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umes, comprising Onehundredand sixteen works, of which fifteen volumes were donations, while the entire number now catalogued is Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-six, as follows: Abridged and Juvenile 728 Scientific 568 Religious 1,148 Voyages and Travels 532 History and Biography 837 Miscellaneous 953 Catalogues arranged in accordance with this classification can be procured of the Librarian.
Very considerable expense has boon incurred in refitting the old cases, procuring new ones and refurnishing the room with new carpets, tables, &c, thus presenting, independent of the intrinsic value of the Library itself, a cheerful and attractive appearance, while in the expenses incurred, as rigid an economy was observed as was at all consistent with the object in view.
The Treasurer's account settled up to the 22d inst. makes the following exhibit, viz.: Receipts, all told, . . S487 00
Expenditures during the same period, 578 11
Leaving a balance due the Treasurer of $91 11
From the forgoing statement it will be seen that it becomes necessary once more to appeal to the liberality of Friends to sustain an institution fraught with so many advantages; for should the subscriptions not be increased over the amount collected last year, the purchase of new books during the next twelve-months must necessarily be very much diminished. Our collector will shortly commence his labors, and it remains to be seen, whether our appeal meets j with the cheerful response that has heretofore been realized.
The Library room is now open as heretofore on Fourth and Seventh day evenings for the accommodation of Friends generally, and on Seventh day afternoons for the exclusive accommodation of Females.
KF^Entrance from Fifteenth street.
Extracted from the Minutes.
Jacob M. Ellis, Clerk.
Philada., Eleventh month, 1857.
Died, in Baltimore, on the Uth of 8th mo. last, at the residence of her son-in-law, Capt. Wm. Rollins, Eliza Silvestkb, in the 74th year of her age—relict of the late Capt. Samuel Silvester, and daughter of William and Kli/.a Bidgood, of Bucks Co., Pa.
When a long and useful life is closed, it seems natural and is surely fitting that we review the character that is still exerting an irresistible and kindly influence over us. In the hour of separation from a beloved friend we turn back to the life just terminated, for something to give assurance of preparation for the great change; and in this case it is particularly comforting. It was remarket at the time, by one who knew her well, "how faithfully she had performed difficult duties, going on steadily and firmly amid varied interests, promoting and reconciling all, and winning love and respect." It was her peculiar characteristic to be
actively ministering to the comforts of some one, and the writer of this slight tribute has, in many seasons of sorrow, been cheered by her words and deeds of kindness, and enabled to go on her way rejoicing. In how many hearts will similar remembrances be called forth, by reading this announcement of her departure. But all these Samaritan promptings for others could not avert bitter sorrow from her own heart. Death chose " shining marks" in her family circle, and her nervous system at length yielded to the repeated trials; but, even when body and mind seemed almost to have failed, no selfishness sprung up. And in her last days, the habitual tendency was beautifully revived—seeming to forget her own suffering, in affectionate and assiduous care for another dear invalid. The gentleness and sweet docility of childhood returned. She expressed her willingness to go or remain longer, as Divine Wisdom might direct, but her work was done; and the Bunset of her life was calm and serene, as that of the beautiful summer evening, when we laid her remains beside those of her loved ones in Greenmount. C.
, At New York, on the afternoon of the 6th of
7th mo., 1857, Ann C, wife of Richard M. Reynolds.
Her disease was a rheumatic affection, which deprived her of the use of her limbs, not being able to walk for nearly twenty years; although failing to obtain more than temporary relief frorn various physicians who attended her during the long period of her illness, she bore her bodily suffering, though great, with Christian patience and resignation. And, in her afflictions, she felt and appreciated the kind and effectionate care of herself and family by a beloved sister, who, with her husband and children, were devoted to her comfort. She was desirous, when meeting-day came, that as many of the family as could leave should attend, not forgetting the assembling of our bodies as a reasonable duty ; that if she conld not go herself, the rest should. She took a deep interest in our Society, and it was a great gratification to her to be informed of its business transactions. During her last illness, which was about ten days, her mind was tranquil and composed. A few days after she was taken, she requested her sister to have those things in readiness for her, that are necessary for the body when life becomes extinct; saying, she believed they would soon be needed, it would prevent excitement, and expressing a wish that all might be done in quietness. On hearing a nephew and wife, who had been with her, speak of returning home, as other relatives had arrived, she took them by the hand and desired, if convenient, all would remain, saying, it would not be long thus, evincing, a clear sense that her close was near. A few nights previous to her death she appeared to be in supplication; her voice being very weak, some broken accents were heard as follows: "O, Lord I guide me on,—guide me on, —to peace,—sweet peace and rest;" and for her children her petitions were also put forth. She desired them not to forget their dear father. And another time was heard to say, with much emphasis, " ready, —ready,—O! how beautiful I" The day of her decease, her friends observing that nature was nearly exhausted, called her husband to her bedside, when she effectionately embraced him, quietly passed away, and we trust, has entered the mansions of the righteous; where the weary are at rest, and the afflicted know of their pains no more.) Thus, while we deeply feel the loss of our beloved sister, wife and mother, we have the consoling assurance that our loss is her eternal gain. Believing that she has realized the sayings of the Prophet, " I have refined thee, but not with silver; 1 have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction." R. W. R
y. York, Uth mo. 3d, 1857.
