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and so much less liable to very sudden changes from heat to cold, and vice versa, that the population can with greater impunity be out every day. There is, however, a vast deal in habit, and the young people of our country should make it one of their habits to bo out, and in vigorous exercise, every day more or less. In this way, as they grow up, they will find it so necessary to their health and comfort to continue the practice, that not only will no effort be required, but they will as soon think of going without their meals as to omit their walk, ride, or games.
It is not merely a saunter that will benefit a young girl. After the restraints of the schoolroom the utmost freedom should be allowed, both mental and physical, within the bounds of propriety. We had far rather see a girl a romp, than a sickly, over-imaginative, novel reading, candy eating creature, such as we have had the misfortune to behold, with much sorrow of heart. Let the muscles have healthy play, and the mind gains new energy daily. We then have no hothouse plant, but just that mixture of the wild flower and the cultivated plant which is delightful to see. Let the forcing system, still too much in vogue in our public schools and higher institutions, be discouraged. There will bo more efficient, because more healthy, study, if the brain be not over-taxed at the expense of the growing body. Above all things, let it be remembered that girls are not to be looked upon as beings to be made literary prodigies, but rather that they are, most of them, to become wives and mothers, and need all the physical development and energy that a judicious training can bestow. Make the most of your natural physical powers, wo would say to the young of both sexes; there is more chance, however, that girls will keep, or rather be kept, too still, than that boys will. If, as the sage of antiquity hath it, "much study is a weariness to the flesh," (and we fully believe it,)let the warning be impressed upon those who are entrusted with the care and education of children. If parents would sometimes enter into the sports and join the walks of the young much benefit might accrue from their example and manifestation of interest.
It is at all events, a palpable fact that the girlhood of our countrywomen does not have those advantages for full development of the physical nature which English customs have long since established. It is not by infrequent, spasmodic fits of exercise, planned in some moment of temporary excitement, that any one will advance health and strengthen the frame. A devotion to walking around our beautiful common, mechanically followed, because " one must take exercise," will not effect the desired end. It is much in the spirit of taking medicine, and not, as exercise and sports should be estimated, an eagerly anticipated pleasure, a draught that is sought for, not half dreaded.
By continued habits of out-door exercise and amusement, much of the influence of our wayward climate may be obviated. The muscles become more firmly strung, the nerves are less alive to outward impressions, and morbid mental sensations are less likely to be generated. All know the power of habit, therefore young people form and maintain good ones as to physical health and training, and "when you are old you will not depart from them."—Boston Medical and Surijical Journal.
There are very few directions required for planting. Prepare the ground by deep digging and manuring, if not already rich enough. Well rotted barn-yard manure is to be preferred to any other material, though under certain circumstances special manures may be used with advantage. Plant in rows two feet apart, and set the plants from twelve to eighteen inches distant in the row. A very convenient method of cultivating is that in alternate strips. A bed four feet wido may be laid out, and planted with four rows. When this bed is covered with plants too thickly to produce well, or in the third year, a space down the centre of the bed may be spaded, burying the old plants; a portion of manure may at the same time be applied; this space will soon be overspread with runners, which will bear the following year. The strip should be 6paded in the summer, after the fruit haB been gathered. In the following year the side strips are to be spaded down as before, and so alternately over the beds, which may be as numerous as the extent of the plantation may require.
Some cultivators recommend the destruction of the plants after each full crop is produced, that is to say, in the second year, and the renewal of the plantation; this seems too much labor for some, and will only be advisable for large' plantations, where it would not be possible to keep the plants free from weeds. With regard to the choice of varieties there is much difference of opinion. Two of our correspondents have failed with Hovey's Seedling, perhaps from the want of enough staminate plants to fertilize it properly. Rather than advise the destruction of their beds which are not yet too old, we would recommend to plant the Large Early Scarlet, Genesee, Iowa or other staminate variety near them, say one row, or a row at each side, if the bed is large. Hovey'R Seedling is condemned by many cultivators for its tardiness in bearing, and its frequently imperfect fruit, while others, who have better success, as highly extol it.
