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This brief sketch of Lucretia M. Clement, whose death was published on the 21st ult., has been forwarded to us for insertion :—
"Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
It is seldom our lot to witness the passing away of one so young, and yet so ripe for immortality. The subject of this notice, though in the early morning of life, possessed the taste and aspirations of an exalted mind of mature years; desirous of, and seeking for mental and moral culture, she sought the companionship of those persons and books, whose example and language tended to lead the mind onward and upward to the pure fount of truth and love, whose never-failing streams alone are Sufficient to satisfy the craving of an immortal spirit. She is gone, and we feel a loss; but can we grieve? can we grieve for one who, when about to embark for an unknown world, looked round with a calm and peaceful smile, while the bereaved and stricken sister smiled in return, in full assurance of the happy exit of the beloved one, from a world wherein they both had learned that to taste of sorrow is the lot of mortals? And though the bereaved feel a blank, a loneliness which cannot be filled, yet they bow in submission to Him who gives, and who has the right to take away, knowing that lie doeth all things well. C. E.
Paulshorough, iV. J.
The following address by Dr. Howe, who is well known as the instructor of Laura Bridgeman, contains much that is interesting. One of the violations of the natural laws to which he alludes, is the marriage of those too nearly related. The statistics collected with great care by those interested in the subject, fully justify the wisdom of that part of our discipline which forbids such connections.—Ed.
Address of Dr. Howe on laying the corner-stone of the Pennsylvania Institution for Idiotic CJiildren.
You have gathered together this day to show your regard for a work which will awaken little public interest and excite no public enthusiasm. It will be unknown or disregarded by the many. Worldly men may shake their heads at you, with pitying looks of superior wisdom; and foolish men may even indulge in witticisms at your expense.
But the most unsympathetic and unappreciative of all will be those unfortunates in whose behalf you labor; who can never understand what you do for them, nor lessen your satisfaction by their thanks. Nevertheless, it is meet and proper
that you should manifest by outward show and ceremony your sense of the importance of the work which you undertake.
Nature leads men to manifest their emotions by ceremonials, or more enduring movements; and these manifestations have their reflex action—for evil if the emotion be evil—for good if that be good.
We must not then abandon pomp and ceremony as childish, because they have been so much devoted to childish things; but rather adhere to them, and direct them upward. We are yet too feeble in our moral natura to be loyal to the abstract good, without the aid of concrete signs. In alt times men have used public ceremonials to mark their sense of great occasions. In the early ag^s, to show their respect for bodily strength and courage; in the later ones for intellectual power and acquirement; but in all there must be the supposed element of greatness. This is the thing they honor.
Now the occasions which call forth public ceremonies are among the best tests of the height which a people has gained in true civilization; for people honor most what they most desire to be— strong and brave, rich and luxurious, powerful and dominant, learned and furious, or wise and good, according to the nature of the call, are they who hear and heed it. It was easy to call together vast multitudes to found a monument on Bunker Hill; it would be hard to get a dozen to found a light house—yet a light house is the nobler monument.
Hospitals are nobler monuments, even, than light-houses. They are the jewels which shine out with redeeming light through the cloud of greed and selfishness which broods over the land. To the eyes of angels they shine brighter than the church spires which tower so ambitiously above them. Works done in them, if done in the spirit of love, are more acceptable offerings to God than even prayers and praise.
But, as the stars differ in brightness, so do hospitals differ in the beauty and holiness of their mission. They differ in the nature of the works they have to do; and the order iu which people provide them usually corresponds with the rising scale of their own civilization. Hospitals for the wounded usually precede those for the sick. Beside the honor in which war is held, a man struck down in battle, or in the street, seems more nearly like one of us than he who falls sick.
Provisions for the sick usually precede those for the iusaue, upon the same principle. Sickness seems nearer to people than insanity does. Every one feels that he, or his child, or his brother, may be sick at any time, but he thinks it less likely that any of his kith or kin will go mad. Hence you find hospitals for the sick among people who have not yet risen to a consciousness of their duty to the insane.