Pliney, the younger, who, about A. D. 106, was appointed by the Emperor Trajan, Governor of Pontus, in Asia Minor, at a time when the Christiana there were most cruelly persecuted, becoming, after full enquiry, satisfied that no crime could bo proved against this people, and being uneasy on account of the barbarities inflicted on them, wrote to Trajan for specific instructions in relation to the manner in which they should be treated. In a letter, which we find in the 10th book of his correspondence with the Emperor, he says: "The whole of their error or fault lay in this, that they were wont to meet together on a stated day before it was light, and sing among themselves alternately a hymn to Christ, as a God." And adds, " After receiving this information, I deemed it necessary to examine, and that by torture, two servant maids who were called ministers, but have discovered nothing, besides a bad and excessive superstition." The dreadful conflagration which occurred during the reign of the Emperor Nero, A. D., 63, and which nearly destroyed the entire city of Rome, became the pretext for the first general persecution of the Christians by authority of the Roman government, who hitherto had extended a free toleration to all religions. Tacitus, who lived contemporary with Pliney, in referring to this calamity, informs us, that the Emperor Nero, in order to avert from himself the odium under which he lay, of having ordered the city to be set on fire, accused the Christians of having done it. His words are, " To suppress therefore, the common rumor, Nero procured I others to be accused, and inflicted exquisite punishment upon these people, who were held in abhorrence for their crimes, and were commonly known as Christians.* They had their denomination from Christus, who, in the reign of Tiberias, was put to death as a criminal, by the Procurator, Pontius Pilate."
Suetonius, another distinguished Roman Historian, that wrote about A. D., 110, in his life of the Emperor Claudius, who reigned from A. D. 51 to 54, says, " The Jews were banished from Rome by this Emperor, on account of their continually creating disturbances, Christus being their leader."
The fuct stated by this historian is confirmed by Luke, Acts xviii. verse 2, where he says, "Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome."
The " disturbances'' here complained of, were no doubt occasioned by the feuds that existed between the converted and non-converted Jews, but very few of the Gentiles having at this time embraced the Christian religion at Rome.
* These crimes probably were their withdrawal from the Pagan worship, and refusing to sacrifice to their idols.
SUNSHINE AS A HEALTH-GIVER.
Sir: There is a generous abundance of sunlight in the country, yet the observer is often convinced that a majority of country houses are but scantily provided with this first requisite of health and comfort. Our dependence upon this bounty of nature is seen every where. It daily envelopes the earth with electric fluid; it spans it with magnetism in every meridian; it is the moving power of the winds which fan us; it decomposes the impurities of the atmosphere; it has power to make the sterile soil fertile, and the fertile fields more abundant; it germinates the seeds, gives the color, the^woody texture and the luxuriance of the vegetable kingdom. The development of some animals, through metamorphosis, is arrested, if light be excluded from them, and only one anomalous, unsightly species of the animal kingdom exists wholly in total darkness. The diminished sunlight of Winter is a signal for many individuals to assume a dormant state, and to myriads it is a decree'of death, while in equatorial regions life is brought forth in more forms, is more active, and reaches fuller perfection than elsewhere. From this seed of light the human race are not excepted. In shaded localities natural deformities are found to occur with comparative frequency ; the goiter, which in the valleys of Switzerland, and other mountainous, damp regions, becomes a debility of the mind as well as of the body, is attributable to the filthy and oppressive exhalations of spots which are never illuminated by full noonday. It is an every day experience that those who live in damp or dark houses, contract diseases which are alleviated by removal to drier and more cheerful residences. Even when we come into the open air from a low-ceiled, illlighted room, we feel that the darkness which we leave has been in some sort, an imprisonment.