If we mistake not, it was stated at the Fruit Grower's meeting, by several cultivators, that Hovey's Seedling required a staminate variety, such as the large Early Scarlet, to fertilize it. The most popular varieties are Rurr's New Pine, Boston Pine, Harvey's Seedling, McAvoy's Superior, Liongworth's Prolific, Genesee, Walker's Seedling, Bicton Pine, Triomphede Gaud, Trollope's Victoria, Jenny Lind, British Queen, Hooker, Monroe Scarlet, and Moyamensing; several others might be added, but a selection may be made from tho above.
The Bush Pine Alpines are much in request by same amateurs, and may be had of any our leading nurserymen.—Moore's Rural New Yorker.
The following extract from an address by H. Greeley, before the Erie County Agricultural Society at Buffalo, N. Y., contains some useful hints:
"The truth which I am most anxious to impress is, that no poor man can afford to be a poor farmer. When I have recommended agricultural improvements, I have often been told this expensive farming will do well enough for rich people, but we who are in moderate circumstances cannot afford it. Now, it is not ornamental farming that I recommend', but profitable farming. It is true that the amount of a man's capital must fix the limit of his business—in agriculture as in everything else. But, however poor you may be, you can afford to cultivate land well, if you can afford to cultivate it at all. It maybe out of your power to keep a large farm in a j high state of cultivation, but you should sell a part of it, and cultivate a small one. If you are a poor man, you cannot afford to raise small crops; you cannot afford to accept half a crop from land capable of yielding a whole. If you are a poor man you cannot afford to fence two acres to secure the crop you ought to grow on one; you cannot afford to pay or lose the interest on the cost of 100 acres of land to get the crops that will grow on 50 acres. No man can afford to raise 20 bushels of corn per acre, not even if the land were given him, for 20 bushels per acre will not pay the cost of the miserable cultivation that produces it.
"No man can afford to cultivate his land in such a manner as will cause it to deteriorate in value. Good farming improves the value of land, and the farmer who manages his farm so as to get the largest crop it is capable of yielding, increases its value every year.
"No farmer can afford to produce weeds. They grow, to be sure, without cultivation : they spring up spontaneously on all land, and especially rich land; but though they cost no toil, a farmer can't afford to raise them: tho same elements that fed them, would, with proper cultivation, nourish a crop, and no farmer can afford to expend on weeds the natural wealth which was bestowed by Providence to fill his granaries. I am accustomed, my friends, to estimate the Christianity
of the localities through which I pass, by the absence of weeds on or about the farms. When I see one covered with a gigantic growth of weeds, I take it for granted that the owner is a heathen, a heretic, or an infidel; a Christian he cannot be, or he would not allow the heritage which God gave him to dress and keep, to be so deformed and profaned. And to make an application of the above remark, I must say, there is much missionary ground between New York and Buffalo. Nature has been bountiful to you, but there is great need of better cultivation. To prevent the growth of weeds, is equivalent to enriching your land with manure; for to retain in it the elements of which crops are formed, is as profitable as to bring them there. It is better that weeds should not grow at all: but when they exist, and you undertake to destroy them, it is economy to gather them up and carry them to your barn yards, and convert them into manure. You will in this manner restore to your farms the fertility of which the weeds had drained it.
"Farmers cannot afford to grow a crop on a soil that does not contain the natural elements that enter into its composition. When you burn a vegetable, a large part of it passes away, during the process of combustion, into the air. But there is always a residue of mineral matter, consisting of lime, potash and other ingredients, that entered into its composition. Now the plant drew these materials out of the earth, and if you attempt to grow that in a soil that is deficient in these ingredients, you are driving an unsuccessful business. Nature does not make vegetables out of nothing, and you cannot expect to take crop after crop off from a field that does not contain the elements of which it is formed. If you wish to maintain the fertility of your farms, you must constantly restore to them tho materials which are withdrawn in cropping. No farmer can afford to sell his ashes. You annually export from western New York a large amount of potash. Depend upon it, there is nobody in the world to whom it is worth so much as it is to yourselves. You can't afford to sell, but a farmer can afford to buy ashes at a higher price than is paid by anybody that does not wish to use then as a fertiliser of the soil. Situated as the farmers of this country are, in the neighborhood of a city that burns large quantities of wood for fuel, you should make it a part of your system of farming, to secure the ashes it produces. When your teams go into town with loads of wood, it would cost comparatively little to bring back loads of ashes and other fertilisers, that would improve the productiveness of your farms.
