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been almost entirely removed, theie remains pure malleable iron.
One great drawback upon the employment ot this process for the preparation of malleable iron, has hitherto been the heavy expense of the fuel that of necessity has to be employed in the repeated meltings. Some of the best kinds of iron are only procured after six successive fusings. In addition to this difficulty, it has always been found impossible, also, to prepare any very large quantity at once. Founders have thought they had effected wonders when they have turned out some four or five hundredweights by one puddling. The railings which surround the cathedral of St. Paul's in London were made of iron, procured by the puddling process in Sussex at the expense of £7000.
All this, however, appears now to pertain to the past rather than to the present. A civil engineer of London has just patented a plan for the preparation of malleable iron by a new process, by which he is able to deal with the metal in almost any quantity at once. He has experimentally shown his ability to convert five tons of molten cast iron into a vast lump of pure malleable iron, in thirty-five minutes; and it is stated that, by the use of his process, an equal quantity of iron railing with that which stands round St. Paul's might be furnished at the comparatively trifling cost of JE230.
This new process of Mr. Bessemer's consists merely in forcing air through the molten pig iron, in the place of splashing up the molten iron into the air. The molten iron, drawn off from the slag in the usual way, after the first roasting and melting, is received red-hot into a sort of basin instead of into moulds. This basin has holes at its bottom, communicating with a very powerful pair of blast-bellows worked by steam. The airblast is turned on before the red-hot liquid metal is received into the basin; and the result is, that the metal is prevented from running into the holes by the out-set of the blast, and that the streams of air rush through it, tossing it violently to and fro with a sort of fiery boiling. The fierce air-blast forces the carbon combined with the iron into a furious combustion, and the heat of the molten liquid is thus raised higher and higher as the blast goes on. The carbon, which is a superfluous impurity, is itself converted into a valuable fuel through the force of the blast. First, a bright flame and an eruption of sparks burst from the mass; then the fiery liquid swells, and throws up the impurities to the surface as a kind of earthy froth, which is composed of these impurities entangled with oxide of iron by fusion? The sulphur and phosphorus are burned off with the carbon, and after a few minutes, when the flame subsides, there remains nothing behind but the perfectly cleansed iron, ready to be drawn off through the vent-hole of the basin, and more pure than the metal pro
cured after half-a dozen successive fusicg3 by the old plan. The exact quality of the iron drawn off depends, however, upon the extent to which the blast has been carried. The mass passes gradually, during purification, through the condition of cast-steel and hard steel into that of soft malleable iron. There is an intermediate form, which Mr. Bessemer calls 'semisteel,' which is harder than iron, and less brittle than steel, and which ho states will prove to be of inconceivable value for all purposes where lightness, strength, and durability are required to be combined. The cast iron loses eighteen per cent, by the time the purification has been carried to the utmost.
Such, then, is the new promise which has just been held out in these iron days. The metal which is in such enormous demaud for works of surpassing extent aud strength, is to be furnished in the most perfect state, in tenfold quantities, and with more than a tenfold saving of the cost of the fuel used in the preparation. There ia to be one roasting and one melting in the place of half-a-dozen tedious and costly fusings; air is to be blown through the molten liquid, and presto! in a few short minutes, huge masses of the finest grained iron are to be ready for the hammer and the anvil. If this promise be fulfilled, the best steel, which is now worth from £20 to £30 the ton, will be furnished in any required quantity at the cost of £Q the ton, and malleable iron will be sold at the same price, instead of £$, 10s. the ton. It has been calculated that this improved process of Mr. Bessemer's will produce, when generally adopted, a saving to Great Britain of a sum equal to five millions of pounds sterling every year.—Chambers' Journal.
Promptness and energy.—Do not wait to strike till tho iron is hot, but make it hot by striking.
"How," said one to Sir W. Raleigh, of whom it was said he " could toil terribly," " how do you accomplish so much, and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do, I go and do it," was the reply.
Punctuality.—Appointments once made become debts. If I have made an appointment with you, I owe you punctuality; I have no right to throw away your time, if I do my own.
