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associated, though their remains, less fitted for preservation, have failed to leave distinct trace behind them. We at least know generally that with each succeeding period there appeared a more extensively useful and various vegetation than that which had gone before. I have already referred to the sombre, unproductive character of the earliest terrestrial flora with which we are acquainted. It was a flora unfitted, apparently, for the support of either graminivorous bird or herbivorous quadruped. The singularly profuse vegetation of the Coal Measures was, with all its wild luxuriance, of a similar cast. So far as appears, neith er flock nor herd could have lived on its greenest and richest plains; nor does even the flora of the Oolite seem to have been in the least suited for the purposes of the shepherd or herdsman. Not until we enter on the Tertiary periods do we find floras amid which man might have profitably labored as a dresser of gardens, a tiller of fields, or a keeper of flocks and herds. Nay, there are whole orders and families of plants of the very first importance to man which do not appear until late in even the Tertiary ages. Some degree of doubt must always attach to merely negative evidence; but Agassis, a geologist whose statements must be received with respect by every student of the science, finds reason to conclude that the order of the Rosacese —an order more important to the gardener than almost any other, and to which the apple, the pear, the quince, the cherry, the plum, the peach, the apricot, the nectarine, the almond, the raspberry, the strawberry, and the various brambleberries belong, together with all the roses and the potentillas—was introduced only a short time previous to the appearance of man. And the true grasses—a still more important order, which, as the corn bearing plants of the agriculturist, feed at the present time at least two-thirds of the human species, and in their humbler varieties form the staple food of the grazing animals—scarce appear in the fossil state at all. They are peculiarly plants of the human period.
Let me instance one other family of which the fossil botanist has not yet succeeded in finding any trace in even the Tertiary deposits, and which appears to have been especially created for the gratification of human sense. Unlike the Rosacea, it exhibits no rich blow of color, or tempting show of luscious fruit: it does not appeal very directly to either the sense of taste or sight; but it is richly odoriferous; and, though deemed somewhat out of place in the garden for the last century and more, it enters largely into the composition of some of our most fashionable perfumes. I refer to the Labiate family—a family to which the lavenders, the mints, the thymes, and the hyssops belong, with basil, rosemary,
in his description of the herbal of his " Schoolmistress."
"Herbs too she knew, and well of each could speak,
That in her garden sipped the silvery dew,
Where no vain flower disclosed a gaudy streak,
But herbs for use and physic not a few,
Of gray renown, within those bor lers grew;
The tufted basil, pun-provoking thyme,
And fragrant balm, and sage of sober hue.
*#»*#*» "And marjorum sweet in shepherd's posie found, And lavender, whose spikes of azure bloom Shall be erewhile in arid bundles bound, To lurk amid her labors of the loom, And crown her kerchiefs clean with meikle rare perfume.
and marjorum—all plants of
"And here trim rosemary, that whilom crowned
All the plants here enumerated belong to the labiate family; which, though unfashionable even in Shenstone's days, have still their products favourably received in the very best society. The rosemary, whose banishment from the gardens of the great he specially records, enters largely into the composition of eau de Cologne. Of the lavenders, one species (Lavendula vera) yields the well-known lavender oil, and another (Zr. latifolia) the spike oil. The peppermint (Mentha tnri(/<s)furnishes the essence so popular under that name among our confectioners; and one of the most valued perfumes of the East (next to the famous Attar, a product of the Rosacese) is the oil of the Patclwidy plant, another of the labiates. Let me indulge, ere quitting this part of the subject, in a single remark. There have been classes of religionists, not wholly absent from our own country, and known on the Continent, who have deemed it a merit to deny themselves every pleasure of sense, however innocent and delicate. The excellent but mistaken Pascal refused to look upon a lovely landscape; and the Port Royalist nuns remarked, somewhat simply for their side of the argument, that they seemed as if warring with Providence, seeing that the favors which he was abundantly showering upon them, they, in the stern law of their lives, were continually rejecting. But it is better, surely, to be on the side of Providence against Pascal and the nuns, than on tbe side of Pascal and the nuns against Providence. The great Creator, who has provided so wisely and abundantly for all his creatures, knows what is best for us infinitely better than we do ourselves; and there is neither sense nor merit, surely, in churlishly refusing to partake of that ample entertainment, sprinkled with delicate perfumes, garnished with roses, and crowned with the most delicious fruit, which we now know was not only specially prepared for us, but also got ready, as nearly as we can judge,
for the appointed hour of our appearance at the feast. This we also know, that when the Divine Man came into the world—unlike the Port Royalist, he did not refuse the temperate use of any of these luxuries, not even of that "ointment of spikenard, very precious" (a product of the labiate family), with which Mary anointed his feet.—Testimony of the Rocks.