In appeals to the people and to government in behalf of hospitals, you have at first to press strongly the economical considerations. These are easily understood and promptly answered. Many a man's reluctance to vote an appropriation for an insane hospital has been overcome by the argument that it would restore many to reason, and so turn over to the public productive workers instead of insane paupers.
A hospital for incurables, even if it were not open to other objections, would obtain less favor than an ordinary one. You would have to adduce higher motives, and they might be above popular reach.
The same principle holds with regard to the treatment of different classes of the infirm. The wounded, the sick and the insane are usually provided for before any organized effort is made in behalf of the blind and the deaf mutes.
It is the same in the treatment of these two classes. People provide asylums for the blind long before they rise to consciousness of their spiritual wants, and provide schools for their instruction.
Tried by this test you will find that the extent to which public provision is made in the Old World for the suffering and the infirm, corresponds very nearly with the elevation of the different countries in the scale of civilization. There may be an occasional exception, as where a superstitious notion that the insane are possessed by a spirit causes Mussulmans to make provisions for their care. But it is in Christian and civilized Europe alone that hospitals are founded and maintained in a high spirit of beneficence.
But even there you will see that they flourish or languish according to the moral tone of the people. For instance, favored by the generous impulse of the French Revolutionary Government, schools for the Blind were planted by the ] Abh6 Haiiy, from Madrid to Petersburg; but, while they multiply and flourish in France, England, Germany, Holland and Belgium, they, for the most part, languish elsewhere; and you will find that a little Canton of Switzerland maintains schools better appointed than the royal establishments of Spain and Russia.
It is much the same in this country. Hospitals and Asylums abound everywhere in the North, nowhere in the South. A call for an effort in behalf of any class of infirm, who have been long neglected, is responded to eagerly by people and legislatures through the Northern and Western States, but finds only a faint echo in the South and South West, from an enlightened few. The social institutions do not encourage the spirit of humanity in the people. New York, Pennsylvania, and even little Massachusetts, each expend more for several classes of the infirm, than all the Southern and South-Western States together. This will not always be so; for the same humane
impulses slumber in the hearts of the people, and circumstances will arise to awaken them to action.
Throughout the North there is a general admission of the justice of the claims of certain classes of the infirm upon their more favored fellows; and this, too, without putting them upon the mere ground of charity.
This is practically admitted with regard to the deaf mutes, and the blind, and places our institutions upon a higher plane than those of Europe, where they are considered, for the most part, as purely charitable, if not eleemosynary.
The institutions for the blind and those for the deaf mutes in New England, New York, Pennsylvania and the great States of the West, are not properly asylums or charitable establishments; they are public schools j and the pupils are as much entitled to the benefits thereof as ordinary children are to the benefits of common schools. It is true that the State pays for their board, which it does not do for ordinary children; but this is because it is cheaper to convey them all to one center school and keep them there than it would be to provide special means of instruction in the neighborhood of every citizen who, by paying his tax, has a claim upon the State for the instruction of his child, whether that instruction has to be given through the eye, or the ear, or the touch.
This is the true view to take of these institutions; and it is one which saves the self-respect of pupils and of parents.
(To be continued.)
MAXIMS TOR YOUNG MEN.
"Keep good company, or none. Never be idle. If your hands can't be usefully employed, attend to the cultivation of your miud. Always speak the truth. Make few promises. Live up to your engagements. Keep your own secrets, if you have any. When you speak to a person, look him in the face. Good company and good conversation are the very sinews of virtue. Good character is above all things else. Your character cannot be essentially injured except by your own acts. If any one speaks evil of you, let your life be so that no one will believe him. Drink no kind of intoxicating liquors. Ever live (misfortune excepted) within your income. When you retire to bed think over what you have been doing during the day. Make no haste to be rich, if you would prosper. Small and steady gains give competency with tranquillity of mind. Never play at any game of chance. Avoid; temptation; though you fear you may not withstand it. Earn money before you spend it. Never run into debt uuless you see a way to get out again. Never borrow if you can possibly avoid it. Do not marry until you are able to support a wife. Never speak evil of any one. Be just before you are generous. Keep yourself innocent, if you would be happy. Save when you are young, to spend when you are old. Bead over the above maxims at least once a week."