Self-rule.—The most precious 'of all possessions, is power over ourselves; power to withstand trial, to bear suffering, to front danger; power over pleasure and paiu; power to follow our convictions, however resisted by menace and scorn; the power of calm reliance in scenes of darkness and storms.
Progress in life.—No man becomes fully evil at once; but suggestion bringeth on indulgence;
Among the early settlers of Hartford was Mr. George Wyllys, who appears not to have arrived till a year or two later, and who became Governor of the colony in 104-2. Before coming to America he sent forward his steward to prepare a place for his residence, and who selected the beautiful site which contained within its grounds this oak. It was in the height of its glory, but far past its prime, as was evident from the decayed hollow in its trunk. As the steward was cutting away the trees on the beautiful hill-side, a deputation of Indians came to him and requested that he would " spare this old hollow oak." They said: "It has been the guide of our ancestors for centuries as to the time of planting our corn : when the leaves are the size of mouse cars, then is the time to put the seed in the ground."
The tree was spared at their solicitation, and remained an ornament of the Wyllys estate some fifty years before the occurrence of the historical incident that give it name.
In 10G2, Charles II. granted a charter con veying most ample privileges to the colony of Connecticut. It arrived in Ilartford, probably in September, though its precise date is not known, and on the 9th of October was publicly read, and entrusted to a committee, one of whom was Mr. Samuel Wyllys, a magistrate of the colony, for safe-keeping.
The government of the colony was conducted in accordance with its provisions. But in July, 1685, soon after the accession of James the II., a quo warranto was issued against the governor and company of Connecticut to appear and show by what warrant they exercised their powers and privileges. In reply, the colony pleaded the charter granted by the king's royal brother, made strong professions of loyalty, and begged a continuance of their rights.
In 1636 two other writs of quo-warranto were issued against the colony, requiring their appearance before his majesty. On the 19th of December of the same year, Sir Edmond Andross arrived at Boston, commissioned as the governor of all New England. He soon after wrote the Governor of Connecticut that he was empowered to receive their charter, aud requesting their voluntary surrender of it; but the colony declined Bo doiug—a special session of the Assembly hav
ing been called for the consideration of that subject. Another letter being received from Sir Edmond Andross, another meeting of the Assembly was called, and they again refused to surrender it.
In October, 1687, the Assembly held its regular session, as usual, and continued till the last of the month. The foliage had then fallen from the trees, so that the eye might look far into the surrounding forests. In the afternoon of one of those mellow autumnal days, Oct. 31st, a troop of soldiers, about sixty in number, with Sir Edmond and his suite at their head, were seen emerging from the woods; and they encircled the place where the Assembly were in session. Sir Edmond, with his suite, entered the hall, demanded the Charter and declared the government under it dissolved.
The Assembly were extremely reluctant and slow to surrender it. Governor Treat represented at what expense and hardship the colony had been planted, and that to give up their Charter was like giving up life. The affair was debated and kept in suspense until lights were needed in the evening, when the Charter was brought in and laid on the table where the Assembly were. Great numbers of people had now assembled, and some sufficiently bold for any expediency. The Governor and his associates then appeared to yield the question, and Sir Edmond was advancing towards the table to take the parchment, when suddenly the lights were extinguished and they were all in total darkness. There was no noise or confusion, and the candles were officiously relighted, but the Charter was gone!
One Captain Jeremiah Wadsworth silently had seized it, and disappeared with it before the room was again lighted. It is said by tradition that Jeremiah had often sat in the moonlight with one Kate Wyllys, beneath the spreading branches of the tree that her grandfather's steward had spared at the solicitation of the red man; and to whom should he run with the Charter but to Kate! To deposit it in some unsuspected retreat was of course his object, and her woman's ready wit at once suggested the hollow in the old Oak. It was hardly sooner thought of than it was there deposited, where no human eye would think of searching for it.
Sir Edmond was disconcerted at the disappearance of the Charter. He declared the government of the colony to be in his own hands, appointed officers of government, and returned with his troop to Boston.