THE 8PIDEH AND THE SNAKE.
It would seem that there is no living thing so obnoxious as not to find some admirers. What creatures so repulsive as rats and spiders! Yet the London Quarterly finds something beautiful and even loveable in the former, andjDr. Asa Fitch, in Harper's Monthly, labors to show that tbe latter "delicate little objects" are worthy of our esteem and admiration! He denies that their bite is fatal to any save insects, and extols their agility, adroitness, sagacity, and heroism, as worthy of all praise. In support of these views, he tells the following curious story concerning a heroic spider who captured a snake. The affair came off last summer, in the store of Charles Cook, in Ihe village of Havana, Chemung county, N. Y., and is attested by tbe Hon. A. B. Dickinson, of Corning, "who himself witnessed the phenomenon, as did more than a hundred other persons."
An ordinary-looking spider, of a dark color, its body not larger than that of a common housefly, had taken up his residence, it appears, on the other side of a shelf beneath the counter of Mr. Cook's store. What may we suppose was the surprise and consternation of this little animal, on discovering a snake, about a foot long, selecting for its abode the floor underneath, only two or three spans distant from its nest! It was a common silk snake, which, perhaps, had been brought into the store unseen, in a quantity of sawdust, with which the floor had been recently "carpeted." The spider was well aware, no doubt, that it would inevitably fall a prey to this horrid monster, the first time it should incautiously venture within its reach. We should expect that, to avoid such a frightful doom, it would forsake its present abode, and seek a more secure retreat elsewhere. But it is not improbable that a brood of its eggs or young was secreted near the spot, which the parent foresaw would fall a prey to this monster, if they were abandoned by their natural guardian and protector. We can conceive of no other motive which should have induced the spider so pertinaciously to remain and defend that particular spot, at the imminent risk of her own life, when she could have so easily fled, and established herself in some secure oorner elsewhere.
But how, we may well ask, was it possible for such a weak, tender little creature to combat
such a powerful, mail-clad giant? What power has she to do anything which could subject the monster to even the slighest inconvenience or molestation? Her ordinary resort, that of fettering and binding her victim by throwing her threads of cobweb around it, it is plain would be of no more avail bore than the cords upon the limbs of the unshorn Samson. Aware that her accustomed mode of attack was useless, how did she acquire the knowledge and sagacity requisite for devising another, adapted so exactly to the case in hand—one depending upon the structure and habits of the serpent to aid in-rendering it successful? How was she able to perceive that it was in her power to wind a loop of threads around this creature's throat, despite of all his endeavors to foil her in this work—a loop of sufficient strength to hold him securely, notwithstanding his struggles and writhings, until, by her tackle-like power, she could gradually hoist him up from the floor, thus literally hanging him by the neck till he was dead'! This was the feat which this adroit little heroine actually performed—a feat beside which all the fabled exploits of Hercules, in overpowering lions, serpents, and dragons, sink into utter insignificance! And who can say that in the planning and execution of this stupendous achievement, there was not forethought, reasoning, a careful weighing of all the difficulties and dangers, and a clear perception, in the mind of this little creature, that she possessed the ability to accomplish what she undertook; in short, an exercise of faoulties of a much higher order than the mere instinct which is commonly supposed to guide and govern these lower animals in their movements?
By what artifice the spider was able, in the first of its attack, to accomplish what it did, we can only conjecture, as its work was not discovered until the most difficult and daring part of its feat had been performed. When first seen, it had placed a loop around the neck of the serpent, from the top of which a single thread was carried upward, and attached to the under side of the shelf, whereby the head of the serpent was drawn up about two inches from the floor. The snake was moving around and around incessantly, in a circle as large as its tether would allow, wholly unable to get its head down to the floor, or to withdraw it from the noose; while the heroic little spider, exulting no doubt in the succss of its exploit—which was now sure beyond a peradventnre—was ever and anon passing down to the loop and up to the shelf, adding thereby an additional strand to the thread, each of which strands, being tightly drawn, elevated the head of the snake gradually more and more.