PHILADELPHIA,TWELFTH MONTH 26, 1857.
All who are acquainted with the early history of the Society of Friends, know that our forefathers had much to endure from the spirit of persecution, manifesting itself in edicts by which they were subjected to imprisonment, ignominy, confiscation of property, and that some of them sealed their testimony with their blood. Did all these cruelties shake them from the foundation upon which their faith was built? a foundation upon the rock of ages? a faith in the immediate revelation of the will of God to the soul of man? a teaching of His spirit, adapted to every individual state, and a worship without creeds or forms, in spirit and in truth? Nay! they had digged deep, and could not be shaken from their foundation, though the rains beat and the winds blew.
A writer half a century since remarked, that "as a Society the frowns of the world were a ballast to our vessel, and contributed to its safety amidst the storm. Having now to substitute for this ballast, the lighter lading of its friendships and favors, we must bo strictly on the watch not to unfurl our sails too much, but in all things implicitly submit to the control of our Heavenly Pilot."
Some of us who have been long on the stage of action, and to whom the testimonies of Truth, which have been so nobly borne and so ably advocated, are very dear, do long to find in those who are now entered and entering upon the stage of action, such an appreciation of their value as will induco a willingness to walk in accordance therewith. We do not want to speak of a degenerate Society, or to take up a lamentation over it, but rather to encourage to a faithfulness and devotion like that of the early sons and daughters of the morning, who were not ashamed of the simplicity of the gospel,.bat were exemplars of it in life and conversation, as well as in the support of a living ministry unshackled by human authority.
When we were young, we frequently hoard the
apostolic language feelingly quoted by our fathers and mothers in the Truth, which we are now fully prepared to adopt and reiterate: "That we have no greater joy than to see the children walking in the Truth."
We deprecate that state of mind which would desire to shut up the kingdom of heaven against men, or anathematise any for differences of opinion in religion; but believing as we do, that the Society of Friends has had a very important mission in the world, and that its mission is not ended, we deplore our short-comings, and earnestly desire that there may be such an unreserved submission to the divine will in (he hearts of many, that they may become faithful laborers in His vineyard; and that the promise may be realized, " That judges will be raised up as at the first, and counsellors as in the beginning." We most assuredly believe, that the power remains the same, which qualified and supported the faithful in former generations in their advocacy of the Truth, and all that is wanting is a submission and devotion like theirs.
Died, In Byberry, 23d Ward, Philadelphia, on the morning of the 19th of 11th mo., Elizabeth W. NewBold, widow of the late Samuel Newbold, in the 70th year of her age.
, 11th mo. 23d, in Poughkeepsie, Duchess
County, New York, after an illness of twenty hours, Arthur Lockwood Arnold, son of Levi M. and Susan Arnold, in the 10th year of his age.
, On First day morning, the 13th inst., RebecCa R. Rhoads, a member of Green st. Monthly Meeting.
, In Frankford, Philadelphia County, on the
25th of the lllh month 1857, Hannah K. Menden
THE SLAVE AND COOLIE TRADES.
Advices from Havana state that the African Slave Trade was never more flourishing. Four cargoes of negroes had been landed on the island within ten days. Three of the vessels whieli' brought them were built, and are, it is thought, owned in Massachusets. The French had placed a large steam propeller in the coolie trade, and landed from her eight hundred and forty-two Chinese, who were sold by first hands to others, and by them to sub-contractors, for labor, realizing a profit for each party. Each speculator made about $180 profit per head, and the full price for a Chinaman (with hair uncut) was $420 75. The authorities in the different ports of entry openly connived at the traffic.
It is only by labor that thought can be made healthy, and only by thought that labor can be made happy, and the two cannot be separated with impunity. All professions should be liberal, and there should be less pride felt in peculiarity of employment, and more in excellence of achievement.—Ruskin.
Correspondence of the New York Tribune.
Carlstad, Sweden, Sept. 10, 1857.
We spent four days in Christiania, after completing our Norwegian travels. The sky was still perfectly clear, and up to the day of our departure no rain fell. Out of sixty days which we had devoted to Norway, only four were rainy —a degree of good fortune which rarely falls to the lot of travellers in the North.