We have been accustomed to regard the intense influences of the torrid zone as the certain I and immediate cause of sickness and frequent j mortality; but the testimony of natives of the temperate zone in both hemispheres, as to what they have performed with ease and unimpaired health in hot climates, tends to show that the danger lies rather in locality and circumstance. Humboldt, after having spent five years in the tropical regions of America, bears witness to the fine muscular development of the native inhabitants of those countries, and adds: " Deformities are exceedingly rare in certain races of men, especially those which have the skin strongly colored."
The three classes of rays which compose the sun-beam, chemical, luminous and calorific, cor' responding to the three primary prismatic colors, blue, 'yellow and red, vary in proportionate effect at different seasons of the year, and during
the successive hours of the day. The chemical rays, which act as a direct stimulus to increase the growth of plants, are most abundant in the Spring and in the morning, the meridian light of Summer and noon-day having a counteracting effect, as it tends to produce compactness and firmness more than bulk. The preponderance of the chemical rays in Spring-time is undoubtedly one of the adaptations of this season to the young of animals which then begin their existence, and it also exerts a decided influence upon our own physical health. The invalid desires the return of Spring, for he instinctively feels that nature without will then come to the aid of nature within; and who, after the cold and lifeless Winter, does not love to seek the windsheltered nook, there to drink in the warm sunlight, and to rcceivo upon the brow its lifegiving blessing? The chemical rays are those which most change the hue of the skin; but this effect is least when diet, local climate or occupation are not such as to make it morbidly sensitive. We have examples of fair faces among European women who seldom wear bonnets or hats, which seem to show that a blonde may remain such, and a brunette be no more than a brunette, even if not sedulously shaded from every glimpse of sunshine. It is certain that it is one of nature's infallible cosmetics, being efficacious in redeeming the one from a fragile paleness and the other from sallowness, by giving them both a healthful undertone of bloom. If once convinced that free access of sunlight is favorable to health, there is no sensible reason in fearing exposure to it; for if to refinement of mind and goodness of heart are added vigorous health and elastic spirits, the countenance will glow with heightened comeliness, even if darkly hued; and in our admiration we always learn to obey the request, "Look not upon me because I am black, because the sun bath looked upon me."
In reference to admitting light freely into our houses the words of a writer on the subject are pertinent. He says: "From several years' observations in rooms of various sizes, used as manufacturing rooms, and occupied by females for twelve hours each day, I found that the workers who occupied those rooms which had large windows, with large panes of glass, in the four sides of the room, so that the rays of the sun penetrated through the whole room during the whole day, were much more healthy than those who occupied rooms lighted from one side only, or rooms lighted through very small panes of glass." Notwithstanding the cheapness and facility with which glass can be obtained, there is a deficiency of windows even in what is usually considered the better class of American dwellings. Sitting rooms, cheerless enough in having one or two small windows almost extinguished beneath heavy drapery of paper and
cloth, are exceedingly common. For ordinary rooms, white cotton cloth, fastened on rollers, as paper is usually hung for window shades, is sufficient for the purpose of screen—admitting at the same time a diffused and softened light.
Dark colors upon the walls, absorbing more or less of the prismatic rays, are also unfavorable in their effects. The writer just quoted found that in rooms of equal ventilation, light and drainage, some of which had white walls, and others yellow or buff colored, the occupiers were not equally cheerful and healthy. The workers in rooms with colored walls " were all inclined to melancholy, and complained of pains in the forehead and eyes, and were often ill and unable to work." By having the color removed and replaced by whitewash, uniform health and cheerfulness were ever after secured.
Those who labor in the open air may never realize how imperative is that law of life which
, bids us seek the light; but those who live mostly within doors can through deprivation fully understand it. The mother who, in the fulfil
j meut of her office, pre eminently receives and appropriates from all the life-sustainingelcments, suffers a twofold wrong, in the injury to herself
i and offsping, by dwelling in darksome apart
I ments, and childhood in such homes is pale and puny—often worse—is squalid and most pitiably
[ It is observable that, while the rich material of Nature's storehouse awaits the hand of Art to make it available for the use of mau, Art be! comes excellent only as it approaches Nature's j own inimitable model. And in this approach we find in the character and uses of a people's handicraft unfailing data of their ideas and civilization. In architecture, a course of progress is distinctly marked from the cave, the wigwam and hut of the savage who rudely supplies his few wants; from the tent and mosque of the Arab; from the cots beneath the castle and beside the palace; from the negro quarters and the mansion house, until we descry the beginnings of a republicanism which so regards the welfare of every least one within its commonwealth as to make homes of comfort and taste the birthright of all.
