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PHILADELPHIA, TENTH MONTH 17, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, No. 324 South Fifth Street, PHILADELPHIA, Every Seventh dav at Two Dollars per annum, jiayahle in rttfoancm. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollar!.
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher free of expense, to whom all paymenls are to be made.
EXTRACTS FROM THE LIFE OF MARY DUDLEY. (Continued from page 407.)
"Secomi day, 10th mo. 1st. The appointed Public Mceting'was held at six o'clock in one of I he most commodious houses I have seen, it is a new one, calculated to contain twelve hundred persons, and at this time was thought to be nearly full, and a precious season it proved.
"Dear Sarah Lees met us here, and was first and well concerned to draw the attention of the people to that quietness which is so requisite as a preparation for acceptable worship. Henry Tuke spoke afterwards, on the subject of feeding the multitude, and I believe the subsequent labour was thus made easier : indeed it was scarce^ labour in this Meeting, compared with w' at is often the case, for the minds of the people seeded 60 like prepared ground, that if a little seed was handed by the good husbandman it felt pleasant work to drop it, and I trust all that fell that night will not be lost. I have since heard that there are many serious persons in this town ; and within about a year past, I think seven united to our Society from among the Methodists. It was remarkable that the line of expression ran mostly towards such as were under divine visitation, but had not attained to a settlement in religion.
"On sixth day the Quarterly Meeting was held, and mercifully owned, by the spreading of the holy wing; though the last meeting for worship, at six in the evening, was an exercising season, I thought owing to the lukewarmness of many, and revolting of others. In both these general Meetings life felt in a state of oppression, but much honest labour was bestowed. Alice Iligge, a mother in Israel, was engaged in a lively manner, and Anthony Mason, who is bright and fruitful at the advanced age of eightyseven, cried aloud to the careless ones.
"Seventh day was mostly occupied in calling on Friends—one sick in body, several so in mind;
and among individuals here, as in many other places, the precious life is buried invisible things.
"First day, 7th. We went nine miles to Windermere, where a Meeting is held twioe in the year on a fixed day, chiefly on account of the people who live about there and incline to attend. I believe it was felt by every sensible mind to be a solemn, favored season; the extension of gospel love being evident to those assembled, concerning some of whom there is no doubt with me, the declaration of our Lord will in His own time be accomplished, 'them also I must Iring.'
"We returned to Kendal to dinner, and having mentioned to Friends there our view of having a Public Meeting in the evening, we found notice had been given. It was largely attended, and though the people did not seem so like the prepared, or thirsty ground, as in some other places, there was a solemn covering felt increasingly to prevail over the assembled company ; and as there was an endeavor simply to move and minister in the ability received, spiritual harmony was maintained, and the season graciously owned; so that for this renewed unmerited favor, we had cause to make the return ~r prai ;e tc Him who is for ever worthy.
"A 'ter \his the springs of nature were so run down, that it seemed needful to rest a day for winding up again, we therefore indulged part of second day, and went to dine with George and Deborah Benson and their large family, and called to see llobert Dodgson, a valuable man in a very decling state of health, but with a mind, I believe, resigned and in good measure prepared to be unclothed, if such bo the divine will: it was consoling thus to feel in our sitting with Him, which I hope was mutually refreshing. After tea, at George Braithwaite's, where many kind friends met us, a peculiarly solemn stillness occurred, not from any plan, but like the wind blowing where and how it listeth; hearing the sound thereof, we were sweetly gathered into pure silence, under which covering S. W. supplicated for continued preservation, and I thought the feeling of solemnity was thereby increased : she has appeared only a few months in ministry. Several others were engaged in testifying to the truth, as it is in Jesus, and I was ready to hope it might be the termination of labor in this field; but hearing of the usual Meeting day being on the morrow, began to fear that we might not be liberated, and so it proved.
"Third day was truly one of close exercise, but by an endeavor to owe no man any thing, I hope there was a clearing honesty out of this place, ami was truly glad we remained. In this, as well as other instances, I found the use of a companion, for I should have tried to escape this Meeting, if she had not been earnest for staying.