Christiania, from its proximity to the Continent, and its character as capital of the country, is sufficiently advanced in the arts of living to be a pleasant resting-place after the desagremens and privations of travel in the interior. It has two or three tolerably good and very exorbitant hotels, and some bankers with less than the usual amount of conscience. One of them offered to change some Prussian thalers for my friend, at only 10 per cent, less than their current value. The vognmand from whom we purchased our carioles endeavored to evade his bargain, and protested that he had not money enough to repurchase them. I insisted, however, and with such good effect that he finally pulled a roll of notes, amounting to several hundred species, out of his pocket, and paid me the amount in full. The English travellers whom I met had not fared any better, and one and all of us were obliged to recede from our pre-conceived ideas of Norwegian character. But enough of an unpleasant theme, I would rather praise than blame, any day; but I can neither praiso nor be silent, when censure is a part of the truth.
I had a long conversation with a distinguished Norwegian on the condition of the country people. He differed with me in the opinion that the clergy were to some extent repsonsible for their filthy and licentious habits, asserting that, though the latter were petils seigneurs, with considerable privileges and powers, the people were jealously suspicious of any attempt to exert an influence upon their lives. But is not this a natural result of the preaching of doctrinal religion, of giving an undue value to external forms and ceremonies ?" We have a stubborn people," said my informant; "their excessive self-esteem makes them difficult to manage. Besides, their morals are perhaps better than would be inferred from the statistics. Old habits have been retained in many districts, which are certainly reprehensible, but which spring from custom rather than depravity. I
wish they were less vain and sensitive, since in that case they would improve more rapidly."
In the course of our conversation the gentleman gave an amusing instance of the very sensitiveness which he condemned. I happened, casually, to speak of the Icelandic language. "The Icelandic language !" he exclaimed. "So, you also in America call it Icelandic, but you ought to know that it is Norwegian. It is the same language spoken by the Norwegian Vikings, who colonized Iceland—the old Norsk, which originated here, and was merely carried thither." "We certainly have some reason," I replied, | "seeing that it now only exists in Iceland, and , has not been spoken in Norway for centuries; but let me ask you why you, speaking Danish, call your language Norsk?" "Our language, as written and printed, is certainly pure Danish," said he; "but there is some difference of accent in speaking it." He did not add that this difference is strenuously preserved, and even increased, by the Norwegians, that they may not be suspected of speaking Danish, while they resist with equal zeal approach to the Swedish. Often, in thoughtlessly speaking of the language as Danish, I have heard the ill-humored reply: "Our language is not Danish, but Norsk." As well might we say, at home: "We speak American, not English."
I had the good fortune to find Professor Munck, the historian of Norway, at home, though on the eve of leaving for Italy. He is one of the few distinguished literary names the country has produced. Holberg, the comedian, was born in Bergen, but he is generally classed among the Danish authors. In Art, however, Norway takes no mean rank, the names of her painters, Dahl, Gude and Tidemand, having a European reputation. Prof. Munck is about fifty years of age, and a fine specimon of the Viking stock. He speaks English fluently, and I regretted that the shortness of my stay did not allow me to make further drafts on his surplus intelligence. In the Museum of Northern Antiquities, which is small, as compared with that of Copenhagen, but admirably arranged, I made the acquaintance of Prof. Keyser, the author of a very interesting work on the " Reliion of the Northmen," a translation of which, ■y Mr. Barclay Pennock, appeared in New York some three years ago.
