desirable that the balance of the subscription should be early paid into the hands of the Treasurer.

It may be recollected that the Yearly Meeting undertook to raise the sum of $33,000, and the Monthly Meeting $15,000, by subscriptions, and that these two sums, together with the amount to be raised from the sale cf the property heretofore held by the Monthly Meeting of Friends of

Philadelphia, hold at Cherry Street, was deemed sufficient for the purpose designed. There has been over 816,000 collected by the Monthly Meeting, independent of the proceeds of the sale of their property; and about $31,000 on behalf of the Yearly Meeting: there is still from one to two thousand dollars necessary to close up the subscriptions. Many of the Monthly Meetings have paid their full proportion, whilst some others are deficient, not having forwarded the amount subscribed. It should be borne in mind that members of the committee appointed by the Yearly Meeting, assumed a personal responsibility to the amount of six hundred dollars and upwards, provided the whole sum of $33,000, was not subscribed. And that in addition to the duties which have devolved upon them as a committee, they may be called on as individuals to raise a sum of money which might readily be obtained by proper care on the part of some of the Monthly Meetings composing the Yearly Meeting. It does not seem reasonable that members who have paid a full proportion of money, and given their time and services for the purpose of providing better accomodations for the Yearly Meeting, should be called on to make up the deficiencies of others, and we should sincerely regret the necessity of such a course.

The next meeting of the committee will be held on the 13th of the 3d month, and it is particularly desirable to have all the subscriptions paid in at that time, so as to enable the committee to close up the accounts as far as practicable previous to the time of holding the Yearly Meeting.

On the 15th of the present month we had another painful exhibition of the operation of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

David Paul Brown, Jr., Commissioner of the United States, granted a requisition to the Marshall of the Eastern district of Pennsylvania, upon which his officers seized a young man named Michael Brown, aged about 25 years, who it was alleged escaped as a slave from Baltimore in 1850. The history of the case,and the arguments of Counsel, occupied the attention of the Commissioner for two days, after which a warrant was granted, and the fugitive remanded to his claimant in Maryland. It is now more than six years since this iniquitous law was passed by

Congress to satisfy the demands of the South, with special reference to the claims of slaveholders. Notwithstanding that every facility has been furnished, and the party claimed as a slave is denied the opportunity of being heard in his own defence, the unpopularity of the law in the free States, and the difficulties which have been thrown in the way of the claimant, has rendered its execution in many sections of the country almost impossible, and but very few persons "held to service or labor" have been returned to bondage under its provisions.

At the time of its passage, an abstract of this cruel law was published and freely commented upon in the pages of this Journal, and it is not needful to reiterate our abhorrence of an act which so long as it remains on our Statute Book, will justly subject our country to the reproach and scorn of the civilzed world. While we have stood aloof from any participation in the execution of this enactment, it becomes us to consider whether we arc embracing every opening that may present for its repeal. The principles we profess forbid a resort to physical force for the redress of grievances, but we have it in our power to exert a moral influence which is far greater and more efficient than the use of carnal weapons.

The individual members of our Society in common with the other religious professors, may exert an influence not only by example, but by earnest remonstrance with our legislators, by whom this law was passed, and by whom only it can be repealed. A bright example is furnished us in the history of our worthy predecessors, who firmly and meekly protested against the evils of their day which were sanctioned by law. They suffered the loss of property and a separation from all that was near and dear in life, when iniquitous laws came in conflict with their religious convictions, and their faithful protests addressed to those in authority, and their willingness to suffer, was often the means of softening the hearts of the oppressor, and producing a favorable result.

We would take occasion to remark that the young colored man who has thus been consigned to bondage, imprudently remained in this city, where he was recognized by some of his former acquaintances; and we would extend a caution to those interested, that the colored people who are in danger of being brought under the operation of this law, be advised to place themselves in a

position where they will not be affected by its provisions.

The " History of Friends' Almanac" has been received, but cannot appear without the name of the writer.

Married,—At Duck Creek Meeting of Friends, Ind. on the 17th of 9th month, 1856, Edward Roberts, of Fall Creek, to Mary Ahn Allen, of the former place.

, On the 19th of 1 )th month, at the same place,

Henry Hoover to Ann Cook, both residents of of the vicinity of Huntsville, Madison Co., Imlinna.

, On the 25th of 12th month, at Fall Creek

Meeting of Friends, William F. Morris, of Wayne Co., Ind., to Mary Ellen Swain, of Fall Creek.

CHINESE SUGAR CANE.

The following account of the Chinese Sugar Cane is from a circular issued by the United States Patent Office, to the different State agricultural societies in the United States, accompanied by a parcel of the seed, sufficient to cultivate sixteen acres, with the view of extending the culture of this plant in the several States.