I But the most curious and skilful part of its . performance is yet to be told. When it was | in the act of running down the thread to the
loop, the reader will perceive it was possible for the snake, by turning his head vertically upward, to snap and seize the spider in his mouth. This had no doubt been repeatedly attempted in the earlier part of the conflict, but, instead of catching the spider, his snakeship thereby had only caught himself in an additional trap. The spider, probably by watching each opportunity when the mouth of the snake had thus been turned toward her, adroitly, with her hind legs, as when throwing a thread around a fly, had thrown one thread after another over the mouth of the snake, so that he was now perfectly muzsled, by a series of threads placed over it vertically; and these were held from being pushed asunder by another series of threads placed horizontally, as my informant states he particularly observed. No muzzle of wire or wicker work for the mouth of an animal could be woven with more artistic regularity and perfection ; and the snake, occasionally making a desperate attempt to open his mouth, would merely put these threads upon a stretch.
The snake continued his gyrations, his gait becoming more slow, however, from weakness and fatigue; and the spider continued to move down and up on the cord, gradually shortening it, until, at last, when drawn upward so far that only two or three inches of the end of his tail touched the floor, the snake expired—about six days after he was first discovered.
A more heroic feat than that which this little spider performed is probably nowhere upon record—a snake a foot in length hung by a common house spider! Truly, the race is not to the swift, nor in the battle to the strong 1 And this phenomenon may serve to indicate to us that the intelligence with which the Creator has endowed the humblest, feeblest of his creatures, is ample for enabling them to triumph in any emergency in which he places them, if they but exercise the faculties he has given them. It is only the slothful, cowardly, timorous, that fail; and they fail not so much before their enemies as before their own supineness. "' t-nlLADELPHlA MARK*, la.
Flour Awd Meal.—Their is rather more inquiry for flour, but current rates are still $5 25 for standard brands. Sales to retailers and bakers, for fresh ground at $5 30 a $J per bbl., and fancy brands from $61 up to $7. Rye Flour is now held at $4 25 per bbl., and Corn Meal at $3 60 per barrel.
Grain.—The receipts of Wheat continue light, and there is very little demand for it. Southern red is held at $1 25 a $1 26, and $1 35 a $1 36 for good white; only a few samples were sold. Rye sells at 70 c. Corn is dull, w ith sales of Jellow at 73 a 75 cents in store. Delaware oals are in fair supply at 32, and Penna. 34 cents per bushel.
Clovkrsekd — The demand hts fallen off, with sales at 4 62 a 4 75 per 64 lbs. Timothy is bringing 2 25 per bushel. Of Flaxseed the market is bare, and it is wanted at $1 70 cents per bushel.
anted a male teacher for a Friends' School at Westfield, Burlington County, N. J. For further
infotmation apply to Lippincott & Parry, corner o Market and Second Streets, Philadelphia.
Ioia mo. 17M, 1857.—4t.
t—A¥e¥terfield—boarding School For ) YOUNG MEN AND BOYS—The Winter session of this Institution will commence on the 16th of 11th month 1857, and continue twenty weeks.
Terms—$70 persession, one half payable inadvance, the other in the middle of the session.
No extra charges. For further information address HENRY W. RIDGWAY, Crosswicks P. O., Burlington Co., N. J. 10th mo. 3—3 m.
BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, near theCheltou Hills Station, on the North Pennsylvania Railroad.
Gayner Heacock will open a school 12th mo. 7th, and continue 16 weeks, where the usual branches ot an English education will be taught, and every attention paid to the health and comfort of the children.
Terms $40. No extra charges. Books furnished at the usual prices.
Address JOSEPH HEACOCK,
Jenkintown P. 0., Montgomery Co., Penna.
9 mo. 26—8 t.
&REEN LAWN SEMINARY is situated near Dnion-Ville, Chester County, Pa., nine mile? south we6t of West Chester, and sixteen north west from Wilmington; daily stages to and from the latter' and tri-weekly from the former" place. The winter term will commence on the 2d of 11th mo. next, and continue twenty weeks. The course of instruction embraces all the usual branches, comprising a thorough English Education, Drawing included. Terms: $57, including Board, Washing, Tuition, use of Books, Pens, Ink and Lights. The French, Latin and Greek Languages taught at $5 each, extra, by experienced and competent teachers, one a native of New Hampshire, and a graduate of a popular College in that State, whose qualifications have gained her a place amongst the highest rank of teachers. The house is large, and in every way calculated to secure health and comfort to tbirty-five or forty pupils. For Circulars, address—
EDITH B. CHALFANT, Principal. Union-Ville, P. 0., Chester County, Pa. 9th mo. 5th, 1857.—8 t.
LONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR YOUNG MEN AND BOYS. It is intended to commence the next Session of this Institution on the 2d of 11th mo., 1857. Terms: $65 for twenty weeks. For reference and further particulars, inquire for circulars of BENJ. SWAYNE, Principal. London Grove, P. O., Chester County, Pa.
ELDRIDGE HILL BOARDING SCHOOL.—The Winter session (for the education of young roer. and boys) of this Institution, will open on the 9th o: 11th mo., and continue 20 weeks.
The branches of a liberal English education are thoroughly taught by the most approved methods ot teaching founded on expeiienre.
Also the elements of the Latin and French languages. Terms, $70 per session.
Those wishing to enter will please make early application.
For full particulars address the Principal for a circular.
Eldridge Hill, Salem County N. J. 8 mo. 29, 1837—8 w.
Merrihew a Thompson, Prs.,Lodge St., North side Penna. Bank i
PHILADELPHIA, ELEVENTH MONTH 7, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OP FRIENDSPUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, No. 324 South Fifth Street, PHILADELPHIA, Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, payable in advance. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollars.
Communications must he addressed tothe Publisher free of expense, to whom all payments are (to be made.
EXTRACTS FROM THE LIFE OF MARY DUDLEY(Continued from page 515.)
17th of 6th mo. 179-1, my dear mother thus writes from Enniscorthy.
"Though iny bodily strength, as thou knowest, is not great, I have cause to be thankful that the tabernacle is so supported as that work of the day is, I humbly trust, advauci -hereir I have peace so far in the pres' embassy. The lines full not in pleasant places, r heritage is not goodly, and if we visit the s „u it must be in the prison house, where it too generally lies. We attended Forest Meeting on first day, which was large and remarkably exercising to us, but through merciful assistance our minds obtained relief: we had a season of religious retirement in the evening in Jacob GofTs family, at whose hospitable mansion we lodged and were affectionately entertained.
"Feeling about the inhabitants of Taghmon, a little town through which we passed, but where no room sufficiently large was to be found, they were invited to our Meeting House about half a mile distant; and on second day forenoon we assembled with a considerable number of the military, and others of different descriptions, who conducted themselves with solid attention, and through divine mercy it proved a memorable time. There was sensible liberty in declaring, and willingness to receive, the testimony of truth. At the conclusion some books were distributed, with which the people seemed so pleased that we saw several reclining on the grass as we passed by the fields, employed in reading them. Oh! that my heart may thankfully remember this favor, added to many others, and be engaged resignedly to pay those vows made in the day of trouble ; for long indeed have I seen that sacrifices of this nature would be required at my hands.
Before leaving Enniscorthy, my dear mother
addressed the following letter to a gentleman who had attracted her notice after a public meeting at Ross, which, with a few extracts from one he wrote to her in reply, it is thought may prove both acceptable and instructive to some readers.
"Strange as it may appear for one who has no acquaintance with thee, to address thee- in this manner, I feel persuaded that it will not. be altogether unacceptable to thee, when I tell thee it proceeds from an apprehension that it may conduce to my peace; and seems pointed out as the best means to throw off some of the feelings which have attended my mind when thou hast been presented to my view. It was I conceive, the drawing cords of gospel love that influenced my heart to pay the present visit to these parts; and not satisfied with coming to see how my brethren fared, I have been sensible, since entering into the field of labor herein, of the extension of the heavenly Father's love to His family universally; and have been engaged, with my beloved companion, to appoint Meetings of a more general kind than such as are usually held when our Society is the only object. It was one of this nature at which thou, with many others, wast present on this day week at Ross. I knew not, by information or otherwise, who, or of what description any then assembled were; but I did at that season believe that there were present, one, or more, in whom the deeply important query had been raised, ' Wfipt is truth?' and for such, a travail was excitoelyii' my heart, that they might patiently wait for, and be indisputably favored with, such an answer from Him who can administer it, as might fully settle and establish them in the way of righteousness and peace. In the class already described I heard after Meeting thy name; and passing by thee on second day morning on the quay, 1 was so sensible of the extendings of gospel love towards thee, that I thought I should have liked just to tell thee so much, and admonish to faithfulness to the monitions of pure truth inwardly revealed. I have this evening been so sensible of the renewing of this, I trust rightly inspired solicitude, that while nature covets rest after a day of toil, I am seeking refreshment to my spirit in thus saluting thee. And believing it to be of the utmi st consequence that we should siugly attend to, and obediently follow, the light
which maketh manifest, it is in my heart to say unto thee, dear friend, stand open to its unerring discoveries, and believe in its infallible teachings; for as this disposition prevails in us, we shall be instructed in all things appertaining to life and salvation. Yea, if no inferior medium conveyed any thing fully satisfactory, or sufficient to obviate the difficulties presenting to our view, I am persuaded from a degree of certain experience, that in this school of inward attention greater proficiency may be made in true and saving knowledge, than will be the case in a far longer space whilst our views are outward; as by ever so great exertion of the mental powers, things viewed in the light and eye of reason only may be decided in a very erroneous manner. Man, however enabled to write or speak on the most important points, can only help to convince the judgment and inform the understanding, but the divine principle wherewith we are mercifully favored, operates in a far more powerful manner; it not only speaks in us the intelligible language of conviction, but, whilst it discovers the reality, puts us in possession of it, and conveys such a soul-satisfying virtue that it allays the thirst for every inferior stream. Here that water being partaken of which Christ the indwelling fountain administers, we go not thither to draw,—namely to that spot whence we derived something, but not fully adequate to the desire or thirst excited; because we feel, that whosoever drinketh of this unmixed spring it is in him a well of water, springing up into everlasting life.