This was not the first time Sir Edmond Andross had been disconcerted by the Connecticut colony. Twelve years before, when governor of New York, he appeared with an armed force at Saybrook, for the purpose of annexing the colony to the government of the Duke of York. A detachment under Capt. Thomas Bull had been sent from Hartford for the defence of Saybrook, and he raised the King's flap on the Fort there. Sir Eduiond did not dare to fire on the flag; and on learning that the commanding officer was named " Bull," he was so pleased with his spirit and bearing that he said in compliment, "it is a pity your horns are not tipped with silver."
The government of Sir Edmond was extremely arbitrary and tyrannical, but was of short continuance. In April, 1689, news arrived at Boston of the landing of the Prince of Orange in Eng land, and ou the 18th of that month Sir Edmond was seized and confined in Prison in Boston. On the 9 th of May, Gov. Treat of Con necticut resumed the government of that Colony, under the provisions of the Charter which had been so securely deposited in the old hollow tree, and which continued to be the organic law of Connecticut till the present Constitution took its place in 1818.
The Charter was beautifully written on parchment, and enclosed in a box of about three feet in length, in which it was brought over, which is still preserved in the Hartford Athenaeum, with the sap of the oak left upon it; and since then this tree has been known as the Charter Oak. It has been regarded with affection and veneration by the people of that State, and has been a kind of Mecca to all persons visiting Hartford city. A daughter of Secretary Wyllys, the fifth in descent of the first from that name, wrote to Dr. Holmes in reply to an inquiry of his, as published in his " Annals" in 1805:
"That venerable tree which concealed the Charter of our rights stands at the foot of Wyllys hill. The first inhabitant of that name found it standing in the height of its glory. Age seems to have curtailed its branches, yet it is not exceeded in the height of its coloring, or richness of its foliage. The trunk measures twenty-one feet in circumference, and near seven in diameter. The cavity which was the asylum of our Charter was near the roots, and large enough to admit a child. Within the space of eight years that cavity has closed, as if it had fulfilled the Divine purpose for which it had been reared."
BEGINNING AT ONCE.
Faith is the starting-post of obedience; but what I want is, that you start immediately, that you wait not for more light to spiritualize your obedience, but that you work for more light by yielding a present obedience up to the present light which you profess; that you stir up all the gift which is now in you, and this is tho way to have the gift enlarged, that whatever your hand findeth to do in tho way of service to God, you now do it with all your might. And the very fruit of doing it because of his authority, is that you will at length do it because of your own renovated taste. As you persevere in the labors of His service you will grow in the likeness of his character. The graces of holiness will both
brighten and multiply upon you. These will be your treasures, and treasures for heaven, too,— the delights of which mainly consist in the affections and feelings, and congenial employments of the new creature.—Dr. Chalmers.
For Friends' Intelligencer.
Having for a number of years directed a portion of my time and attention to the cultivation of fruit trees, I find from observation and experience, that the manner in which they are transplanted is of peculiar importance in promoting the prosperity of the tree. And we discover of late an increasing inquiry in relation to tho best and most efficient mode of transplanting; yet I apprehend that much information is still wanting to convince the public mind that a consistent and judicious course of treatment, a course best calculated to preserve a uniform growth of newly planted trees, and to promote their prosperity and vigor through life, although it may be attended with some extra trouble and expense, will in the end prove most beneficial and satisfactory. The first thing to be considered is the construction of the borders, and the component materials to be placed about the roots Deep planting I conceive to be one of the most fatal errors in forming new plantations, and the most difficult to correct, as the people generally are not sufficiently aware of its injurious effects.
It is not my intention to criticise upon the course practised by others, but simply to point out my own experience, and the course I have adopted of latter years, in regard to the transplanting of fruit trees ; and this I will mostly confine to a small orchard of apple trees, eightyfive in number, set in the fall of 1851, which was an unusually dry season, thus rendering transplanting more difficult. The month previous, I drew from a muck swamp four cart loads of peat earth thrown up a year previous. This I placed upon the ground which I intended for the orchard, and added to this the same quantity of yard manure, carefully mixing the eight loads together for decomposition. Directly after harvest I laid out the ground in diamonds, thirty-five feet apart in the rows.