"We went fifteen miles that afternoon, and on fourth day morning proceeded to Penrith, where a Meeting had been appointed for eleven o'clock; most of the members were supposed to be present, and it was, upon the whole, satisfactory. There, as in other parts, the life of pure religion is low, but it is consoling that a few are preserved living, and exercised on account of the spiritually dead; and I doubt not but the baptisms of these are in degree availing; that their prayers and alms-deeds come up as a sweet memorial before the throne, and find gracious acceptance.
"Fifth day, the 11th. Rode eighteen miles of hilly rough road, to Carlisle, where, next morning, wo had an appoiuted Meeting for Friends, but apprehend all the members were not there; it was a low, exercising time. We did not feel satisfied to proceed before first day, and spent part of seventh in social intercourse with our Friends. We lodged with dear Mary Richardson, who is lively in spirit and peaceful, though she has had to partake of a bitter cup in the form of domestic affliction; she bears up wonderfully, and says her mind was prepared for something trying before her return from Ireland.
"First day, 14th. Attended the usual Meeting at Carlisle, which was large, most of those in propfession with Friends and many not so being present. It was a truly laborious time, and long before the spring of liberty opened; but when it did, relief of mind was mercifully obtained, through an endeavor to discharge manifested duty. Here, as well as in other places, much rubbish is in the way, and there are but few builders; while it is to be feared the strength of some burden-bearers is decayed. There feels a little life, but a deal of death, so that the baptism of the living is deep, and no doubt the query often arises,' Wiat advantageth it us if die dead rise not?'
"The uncertainty of our continuance in mutability was at this season very awful to my mind, and the necessity of preparation to mix with redeemed spirits in the kingdom of purity renewedly impressed;—to draw from these solemn considerations, to prdsent other objects to the active mind of man, and centre in that which gives temporary ease, remains the business of the great adversary of our soul's happiness; and, alas! how has he prevailed to the irretrievable loss of many preciously visited minds. I thought I was favoured to dip a little into a painful sense of these things; and were all not
only to dip into them, but dwell under the im" pressions which are at times mercifully made upon their hearts, more hope might be encouraged of the restoration of our Zion than there now seems ground for. The Meeting concluded under a humbling and thankful sense of unmerited regard; and we proceeded to Sykeside, near Kirk-Levington, where there is a little settlement of Friends, and with some difficulty, in bad road and after dark, arrived at our lodging-place.
"Next day, 15th, had notice given of a Meeting to be held at two o'clock in the afternoon, to which the greater number who belong to it came, though very busy about their harvest; several not in profession with us also attended. It was a solemn season, and I hope some were graciously recompensed for their dedication, by the gentle descendings of heavenly love, which hath sweetly gathered several of this little, and comparatively poor flock into the fold, where He who is their holy leader and feeder keeps in a state of humble dependance upon Himself. There was far more liberty for the gospel to be preached here than in many other places, for although the cares of this life have (if the snare be not guarded against) a tendency to choke the good seed, I am ready to think the glories of the present world have settled many in so high and exalted a situation, that with such, as on the mountains of Gilboa, there is less of an opening into the fields of offering, than amongst those who not finding a great deal of enjoyment in visible things, feel in want of mi for their souls; and being weary and heavy laden, are of the number to whom the gracious invitation of the Saviour extends. The countenances of some of these simple ones cheered my heart, which is indeed often sad, and I was glad we had the opportunity of beholding and feeling with them: a fine old man, a minister, belonging to that Meeting, accompanied us on third day morning, and we reached Hawick in Scotland, the following evening.
"Our road led through a beautiful country and a diversity of pleasing scenes; sometimes between lofty hills or mountains, with the river Tiviot winding through the fruitful valleys; at other times in view of finely cultivated plantations, and substantial seats of the affluent inhabitants, with the comfortable though more humble dwellings of the laborious farmers, whose various toil might instruct an attentive mind, that there is no time for idleness, if the ground of the heart require as much cultivation and care as are apparently needful in the outward.
"After we had rode a few miles from Hawick, on fifth day morning, we met dear Margaret Anderson going towards Carlisle; but like one who felt something of that truth 'as iron sharpened iron, so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend,' she had the chaise turned, and went back with us the seventeen miles she had travelled, and after dinner at Ancram, we were favored to arrive at her hospitable dwelling at Kelso, in the evening. The next afternoon, a Meeting was held for the inhabitants, but not very largely attended; our guide and valuable friend James Graham had good service in it; and I expect his mind was relieved by the opportunity, as the chief weight seemed to have fallen upon him.