"Now, dear friend, what my mind feels deeply solicitous for is, that this may be thy favored experience; that the substantial part of true religion may be richly inherited by thee; that being a witness of the inward and spiritual baptism, as the door of initiation into the church, the mystical body of Christ, thou mayest become thereby a partaker, at the spiritual table, of the soul-sustaining ' bread of life,' and be nourished with the wine of the heavenly kingdom, comprehending the communion of saints, and being, through the power of truth, sanctified throughout body, soul and spirit, participate everlastingly of the treasures of the Lord's house; so desireth the heart of thy truly well-wishing friend,
"For so I must call you, your very unexpected and highly welcome letter was delivered to me last Saturday evening. Just before I received it my mind was engaged on divine subjects, and on some particulars relative to which your letter seemed as a messenger from heaven: as such indeed I received it, and have been greatly affected by it; and from the altar of my heart I return praise and thanksgiving to that adorable Being who has, in numerous instances, shewn
His kind, providential care of my poor soul. And you, my much esteemed friend in the gospel, as an ambassadress of Christ, and a messenger of the Lord to me for good, I salute with my heartfelt and grateful acknowledgments.
"Through your ministry I received of the baptizing power of Christ; it quickened my soul, it reached, melted, and tendered my heart, and refreshed me as with the dew of heaven. Those feelings we cannot bring upon ourselves; it is the Lord only, either by Himself immediately, or His agent or agents sent with power from on high, that can effect 6uch things. The earnest solicitude raised in you to write to me, the refreshment and comfort I received from your letter, my state pointed out in your sermon, the effect it had on my dear children and myself, all declare unto me the finger of the Lord in this matter, and that you have come unto us 'in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.' May we keep close to that light which maketh all things manifest, until it shines more and more unto the brightness and clearness of the perfect day, and so living in the light, we shall have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ will cleanse us all from sin : all the blessed merits of His death, and all the life-giving influences of His Spirit, are to be had by being joined to this light, and walking in it; t*» Him was life, and the life was the light of men.
"Whatever others may do, as for me, my dear wife and children, may we serve the Lord with our whole hearts, and be engrafted into the true vine. To hear of our progress in true religion will, I am very certain, be highly pleasing to you. And now my respected friend, I commend you to God and to the word of His grace! Go on in the baptising power of the Lord. May we, every one of us, hold out unto the end and be saved, that so in the day when the Lordshall make up his jewels we may unitedly partake of the boundless ocean of everlasting glory and bliss. These are the fervent desires of your much obliged and sincere well-wisher."
Near the close of this service, she was confined with a severe attack of indisposition, which tended greatly to rednce her already exhausted frame; so that she returned home in a very weakly condition, and was for some time unequal to much exertion. Early in tbo 9th mo. however, she believed it required of her to enter again upon religious service, and was engaged in holding Public Meetings in several places within the compass of her own Monthly Meeting, as well as attending some Meetings for worship and discipline in Cork; and near the close of the year she set out with a prospect of more extensive labor in that county, having S. L. for a companion, as also her nephew J. G., he being again kindly disposed to act the part of a caretaker to his dedicated relative.
During about four weeks which this journey