A copy was given in Creation; the sun in the blue dome above, with the grateful varying hues of green and brown around and beneath us—the lesson was opened then for our study, but it has not yet been perfectly learned.
White walls, with a full number of sidelights, are incomparably better than a degree of darkness and gloom; but their direct glare is injurious to the eye, while, on the other hand, it is at once assisted and protected by a supply of rays falling from above, side-lights being used mainly for prospect, and the coloring of the walls and furniture of the apartment being of those shades upon which the eye rests with pleasure. Verandahs, shade-trees and climbing-plants, which add so much of attractiveness to our homes, often exclude the light more than is desirable, but combined with the sky-light, they are naturally retained and cultivated.
Not only may the one item of light be thus obtained, but by varying the color of the glass, it can bo made to transmit a preponderance of the chemical, luminous or calorific rays, singly or two combined, as may be desired. This is aresort in green houses to perfect the growth of tropical plants. The red or heat-rays, which are the most direct, and are supposed to have the greatest momentum, might be appropriated on a sufficient scale, from the sun's unfailing, exhaustless fount, in making the artificial climate of our dwellings genial aud uniform.
It seems possible, when we consider the potency and constancy of solar influences, that new adaptations of its separate or combined forces may be discovered to alleviate the progress of some diseases, as well as to hasten the recovery of the invalid.
And a luxury is also to be secured by being able to seek repose beneath a transparent ceiling curtained with moonlit clouds, or penetrated by the silent, solemn presence of the starlight.
Cannot the idea which pervades nature's grand temple be transcribed upon our dwellings, our school-houses, our work-shops and even upon our prisons? A. E. L. R.
Pleasant Lake, Ind., Sept. 1, 1857.
FRUITS OF CIVILITY.
Civility costs nothing, and considering it pays its way so handsomely in all companies, to say nothing of occasional chance advantages, it is a marvel that it is not more common—that it is not a universal virtue.
Within a few years, a couple of gentlemen— one of whom was a foreigner—visited the various locomotive workshops of Philadelphia. They called at the most prominent one first, stated their wishes to look through the establishment, and made some inquiries of a more specific character. They were shown through the premises in a very indifferent manner, and no special pains were taken to give them any information beyond what their own inquiries drew forth. The same results followed their visits to the several larger establishments. By some means, they were induced to call on one of a third or fourth rate character. The owner was himself a workman, of limited means; but on the application of the strangers, his natural urbanity of manner prompted him not only to show all that he had, but to enter into a detailed explanation of the working of his establishment, and the very superior manner in which he could conduct his factory, if additional facilities of capital were afforded him. The gentlemen left him, not
only favorably impressed towards him, but with the feeling that he thoroughly understood his business.
Within a year afterward ho was surprised with an invitation to visit St. Petersburgh. The result was, his locomotive establishment was removed there bodily. It was the agent of the Czar who had called on him, in company with an American citizen. He has recently returned, having accumulated a large fortune, and still receives from his Russian workshops about a hundred thousand dollars a year. He invests his money in real estate, and has already laid the foundation for the largest fortune of any private individual in Philadelphia—and all the result of civility to a couple of strangers.— Hall's Journal of Health.
A MOTHER'S SMILE.
There are clouds that must o'ershade us;
There are griefs that all must know; There are sorrows that have made us
Feel the tide of human woe. But the deepest, darkest sorrow
Though it sear the heart awhile, Hone's cheering ray may borrow,
From a mother's welcome smile.
There are days in youth that greet us,
With a ray too bright to last; There are cares of age to meet us,
When those sunny days are past; But the past scenes hover o'er us,
And give us back the while, All that memory can restore us
In a mother's welcome smile.
There are scenes and sunny places,
On which memory loves to dwell; There are many happy faces
Who have known and loved us well; But 'mid joy or mild dejection,
There is nothing can beguile, That can show the fond affection
Of a mother's welcome smile.
For Friends' Intelligencer.
MOSES ON MOUNT SINAI.
Beaming with supernal glory,
Down from Sinai's summit hoary,
Bore the sacred laws of heaven,
Simple, few, severe and plain, By paternal wisdom given,
To direct rebellious manMany days did Moses languish;
Fasting, he the mountain trod; Many times in awe and anguish
Sought he counsel from his God.