The soil being rather a sandy loam, with gravelly subsoil, I then turned up a deep cut back-furrow one way of the rows about six feet wide, as I intended cultivating the entire ground the coming season. Quito early in the fall the borders where prepared for the reception of the trees. The holes were dug four feet square and two feet deep, carefully placing the surface soil by itself, and the subsoil in a separate heap. About the middle of 10th mo. wc commenced setting the trees. First filling the holes about half full of partially rotted sods from the backfurrow closely placed together. Then the heap of top soil previously thrown out was thoroughly mixed with,a portion of the compost heap, at the rate of one cart load to about eleven trees, and the remaining portion at the bole filled with this mixture of fine mould, leaving the mould in the centre, where the trees were to be placed, some four or five inches above the level of the surface, aad at the borders about the same depth below the surface, leaving the mould to place the roots upon in the form of a little hillock. After smoothly paring all the mutilated roots, the trees were placed upon this mound, and the roots extended, placing them in their natural position; then with a shovel the prepared mould was carefully sifted upon the roots, guarding them with the hand during the process, in order that the roots might be rightly arranged, and every crevice filled up. The roots being thinly covered, we i then sifted on about two quarts of slacked lime and the same quantity of wood ashes; then filled up the holes with the remainder of the prepared soil, leaving the top roots at the base of the stem just covered, and these top roots at least four or five inches above the level of the surface, making this allowance for settling. This I conceive very essential to the well-being and prosperity of the tree, that it may at all times receive a sufficient portion of light and air. When placed in this position in windy, exposed places, they may require fastening for a time, by a small stake; but this I did not do, with the exception of a few trees.
We then placed about the base of the trunk a sufficient quantity of earth or sods to guard the roots during the winter; this to be entirely removed the following spring.
In the early part of spring I shortened in the entire tops, taking care to balance the same, and to remove all superfluous branches, leaving from four to six equally arranged on all sides, the trees being from two to three years old from the bud. Instead of mulching in the spring with coarse litter from the yard, as I had previously done, saw-dust from the mill was applied, which was found a good substitute, drawing the sawdust from the trees in the coming fall.
These trees all lived, and to all appearance scarcely received any check in their growth the ensuing summer, and have continued to grow and flourish beyond my expectations, and fail not, more or less, to attract the attention and admiration of those that pass by, especially those that feel an interest in horticultural pursuits.
The above recommendation I find equally applicable to nearly all fruit, as well as deciduous and perennial trees; yet we find there are exceptions to this rule: for instance, the dwarf pear tree, that is the pear budded upon the quince stock, which is generally inserted near the ground, and at the age of one or two years should be transplanted, and the union that has taken place, set an inch or two below the surface,
in order that the entire quince stock may be enabled to throw out an increased portion of roots, that will give it a permanent support, and more equally balance the roots with the top ; and even then the tops and side branches should be anually shortened in, which will materially add to the beauty, vigor and longevity of the pyramid, and increase the size and flavor of the fruit.
Daniel E. Gerow. Fairfield Co., Connecticut,
On reading the above in manuscript I will take the liberty of adding that I have found in my own experience, as well as heard it highly recommended by others, that it is very important to wet the roots of the trees just before covering them with the mould, as this causes them to be surrounded entirely by a coatiog of earth. I should think also that in planting standard pear trees, the roots of which are more vertical and descend deepgr than the apple, that the hole should not be filled quite so full as to within six inches of the surface at the outside of the hole, though of course much would depend upon the size of the tree; but I unite fully with D. E. G., that planters cannot be too careful ,in guarding against settling their trees too deep in the soil.
The Providence Journal is publishing a history of lotteries in Rhode Island, from which it appears that there was scarcely a church or religious society in the State which did not, at some period of its existence, derive advantage from them, however shocking it may now appear. Some societies built their churches with money raised through lottery grants, others received assistance after their own means had been exhausted, while others merely used the money so raised to build steeples, " which would tend" greatly to the ornament of the town," whore the steepleless churches stood, to set up clocks "for the great convenience of the market people," or otherwise expend it in similar superfluities.
Elfin, who is ever nigh,
And his name is " Bye-and-Bye."