This new plant seems to be destined to take an important position among our economical products. Its seeds were sent some six years ago from the North of China, by M. de Montigny to the Geographical Society of Paris. From a cursory examination of a small field of it, growing at Verrieres in France in the Autumn of 1854, Mr. D. J. Browne, then on a mission from this office for collecting agricultural information and products, was led to infer that, from the peculiarity of the climate in which it was growing and its resemblance to Indian corn, it would flourish in any region wherever that plant would thrive. From this source he obtained some 200 pounds of the seed, which was distributed in small packages by this Office among Members of Congress, with the view of experimenting with it in all parts of the Union, and thereby ascertaining its adaptation to the soil and climate, and its economical value in the United States. In numerous instances the results proved highly satisfactory, as it attained the height of twelve or fifteen feet as far north as St. Paul, Minnesota, and matured its seeds at various points in Massachusetts, NewYork, Pennsylvania and Illinois. The following year, while in France on a similar mission as above, Mr. Browne obtained several bushels of the seed of this plaut, grown from that reputed to have been brought from South Africa by Mr. Leonard Wray of London, and which has since proved to be identical with that obtained in 1854.

There appears to be a doubt among many in Europe, as well as in this country, as to the true botanical name of this plant. M. Louis Vilmorin, a scientific cultivator of Paris, provisionally gave it the name of JIolcus saccharatus, which had previously been applied to the common broomcorn, if not to other species, or at least varieties, of some allied plant. He also conjectured that it mijjit be the Sorghum Vulgare (Andropogon sorghum of others,) and thought that it might comprehend a variety as well as Andropogon, ca/ra, bicolor, etc., of Kunth. Mr. Wray, who has devoted much time and attention to the cultivation of this plant, with the view of extracting sugar from its juice, at Cape Natal and other places, states that, in the south-east part of Caffraria, there are at least fifteen varieties of it, some of them growing to a height of twelve and fifteen feet, with stems as thick as those of the sugar-cane [Saccharum officinale.') M. Vilmorin also says that in a collection of seeds sent to the Museum of Natural History at Paris, in 1840, by M. d'Abadre, there were thirty kinds of sorghum, among the growth of which he recognized several plauts having stems of a saccharine flavor. Others are of the opinion that the common broom corn (Uolcus saccharatus,) the chocolate or Guinea-corn {Sorghum Vulgare), and the Chinese sugar cane {Sorghum saccharatum,) all of which contain more or less saccharine matter, belong to the same species, but are variations caused by differences of soil and climate, or by a disposition to sport after the manner of Indian corn, and other plants under cultivation. The Chinese sugar-cane differs from the others, in containing a far larger proportion of juice, and consequently is more valuable for fodder and other economical uses.

In 1776, a plant analogous to the one in question, was experimented upon at Florence, in Italy, by Pietro Arduino, for the extraction of sugar; yet it must have been of a different variety, as he describes its seeds as of a clear, brown color, while those of the Chinese sugarcane are of a shining jet black, in appearance identical with those of the sorghum vulgare of the old collections.

The Chinese sugar-cane, when cultivated on ordinary laud in the United States, somewhat after the manner of broom-corn, grows to a height of from eight to sixteen feet, while in Europe it docs not attain more than half this altitude. Its stems are straight and smooth, often covered with a white bloom or down, having leaves somewhat flexuous, falling over and greatly resembling in appearance those of Indian corn, but more elegant in its form. Where cultivated in hills, containing eight or ten stalks each, it puts forth at its top a conical pinnacle of dense flowers green at first, but changing into violet shades, and finally into dark purple, at maturity. In France, and in the central and northern sections of the United States, it has thus far proved an annual; but, from observations made by M. Vilmorin, as well as some experiments in our Southern States, it is conjectured that, from the vigor and fulness of the lower part of the stalks in Autumn, by protecting them during the Win

ter, they would produce new plants the following Spring. It stands drouth far better than Indian corn, and will resist the effects of considerable frost without injury, after the pannieles appear, but not in its younger and more tender state. If suffered to remain in the field after the seeds have ripened and beon removed, when the season is sufficiently warm and long, new pannieles will shoot out at the topmost joints, one or more to each stalk, and mature a second crop of seeds. The average yield of seed to each pannicle is at least a gill.

Since its introduction into this country, the Chinese sugar cane has proved itself well adapted to our geographical range of Indian corn. It is of easy cultivation, being similar to that of maize or broom-corn, but will prosper in a much poorer soil. It does not succeed so well, however, when sown broadcast with the view of producing fodder, as it will not grow to much more than one half of its usual height. If the seeds are planted in May, in the Middle States, or still earlier at the South, two crops of fodder can be grown in a season from thesame roots—the first one in June or July, to be cut before the pannieles appear, which would be green and succulent, like young Indian corn, and the other a month or two later, at the time or before the seed is fully matured. In the extreme Northern States, where the season is too short and cool to ripen the seeds in the open air, the cultivator will necessarily have to obtain his seed from regions further south. If it were important for him to raise his own seed, he could start the plants under glass in the Spring, and remove them to the field or garden at about the period of planting Indian corn, after which they would fully mature. Two quarts of seed are found to be sufficient to plant an acre. If the soil be indifferent or poor, they may be planted in rows or drills three feet apart, with the plant from ten to twelve inches asunder; but if the soil be rich, they may be planted in hills, five or more seeds to each, four or five feet apart in one direction, and three or four in the other. The plants may be worked or hoed twice in the course of a season, in a similar manner to Indian corn. Any suckers or superfluous shoots which may spring up should be removed. The seed should not be harvested before it acquircsadark orblackhue. Should the plants lodge or fall to the ground by the excessive weight of the heads, during storms of wind or rain, before the seed matures, they may remain for weeks without injury. In collecting the seed, a convenient method is to cut off the stalks about a foot below the pannieles, tie them up in bunches of twentyfive, and suspend them in any secure, airy place sheltered from rain. If intended solely tor fodder, the first crop should be cut just before the pannieles would appear, and the second as soon as the seed arrives at the milky stage. It maybe lied up in bundles, shocked and cured like the tops or stalks of Indian corn. If not intended to be employed for any other economical use, after the seed has been removed, and the weather be cool, and the average temperature of the day does not exceed 45 deg. or 50 deg. F., the stalks may be cut up close to the ground, tied in bundles, collected into shocks, or stowed in a mass for fodder in sheds or barns in a succulent state, where they will keep without injury, if desired, until Spring. In this condition, however, the lower parts of the stalks will be found to be quite hard and woody, and will require to be chopped into small pieces for feeding.