Often sunk in tribulation,
Great and final consolation.
Thus sbouldst thou, poor fellow sinner,
Seek the regions, calm and inner,
There, alone upon the mountain,
No profane disturber nigh,
Fasting shall thine eye grow lighter,
Lo! thy duty sbineth brighter,
So may'8t thou, another Moses,
So may each whom faith transposes, See the God whom Moses saw. llrA mo. 18(A, 1857.
MAKE YOUR COMPANY COMFORTABLE.
"Well, what is the best way to do so V—Not to turn the usual course of things upside down, and shake the pillars of your domestic economy, till they are ready to fall about your ears, all because you have company.
Not to insist upon it, that your visitors must eat some of all the innumerable kinds of nioe things, provided expressly for them, nor make it a point of conscience that they shall never for a moment be left alone. Not to push all work out of sight and reach, for fear it will not be thought showing proper attention to your friends, to have your hands employed in their presence.
Not to torture your brain, striving to think of subjects of conversation, when there is nothing particular, nor interesting, that either you or your friends wish to say.
So much for negatives—a few of them—for they might well be multiplied indefinitely. To make a visitor feel at ease in your house, be easy and natural in all you do and say. Make no unusual efforts of any kind, for the surest way to make your friend wish himself at home, is to let him feel that you are " putting yourself out" for his sake.
Give him freely and cordially the liberty of your house. Assure him of your wish that he should, while with you, consider himself as one of the family, and that you expect him to eat, sleep, talk, or keep silence, go out, or come in, read, write, mingle with the family circle, or retire to his chamber, exactly as he would do were the house his own, and you "make your company comfortable."
To be tormented by people's politeness, is almost as bad as to be vexed by their incivility. True politeness has very delicate and sensitive perceptions, and will never be officious nor over-done.
Said one gentleman to another, whom he had invited to pass the time of his sojourn in a strange city in his house, "Come, make my house your home—go out and come in as suits your convenience. 1 cannot have the pleasure of devoting much time to you, but my house is heartily at your service, whenever you find the
time to go to it. What leisure I have, I shall be pleased to spend with you—but whether you see much of me or no, pray make yourself comfortable, and at home in my house, and you will gratify me." That was real, gospel politeness, such as makes visitors comfortable.
TIIE MODNTAIN IN THE MAIN.
Out in the Arctic Sea, somewhat more than 400 miles to the north-east of Iceland, there rises, apparently projected by volcanic agency, the mountain-island of Jan Mayen. It shoots straight up out of the sea to the height of nearly 7000 feet, having from certain points of view the appearance of a peak, not unlike the enormous spire of a church. As seen from a distance, it seems impossible to land upon it, yet, on approaching nearer, there is found to be a narrow line of coast, and several small harbors, which offer a tolerable anchorage when the state of the surrounding ice admits of entrance. The island was originally discovered by Captain Fotherby, who stumbled upon it through a fog in the year 1614. Sailing southward in a mist so thick that he could not see to the length of his ship, he suddenly heard the noise of waters as if breaking on a great shore, and getting a glimpse shortly afterwards of the gigantic bases of Mount Beerenberg, which is the name given to the eminence, he thought he had discovered some new continent. Since then, it has been frequently sighted by homeward-bound whalers, though, on account of its ordinary inaccessibility, it has rarely been landed upon. Once, however, shortly after its discovery, an attempt was made to inhabit it, that was attended by tragic consequences; the particulars of which, till recently, have been very little known.*
About the year 1635, the Dutch government, wishing to establish a settlement in the actual neighborhood of the fishing grounds, where the blubber might be boiled down, and the spoils of each season transported home in the smallest bulk, prevailed on seven seamen to remain the whole winter on the island. Huts were built for them, and they were liberally supplied with salt provisions, and there left to resolve the problem as to whether or not human beings could support the severities of the climate. Standing on the shore, these seven men saw their comrades' parting sails sink down beneath the sun; then watched the sun sink as had sunk the sails; and as the long arctic night set in, must have felt themselves left to a perilous and questionable fate. As is the manner of seamen, they kept a log or diary of their proceedings, noting down from day to day what seemed most worthy or desirable to be recorded. 1 The 26th of August,' they wrote, 'our fleet set sail for Holland with a strong north-east wind and a
* Letters from High Latitudes.