Will be better done, he'll cry,
"Put it ofi*"—says Bye-and-Bye.
Will his faithless guidance rue,
Clearly, we shall never do,
If on " Now" we more rely,
Leads the pilot " Bye-and-Bye,"
From The National Era.
THE CONQUEST OF FINLAND.*
The winds of Autumn blow,
But where the low, gray headlands
Look o'er the Baltic brine, A barti is sailing in the track
Of England's battle-line.
No wares hath she to barter
She saileth not for pleasure,
But still by isle or mainland,
Where'er the British cannon
Outspake the ancient Amptman,
"Why comes this ship a-spying
"God bless her," said the coast-guard, "God bless the ship, I say;
The holy angels trim the sailf
"Where'er she drops her anchor,
Wherer 6he spreads her parting sail, The peasant's h art is sad.
"Each wasted town and hamlet
She visits to restore;
And feed the starving poor.
The sunken boats of fishers,
The foraged beeves and grain, The spoil of flake and storehouse;
The good ship brings again. "And so to Finland's sorrow
The sweet amend is made, As if the healing hand of Christ
Upon her wounds were laid!" Then said the gray old Amptman,
"The will ol God be done! The battle lost by England's hate,
By England's love is won! "We braved the iron tempest
That thundered on our shore; But when did kindness fail to find
The key to Finland's door?
Shall warning signal come,
The roll of midnight drum. "Beside our fierce Black Eagle
The Dove of Peace shall rest; And in the mouths of cannon
The sea-bird make her nest. « For Finland, looking seaward,
No coming foe shall scan; And the holy bells of Abo
Shall ring,« Good-will to man!'
"Then row thy boat, oh, fisher!
In peace on lake and bay; And thou, young maiden, dance again
Around the poles of May!
"Sit down, old men, together j
Old wives, in quiet spin , Henceforth the Anglo-Saxon
Is the brother of the Finn!" J. c
•A late letter from England, in ihe Friends' Review, says: «' Joseph Sturge, with a companion, Thomas Harris, has been visiting the shores of Finland, to ascertain the amount of mischief and loss to poor and peaceable sufferers, occasioned by the gun boats of the Allied squadrons in the late war, with a view to obtaining relief for them."
THE QUILT OF CONTEMPT.
Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, thou shalt not kill: and whosoever shall kill, shall be! in danger of the judgment : but I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire. Matt. v. 21, 22.
In order to take in clearly the spirit of this passage, let us settle in our minds the import of its leading terms. We have hero an allusion to three distinct kinds of offence, and to three distinct kinds of penalty. First, "be not angry with your brother without a cause," or you shall be in danger of ''the judgment." Secondly, call him not " Baca," or you shall be in danger I of " the council." Thirdly, say not unto him "thou fool," or you shall be in danger of " hellfire"—the gehenna of fire." Here is a climax of penalty; we infer, therefore, a climax of guilt. The " council" was a subordinate Jewish court. The "judgment" implies a still higher authority. The "gehenna of fire" may be understood from its uses. It means the valley of Hinnom, a place near Jerusalem, were once children had been sacrificed to Moloch, and into which, long afterwards, it was the custom, from the abomination that attached to it, to cast the dead bodies of malefactors. These and other substances needing to be consumed, a fire was incessantly sustained in it; and thence it came to be called the gehenna of fire.
Following the analogy so common in our Lord's —indeed, in all Eastern teaching, by which the spiritual is elicited from the literal—we have an intimation of the order in which these several offences stand by the decision of the holiest and the best. Anger is a passion of resistance; and this unjustly or excessively permitted, is worthy of rebuke. But resistance concedes to an opponent a species of equality. Anger is a passion, therefore, that in some sense implies honor in the object, and does not wholly debase him. It is not, therefore, as guilty as to call him "Raca"—a term of levity and ridicule which, by robbing its object, of the dignity that anger presupposes, merits a still deeper condemnation. But, " Thou fool"—or, as the original more strongly has it, "Thou impious, thou wretch," covers a human being with such odium and such abhorrence, that be who applies the phrase or entertains the spirit of it, subjects himself to the reprobation of outraged humanity