"No poor farmer can afford to keep poor fruit trees that do not bear good fruit. Good fruit is always valuable, and should be raised by the farmer, not only for market, but for large consumption in his own family. As more enlightened views of diet prevail, fruit is destined to supplant the excessive quantities of animal food that are consumed in this country. This change will produce better health, greater vigor and activity of mind and elasticity of spirits, and I cannot doubt that the time will come when farmers, instead of putting down the large quanties of meat they do at present, will give their attention in autumn to the preservation of large quantities of excellent fruit, for consumption as a regular article of diet, the early part of the following summer. Fruit will not then appear on the table as it does now, only as a dessert after dinner, but will come with every meal, and be reckoned a substantial aliment."
No man is so happy as a real Christian; none so rational, so virtuous, so amiable. How little vanity does he feel, though he believes himself united to God! How far is he from abjectness, when he ranks himself with the worms of the earth.—Pascal.
Evil Speaking Avoided By Silence.— A good word is an easy obligation; but not to speak ill, requires only our silence, which costs nothing.— Tillotson.
The Way To Defeat Error —My principal method for defeating error and heresy, is by establishing the truth. One purposes to fill a bushel with tares; but if I can fill it first with wheat, I may defy his attempts.—John Newton.
The esteem of wise and good men, is the greatest of all temporal encouragements to virtue; and it is a mark of an abandoned spirit to have no regard to it.—Burke.
Imaginary evils soon become real ones by indulging our reflections on them ; as he who in a melancholy fancy sees something like a face on the wall or the wainscot, can by two or three touches with a lead pencil make it look visible, and agreeing with what he fancied.—Swift.
Men are never so ridiculous for the follies they have, as for those they affect to have.— Gherron.
Adversity is the trial of principle. Without it a man hardly knows whether he is honest or not.—Fielding.
Many have puzzled themselves about the origin of evil. I am content to observe that there is evil, and that there is a way to escape from it; and with this I begin and end.—iVeicton.
In the commission of evil, fear no man so much as thine own self. Another is but one witness against thee; thou art a thousand. Another thou mayest avoid, but thyself thou canst not. Wickedness is its own punishment.
Tiie One Talent.—If there be one thing on earth which is truly admirable, it is to see God's wisdom blessing an inferiority of natural powers, where they have been honestly, truly, and zealously cultivated.—Dr. Arnold.
It is a secret known to few, yet of no small use in the conduct of life, that when you fall into a man's conversation, the first thing you should consider is, whether he has a greater inclination to hear you, or that you should hear him.—Addison.
Faith is like the wing of an angel soaring up to heaven, and bears our prayers to the throne of God.
Flocr Ai»d Meal.—The downward course of prices seems to be checked. Flour yesterday was rather more enquired alter. Standard brands are selling at $6 25 per barrel. Small sales of better brands for home consumption at $6 25 a 6 37. Sales of extra and fancy brands at $6 25 a 8 00. There is very liitle export demand. Rye Flour is worth $3 50 a 4 00 per barrel. Corn Meal is dull, at $3 00 per bbl.
Grain.—Wheat is dull, but prices are lower. Sales of prime new Pennsylvania red were made at $1 45 a 1 48, and $1 45 a 1 55 for white. Rye continues steady; sales of Penna. at 81c. Corn is inactive; sales of old yellow at 68c, and new yellow 62 a 63c. Oats are steady. Sales of prime old Pennsylvania and Delaware at 47 a 48c per bushel.
~|7»RCILDOUN BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. Pi The twelfth session of this Institution will commence on the 19th of Second mo. next, and will continue twenty weeks. The usual branches comprising a thorough English education will be taught, and scientific lectures illustrated by appropriate apparatus will be delivered. It is situated three miles sonthwest of Coatesville, on the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, from which place pupils will be conveyed free of charge. For circulars address the Principal, Ercildoun P. O., Chester Co., Pennsylvania.