"After taking tea at Jane Waldie's a season of religious retirement in her family proved one of peculiar solemnity: her son, about twentytwo years of age, is likely to be taken from her by consumption: he does not appear much like a Friend, but seems brought to a state of still, patient resignation, wherein I do hope he has, under this dispensation, been mercifully instructed, and that heavenly regard is sweetly manifested towards him, preparing for the awful change. We were sensible in this visit of the renewings of that fellowship, wherein there is not only a rejoicing in one another's joy, but a bearing each other's burdens.
(To be continued.)
AUGUSTUS HERMANN FBANCKE.
Thelife of Augustus Hermann Francke, known as the founder of the celebrated Orphan House at Halle, in the year 1694, is interesting and instructive, exhibiting a lively faith in the teachings and leadings of the Divine Spirit, and showing how much good may be accomplished with small means by implicit dependence upon it. The following abridgement is taken from a memoir published in 1831.
Augustus Hermann Francke was born at Lubeck, in Germany, in the year 1660. His father was particularly attentive to the education of this his only son. With all a father's anxiety he instilled into the mind of his child the principles of the Christian religion, taught him by example and precept his duties to God and man, and employed for him a private teacher. Of this parent he was deprived by death at the age of 7 years. After his father's death, his mother pursued the same course with him until his 13th year; and he states that at this time, study was more pleasant to him than any other employment. At a very early age the subject of religion occupied much of his thoughts, and in his 10th year he was so weaned from the common desires and amusements of childhood, that he asked his mother for a little room which he might call his own, where he might study and pray without interruption. This request was granted; and it was his habit, when he returned from his teacher, to retire there, and closing the door to pray earnestly to God. It is stated that he used to say frequently at these times, " Lord, all things and all persons will in the end be made to glorify
thee: but I pray that thou wouldst so order my whole life that it may be spent to thy glory alone." His youngest sister seems to have exerted a most happy influence upon him. She was three years older than himself, and to all appearance loved God and goodness from her infancy; and being lovely and cheerful, he was tenderly attached to her. She taught him the careful and frequent reading of the Bible and other good books. But it was his lot to be separated from this sister by her death at an early age. After the death of his sister, he was left without any one who would so directly influence his feelings and conduct. He was exposed, too, to the effect of evil example in his daily intercouse, which blunted to some extent the tenderness of his feelings, and caused him in after times much sorrow, for it led him to neglect these early influences of the Spirit.
In his 13th year, he was sent to the public school at Gotha, where, notwithstandinghisyouth, he was soon distinguished on account of his attainments. After leaving school he spent two years at home in the study of the languages, and manifested even at this period a taste for theology, read a number of works of that character, and determined to pursue his studies in reference to the ministry.* But notwithstanding this, he acknowledges, that pride and ambition had a strong control over his conduct, and that his zeal in the pursuit of knowledge absorbed his attention to the exclusion of more important concerns. He appears, however, to have been in general prudent and moral in his deportment.
At the age of 16 he went to the University of Erfurt, where he remained until he received the offer of a scholarship in the University of Kiel, when he removed to that place. Here he pursued various studies, all with reference to theology. Speaking of himself at this time, he says, "I knew how to discuss all the doctrines of theology and morals, and could prove them from the Bible. I was correct in my external conduct, and neglected none of the forms of religion; but my head, not my heart was affected. When I read the Bible, my effort was tobecomeacquainted with its doctrines, not to apply them to myself; and though I wrote volumes of notes upon it, I never took care that its precepts should be written on my heart." The influence exerted upon him by a pious professor in whose family he resided, was such as to lead him at times to pray earnestly that God would change his heart and give him the spirit of his children. He often walked alone upon the sea shore in the neighborhood, meditating upon three things: how he should become holy, how he should become
•It should be remarked in explanation of this, that at that time the only qualifications which were generally thought necessary for a minister of the gospel, were external morality of conduct, and an attachment to the forms of the church.
learned, and how he should acquire the talent of making his knowledge useful to others.