I was indebted to Prof. Munck for a sight of the Storthing, or National Legislative Assembly, which is at present in session. The large hall of the University, a semi-circular room, something like our Senate Chamber, has been given up to its use, until an appropriate building shall be ereoted. The appearance and conduct of the body strikingly reminded me of one of our State Legislatures. The members were plain, practical-looking men, chosen from all classes, and without any distinguishing mark of dress. The speaker was quite a young man, with a moustache. Schweigaard, the first jurist in Norway, was speaking as we entered. The hall is very badly constructed for sound, and I could not understand the drift of his speech, but was exceedingly struck by the dryness of his manner. The Norwegian Constitution has been in operation forty-three years, and its provisions, in most respects so just and liberal, have been most thoroughly and satisfactorily tested. The Swedes, and a small conservative party in Norway, would willingly see the powers of the Storthing curtailed a little, but the people now know what they have got, and are further than ever from yielding any part of it. In the house of almost every Norwegian farmer one sees the Conctitution, with the facsimile autographs of its gingers, framed and conspicuously hung up. The reproach has been made that it is not an original instrument —that it is merely a translation of the Spanish Constitution of 1812, a copy of the French Constitution of 1791, &c.-but it is none the worse for that. Its framers at least had the wisdom to produce the right thing at the right time, and by their resolute and determined attitude to change a subject province into a free and independent State: for, carefully guarded as it is, the union with Sweden is a source of strength and security.
One peculiarity of the Storthing is, that a majority of its members are, and necessarily must be, farmers—wheuce Norway is sometimes nicknamed the Farmer State. Naturally, they take very good care of their own interests, one of their first steps being to abolish all taxes on landed property; but in other respects I cannot learn that their rule is not as equitable as that of most legislative bodies. Miigge, in his recently-published Nordisches Bihlerburh (Northern Picture-Book) gives an account of a conversation which he had with a Swedish statesman on this subject. The latter was complaining of the stubbornness and ignorance of the Norwegian farmers. Mugge asked (the remainder of the dialogue is too good to be omitted):
"The Storthing then, consists of a majority of coarse and ignorant people 1"
Statesman.—" I will not assert that. A certain practical understanding cannot be denied to the most of these farmers, and they often give their sons a good education before giving them the charge of the paternal fields. One therefore finds in the country many accomplished men: how could there be 700 students in Christiania, if there were not many farmers' sons among them V
Author.—" But does this majority of farmers in the Storthing commit absurdities; does it govern the country badly, burden it with debts, or enact unjust laws?"
Stahsman—" That cannot exactly be admitted, although this majority naturally gives its
own interests the preference and shapes the government accordingly. The State has no debts; on the contrary, its treasury is full, an abundance of silver, its bank-notes in demand, order everywhere, and, as you see, an increase of prosperity, with a flourishing commerce. Here lies a statement before me, according to which, in the last six months alone, more than a hundred vessels have been launched in the different ports."
Author—" The Farmer-Legislature, then, as I remark, takes care of itself, but it is niggardly and avaricious when its own interests are not concerned f"
Statesman—" It is a peculiar state of affairs. In very many respects this reproach cannot be made against the farmers. If anything is to be done for science, or for so-called utilitarian objects, they are always ready to give money. If a deserving man is to be assisted, if means are wanted for beneficial purposes, Insane Asylums, \ Hospitals, Schools, and such like institutions, j the Council of State are always sure that they I will encounter n^' opposition. On other occaI sions, however, these lords of the land are as I hard and tough as Norwegian pines, and button up their Dockets so tight that not a dollar drops out."
Author—" On what occasions?"
Statesman—" Why, you see (shrugging his shoulders,) these farmers have not the least comprehension of stalcmanship! As soon as there is any talk of appropriations for increasing the army, or the number of officers, or the pay of foreign ministers, or the salaries of high official persons, or anything of that sort, you can't do anything with them I"
Author (to himself)—" God keep them a long time without a comprehension of statesmanship! If I was a member of the Storthing, I would have as thick a head as the rest of them."
On the 5th, Braisted and I took passago for Gottenburg, my friend having already gone home by way of Kiel. We had a smooth sea and an agreeable voyage, and awoke the next morning in Sweden. On the day after our arrival, a fire broke out in the suburb of Haga, which consumed thirteen large houses, and turned more than two hundred poor people out of doors. This gave me an opportunity to see how fires are managed here. It was full half an hour after the alarm-bell was rung before the first engine began to play; the water had to be hauled from the canal, and the machines, of a very small and antiquated pattern, contributed little toward stopping the progress of the flames. The intervention of a row of gardens alone saved the whole suburb from destruction. There must have been from six to eight thousand spectators present, scattered all over the rocky knolls which surround Gottenburg. The fields were covered with piles of household furniture and clothing, yet no guard