. SMKDLEY DARLINGTON,
12th mo. 26th, 1856. 6t. p. Principal.
CHESTERFIELD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR BOYS The Winter Session of this institution
will commence the 17th of 11th mo. 1856, and continue twenty weeks.
Tkrms Seventy dollars per session, one half payable in advance, the other in the middle of the term No extra charges. For further particulars address HENRY W. R1DGWAY, Crosswicks P. O., Burlington County, N. J. 10th mo., 1856.3m.
N& L. WARD, Plain Bonnet Makkbs, North West , corner 9th and Spruce streets, Philadelphia. 11th mo. 29th 2m.
PHILADELPHIA, FIRST MONTH 17, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE,
••'>/« in advance. Three copies sent to one address for
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, free of expense, to whom all payments are to be made.
A Narrative of the sufferings of John PhiUy and William Moore, in Hungary and Austria.
(Concluded from page 678.)
So effectually had the exemplary conduct of the prisoners, as well as the truths they declared, wrought upon the mind of Adam Bien, that, without their knowledge, he had solicited the earl for liberty to take them to his house, and keep them there, the winter being cold and their place of confinement a guard-house, the doors of which stood open all day and much of the night, —proffering his own person as security for them if they should run away. Here is a striking evidence that a faithful and upright walking in conformity with our religious principles, raises in the minds of beholders a testimony in our behalf, and inspires them with a confidence and affection, which nothing else could produce. But though Adam succeeded in obtaining the earl's consent to the proposed change, our friends were not willing to add the burden of their support to the many obligations underwhichhis kindness had already laid them; but chose rather to content theiuselvoH where they were; yet they got permission to visit at his house occasionally, and were often refreshed together in a sense of the love of God to their souls, as well as the nearness of affection and Christian fellowship which they felt for each other, and for their dear friends at borne. At his house they sometimes had opportunities of preaching the Truth to the Hortesche Brethren who came there, warning them of the desolation which would come upon the unfaithful; a prediction which was fulfilled even as to the outward, as regarded many of them, for of Bine families or communities, eight were destroyed, upwards of two hundred men slain and taken captive, and a large amount of property was consumed by fire.
But though the sufferings of our friends were
somewhat mitigated, they were not yet at an end. Both the priests and soldiers, appeared to be afraid of Adam Bien, who stood over them in his integrity and uprightness, and whoso daily access to, and intimacy with the earl, gave him many opportunities of influencing his mind; yet they secretly contrived to be vexatious to the Friends, and in various ways sought to ensnare them and add to their afflictions. By their treacherous insinuations, they seem at length to have obtained their ends so far as to induce the earl to wink at a plot which was laid for separating the prisoners, and carrying William away by stealth. Jealous of every thing which was likely to diminish their importance and authority, or to prejudice their corrupt religion, the priests probably selected William as their victim, because he had a knowledge of the Dutch and Latin languages, and was therefore more likely to spread a knowledge of the principles of Friends. In order to accomplish this design, a person selected for the purpose, came to William and gave him two glass vessels, under pretence of getting him to assist in carrying some wine, and thus succeeded in drawing him out of the town into the fields. Here they were met by several sleds, the country being so deeply covered with snow that wagons could not travel;—and on their coming up, the man, who had armed himself with a great cudgel, compelled William to lay down the glass vessels and get on one of the sleds. Sensible that some mischief was intended him, and fearful lest they might wreak their vengeance upon Adam and John, under pr«tonce that he had run away, William resolved to try to extricate himself and return to the city. In this attempt he was defeated; for a soldier whom William knew to bo a wicked and desperato fellow, and who had before threatened him, having joined his betrayer, they siezed him by the hair, beat him until they shed much of his blood, and had almost struck out one of his eyes, then threw him down in the snow, tied his hands and feet, and bound him on the sled with his face down to the hay and parried him off.