After a residence of three years at this place, he spent some time in perfecting himself in the Hebrew and in acquiring the French language. In the meanwhile his religious feelings strengthened, practical piety became more and more the object of his desire, and he felt deeply its necessity. He did not, however, yet feel the impropriety of attempting, by all his diligence, to obtain the honors and pleasures and riches of this world, inconsistent as this was with his expectations of preaching the gospel, which declares the friendship of the world to be enmity with God.
During a residence at Leipzig, he acquired the Rabbinical and Stalian languages, after which he removed to Luneburg in order to perfect himself in some branches of study, prior to entering upon a scholarship which had been offered him. Luneburg he was accustomed to call the place of his spiritual birth. Here his understanding appears to have been illuminated as to the nature of true religion, and an evidence granted him that his desires after holiness and dedication of heart to the service of God were heard and answered, to his unspeakable joy. This was not attained without passing through deep spiritual baptism. The conviction, that notwithstanding all his theological knowledge he was ignorant of God, seemed to overwhelm him, and he was tempted even to doubt his existence. He found no relief either in the Bible or the writings of pious men ; all were alike obscure and unmeaning to him. He' says, " In this state of anguish I kneeled down again and again, and prayed earnestly to that God and Saviour in whom I had as yet no faith, that if he indeed existed, he would deliver me from my misery. At last he heard me! He was pleased in his wondrous love to manifest himself, and that not in taking away by degrees my doubts and fears, but at once, and as if to overpower all my objections to his power and faithfulness. All my doubts disappeared at once and J was assured of his favor. I could not only call him God, but my Father. All my distress was dispelled, and I was, as it were, inundated with a flood of joy, so that I could do nothing but praise and bless the Lord. I seemed to myself to have just awaked from a dream in which all my past life had been spent. I was convinced that the world, with all its pleasures, could not give such enjoyment as I now experienced, and felt that after such a foretaste of the grace and goodness of God, the temptations of earth would have but little effect upon me. Forty years after, in his last prayer in the garden of the Orphan House, he said, that a fountain had been opened in his heart from which streams of happiness had uninterruptedly flowed. From that time religion had been to him a reality, a power which enabled him to deuy himself all ungodliness and every worldly desire and affec
tion. In allusion to this era in his experience he says, " I do not remember that any external means led to this result, unless it may have been my theological and biblical studies, which I pursued, however, with an entirely worldly spirit. I was surrounded at this time with the temptations which worldly society presents, and was not a little affected by them. But in the midst of them, God of his mercy sent his spirit to lead me away from every earthly good, and inclined me to humble myself before Him, and pray for grace to serve him in newness of life. These words of Scripture were impressed upon my mind: 'For when ye ought for the time to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again what are the first principles of the oracles of God.'
In 1G88 he went to reside at Hamburg. He was very happily situated here, on account of the society of religious people with whom he had the opportunity of mingling, finding intercourse with persons of like feelings with himself to be both pleasant and profitable. He recommended strongly to Christians the practice of associating with one another for mutual improvement; for it is with them, he said, as with coals of fire, which, when placed together, increase each other's heat; buiwhen separated, are soon extinguisLed. Here he became so much interested on the subject of education, that he determined to open a private school for children, in Hamburg, 'lhis employment had an important influence on his character, and the course of his future life. He states, that in the teaching of this school, he learned to practice that patience and forbearance for which he was afterwards so remarkable. He discovered here the great deficiency of proper instruction in the schools of his country; hence arose a strong desire to be the means of improving and reforming them.
In the year 1689 he began as a private teacher to deliver lectures, the subjects of which were generally some of the Epistles of Paul in the New Testameut. The approbation with which he was received was so great, that the room in which he lectured could not contain his class, aud he was obliged to obtain the use of one of the public lecture rooms. But even this was very soon so much crowded, that many of his hearers were compelled to stand at the doors and windows. He employed various other means for the promotion of true religion, among which were the study of the Scriptures which had been much neglected. HiB untiring exertions were not without effect. Not a few of the theological students, who were without piety, were brought to true repentance, and began their studies with a new spirit.