Particular caro should be observed not to cultivate this plant in the vicinity of Dourah corn, Guinea corn, nor broom-corn, as it hybridizes, or mixes freely with those plants, which would render the seeds of the product unfit for sowing.

Specimens of the sugar and molasses produced from this cane in New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, and other Northern States, and numerous letters attesting its great value, have reached this city.— If. ¥. Tribune.

MICROSCOPICS.
f Concluded from page 702.J

Leeuwenhoek's plan of having a multiplicity of instruments is a good one, for many reasons. Only to mention two; first, the saving of the time required to screw on, and unscrew, objectglasses. Secondly, the feebler instrument will act as a finder for the stronger. It will play the jackal to the lion, and often inform you whether there is anything worth looking at. In justice, be it added, that, in this country, Mr. Ross, and also Messrs. Powell and Lealand, enjoy a celebrity as microscope-makers, which they would not have attained if they had not deserved it: while, in Paris, M. Nachet's name is in every inioroscopist's mouth. There is an old-fashioned, little, simple, pocket microscope for transparent objects only—Wilson's, who flourished about seventeen hundred—which is a great favorite with many a peripatetic Paul Pry, and which is so convenient and entertaining as to be worth purchasing—good and cheap—when it falls in your way in its antique mounting.

The more powerful and refined the instrument, the more difficult is its management, ami the greater are the skill and tact required to make it of any service to its owner. The apparent increase of size given to an object is usually spoken of in diameters, or the linear measure across it in any direction. Thus, fancy a circle magnified to another which has a hundred times its original diameter, and you have an increase of some considerable importance. A moon shining in the heavens with a diameter a hundred times that of our own monthly moon, or fifty degrees across, instead of half a degree, would be enough to make every sane man a lunatic, and convert sim

ple lunatics into/aving madmen. Supposing it were possible to construct a microscope that should magnify, say a bull-dog, only sixty diameters, and that there were eyes capable of using such a microscope—what a monstrous bull-dog the image would bo. Dr. Lardner coolly discourses of "the superior class of instruments, where magnifying power is pushed to so extreme a limit as fifteen hundred or two thousand." Of course first-class microscopes such as these demand the most masterly skill from the optician, and are affected by infinitesimally small derangements. Mr. Quekett gives drawings of Naviculte magnified twelve hundred nnd two thousand diameters respectively; only making you wish for a good microscope to bear upon these, the magnified drawings.

Again, for your comfort, dear reader, with limited means like myself, one of the first microscopists living, M. le Dr. Ch. Robin, tells you that the magnifying power of the microscope can reach as far as a thousand or eleven hundred real diameters; that faulty modes of mensuration have been the only cause of making people believe they had obtained more considerable amplifying powers. It ought, moreover, to bo known, he says, that when once eight hundred diameters are passed, object-glasses and eyeglasses which magnify further, fail to show the slightest novelty; not that the light is absolutely too feeble, or the colors of the object too diffuse, but simply because nothing additional is perceived beyond what was seen at seven or eight hundred diameters. It very rarely or never happens that there is any need to go beyond six hundred diameters for pathological observations; which in general require the highest magnifying powers. Rear in mind, also, what Leeuwenhoek did with a hundred and sixty diameters as his extreme power. Look at a cheese-mite with a power of thirty only, and you will be astonished if you have never so seen one beforo. Students, whose aims at starting are not quite extraordinary, will learn more than they can anticipate in their wildest dreams, if they have at hand the means of magnifying an object two hundred and fifty diameters, at the outside. Nevertheless, it is good for them to be able to get at a more powerful instrument from time to time.

If you can, get the maker himself to show you the special mode of handling the instrument you select. Generally, the thing to be viewed, on a slip of glass, is held down on the stage by springs, or is slipped through grooves, something like the painted sides of a magic lantern. In order that it should be clearly seen, the instrument must be brought to its exact foens (the Latin word for fire-place,) or the point where the converging and concentrated rays meet, and which is, in fact, the point at which a burningglass becomes incendiary. First, the approximate or rough focus is found, either by slipping

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