At first he suspected they intended to murder him privately in an adjoining wood, and afterward when they came near a gallows, he thought they designed to hang him there, but they passed by both; and meeting some people in the road, they muffled him in a cloak, and one of them sat upon him that he might not be seen. Hearing the Doisc of their feet in the snow as they approached, and being very anxious to convey to Adam Bien and his companion some intelligence of the manner of his being carried away, William called out to the people and desired them to tell Adam that he was there, and had been forcibly carried off—but the soldier beat him severely for it. When they came to the lodging place, they put irons on his ancles, and a long iron chain about his neck, the other end of which they fastened over a beam. Next morning they passed through a village, where he would gladly have spoken to some one, but they forced him to lie down until they got through it, and conveyed him to a cloister. The prior being absent from home, the monks would not receive him without his order, and he was again compelled to lie in irons as he had done the night before. On the following morning he was taken to the cloister or castle, and his conductor gave directions that he should be blindfolded and put into a deep dungeon, and have only a little bread and water, and that none should be permitted to give any intelligence respecting him; and a Jew being there, he was forbidden on pain of death to say any thing of what he had seen. William was accordingly put into a small hole, to which no light was admitted, and there they kept him four days and nights in cold frosty weather, so that it seemed wonderful he had not perished.
The clandestine manner in which he had been taken away, and the mysterious secrecy which his enemies were so anxious to preserve, would naturally lead him to suspect that their design was either to despatch him privately, or to bury him alive in a dungeon, until death should release him, or solitude and suffering shake his constancy and induce him to embrace their religion. But through the merciful interposition, as well as the supporting power of Divine Providence, he was preserved under all his trials, in unshaken confidence in the rectitude of those religious principles for which he was so deep a sufferer.
After twelve days' confinement, the prior returned home and sent for William to appear before him. He questioned him concerning their j object in coming into that country, and on some points of their religion, to all which he returned such replies as were consistent with truth and soberness. The prior told him, what they owned was not enough,—they must believe the Pope was Christ's vicar, and that he and the priests had power to bind and loose on earth and in heaven. After they had reasoned together awhile, the prior sent him back into confinement, telling him he would come and talk with him again and bring the Bible; but he rather seemed to avoid him. Once, however, he discoursed with him again, in the course of which William boldly bore his testimony against their covetousness, pride, persecution, and warlike weapons, all
which were contrary to the example of Christ and his apostles; and was helped to deliver himself so clearly, that the prior afterward acknowledged that ho had never before conversed with any one who gave such answers.
His demeanor being watchful and circumspect, consistent with the purity of the religious principles he avowed, they were the more anxious to induce him to embrace the Romish religion, and sent a priest to instruct and convert him—offering him preferment and other advantages. But none of these means succeeding, they then threatened to cut out his tongue, to flay him alive, or to burn him if he would not turn. But his constancy was not to be shaken, either by the hope of gain, or the fear of torture and death, and relying on that God who had preserved him hitherto, and who, he firmly believed, would support him to the end, he persisted in the faithful maintenance of his religious principles. In order to try if they could terrify him into compliance, they put him into a tub—passed a rope through the ears of it and over a beam, and said he should be let down into a well which was more than thirty fathoms deep. They did not, however, do this, but drew him up over the beam and let him fall out—then raising him up again, they twisted the rope and let it go, so as to whirl him violently about. He silently bore their insultsand abuse, appearing to be littlemoved at them, which occasioned his persecutors to marvel, being ignorant of the power of that 'grace which enables its obedient subjects to rejoice that they are counted worthy to suffer for I the name of Christ Jesus. They then took him | to another place, locked his neck and feet close together, and spread out his hands and locked them in that position; some asking him if it was painful, and others saying they committed more sin by doing so, than they got profit.
At another time they put him into a wheel, and caused some soldiers to turn it, so that he he might be thrown from side to side, which might have done him much injury, but he held fast by the side of it, which prevented their mischief—yet one of his elbows was much bruised.
During all this period, Adam Bien continued their firm and steady friend, anxious to do whatever he could for their relief. The earl insinuated to him that William had run away, bnt Adam had too much confidence in the integrity of his friend to give credit to such a story. At length, by some means he received intelligence of the manner and place of William's confinement, on which he wrote him a letter and sent it by an officer of the castle, who maliciously refused to let him have it. He, however, got sight of it after awhile, and learned from it that the plot for his removal was kept so secret, that only three persons had a knowledge of it, and that his kind and sympathizing friend, Adam, greatly