The necessity which Francke found laid upon him, of promulgating the practical and spiritual views which he had learned from his own experience, in opposition to the cold and lifeless doctrines generally held up, soon brought down persecution upon him. The dominant party in the church at Leipzig, where he now resided, who could not understand why any one should seek after holiness with so much earnestness as he did, or labor with so much activity to do good, without some wrong motive at heart, stirred up considerable excitement against him. They called him a Separatist, a founder of a new sect of Pietists, and a hypocrite. The court hearing of the excitement ordered an investigation of the difficulties. Francke was summoned before a commission appointed for this purpose, together with some of his friends; but although the theological faculty, and the ministers of the city were for the most part opposed to hira, he was declared innocent of any improper conduct. He published shortly after, a defence of his principles, and was actively supported by some of the private teachers and professors; but the theological faculty still continued their opposition. They declared that private teachers had no right to deliver theological lectures. Francke replied, that he had not touched upon any of the theological controversies, but had confined himself to the explanation of the Scriptures, and the practical application of them, and that this was a right of every Christian. But notwithstanding this his lectures were forbidden; and after lecturing for a short time under the direction and protection of the philosophical faculty, he left Leipzig for Lubeck, where he was called by the death of his uncle. He soon after received an invitation to preach in the church at Erfurt. He looked upon this as providential; and though from the sentiments of the ministers at Erfurt, he could expect nothing but violent opposition, he determined to accept it. He was soon after appointed preacher in that church.
(To be continued.)
Then he clapt himself down on a seat, and began to defend the use and innocence of music, (which at that time was not the most offensive part,) and said that King David used music, yet was a Prophet, greatly beloved of God, and wrote the Psalms, owned by Christ as of divine authority.
I replied, that David employed his music in holy hymns, and spiritual songs to the Lord, according to the dispensation then in being; but that afterward some airy persons, such as the Priest himself, had invented unto themselves instruments of music like unto David's, and used them in their profane revellings, as ho and his company were then a doing: and therefore a Prophet of God, by Divine authority and direction, cried out, wo to them that chant to the sound of the viol, and invent to themselves instruments of music like David; (Amos vi. 1. 5.) and thou being in that practice, tho wo is upon thee also. Upon this I was very easy, and left
him sitting silent, and the compauy in some surprise; and, wishing them all well, I departed in peace, and great tranquillity of mind.
After this I happened to fall into company with a strict and rich Presbyterian, a great formalist, at a gentleman's house in the country, whose daughter he had married, and they lived together in the same house : and I being young, and of few words, he imagined I was not so much engaged in the way of Friends, but that I might be brought off; and to shew his good will he began with reproaches against them, saying they used to go naked into churches, market and other public places, pretending to bo moved thereto by the spirit of God; which could not be true, since a thing indecent in itself cannot be of God.
I answered, that whatever God had, at any time heretofore, thought fit to command, in particular cases, is consistent with him. still; and we read in the Holy Scripture, that the Lord commanded Isaiah, that great and evangelical Prophet, to go, and loose the sackcloth from off his loins; and put off his shoe, from his fool: and lie did so, walking naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder vpon Egypt, and upon Ethiopia, dec. Now, though this nakedness was to be a sign of shame unto the unhappy subjects of the judgment denounced, it was not inconsistent with the Lord to command the sign; nor is nakedness any indecency in his sight, since every creature comes naked from his all-creating hand: it follows then, that it is possible some of the Quakers, and rational religious men too, as that Prophet was, might be commanded of God to do such actions, and to a good end also, viz., to rouse the people of this nation out of their deep lethargy and self security, into a consideration of their various empty forms'of religion, which they severally exercised without the life of religion, (Divine love and charity one toward another,) too much a stranger, at this day, among all sects and names : and thou canst not therefore make appear, that those Quakers were not commanded of God to do as they did in that case.
In the mean time, the Presbyterian having privately sent for an old Independent teacher in the neighborhood, a great adversary of Friends, he came in ; and then a great cloud of darkness came over my mind, and my spirit became very heavy, and I was silent for some time; and tho gentleman of the house, being of the National Church, an honest sincere man, and of a good understanding, sitting close by me, I perceived he was likewise drawn into silence, and sympathized with me in it. After a little pause, the Presbyterian began and said to the Independent, "sir, I have had some discourse with Air. Story concerning some of the Quakers going naked, and he alleges the example of the Prophet Isaiah for it j what is your opinion in that case?" He