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unlooked-for phenomenon." And mark one of I the results:—" Lords Derby and Sefton, who, by | their opposition, forced the line from their cs- I tates, and compelled Mr. Stephenson to take it over the worst part of Chat Moss, were afterwards found patronizing a second and rival line between Liverpool and Manchester, on condition that the lineshould pass through theirproperty." Though not meant, this was a tribute to the genius of that unprofessional person who had now accomplished tho great work of his life, and had begun the greater and the supremely good work of drawing the ends of the earth together. And yet, for years, Mr. Stephenson was not reckoned by the "C.E.'s" as worthy of being considered as belonging to the status of engineers, because he had never been a student or an apprentice. Even the mechanical engineers looked on him as an interloper, and abused him in their magazines. Dr. Lardner, who so satisfactorily proved the impossibility of navigating the Atlantic by steam, just as the fact had been accomplished, declared, "that in the proposed great Box Tunnel, on the Great Western Railway, the passage of a load of 100 tons would deposit 3,090 lb. of noxious gases, incapable of supporting life." The same philosopher, in 1824, advocated the plan of Mr. Vallance for projecting passengers through a tube large enough to contain a train of carriages, the tube being previously exhausted of atmospheric air! And finally, Col. Sibthorp anathematized Stephenson and all his class, declaring that he would rather meet a highwayman, and adding his belief that a highwayman was the more respectable man! As a sample of the difficulties encountered in surveying land for railways, the following, having reference to the London and Birmingham, is among the more amusing:—
"At one point the vigilance of the landowners and their servants was such, that the surveyors were effectually prevented making the surveys by the light of day; and it was only at length accomplished at night by means of dark lanthorns. Mr. Lecount mentions another instance of a clergyman, who made such alarming demonstrations of his opposition, that the extraordinary expedient was resorted to of surveying his property during the time he was engaged in the pulpit. This was accomplished by having a strong force of surveyors in readiness to commence their operations, and entering the clergyman's grounds on the one side at the same moment that they saw him fairly off them on the other; by a well-organized and systematic arrangement, each man concluded his allotted task just as the reverend gentleman concluded his sermon; so that, before he left the church, the deed was done, and the sinners had all decamped."
[To be concluded.]
Less judgment than wit, is more sail than ballast.
THE ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH.
Three little vessels, commanded by one Christopher Columbus, set sail from Palos, in Spain, on the 3d of August, 1492, in search of a new world, far over a wide and unknown ocean. For sixty-nine days the bold navigator steered westward, before his glorious vision was realized. On the 7th of August, 1857—three hundred and sixty-five years later, almost to a day—a squadron of five noble steamships, belonging to two great nations, set sail from Valentia Bay, in Ireland, to bind to Europe, by the magical bond of electricity, the world that Columbus discovered. The enterprise of 1857 is almost as sublime in conception as was the enterprise of 1492. As a scientific undertaking, it rather exceeds it. Columbus had to skim the surface of seas then unknown. But the Telegraph must be laid deep in the bed of the ocean, among unknown and undiscoverable dangers. On tho fourth day out from Valentia Bay, the cable was broken by some one of these unknown dangers of the deep, and the fleet returned to the British coast, not to abandon the enterprise, but to profit by the experience gained, improve the machinery, and try again.
| There is great disappointment and no little despondency among the friends of the enterprise thus boldly undertaken, at this first serious accident. But there is not half as much despondency as there was among Columbus's sailors. We have not yet come to the mutiny point, and i we do not yet need a high heroic soul to keep us ; in spirits. To get out of heart because of a first | fracture, when four days out to sea, is quite un| worthy of the age that could present to the world an undertaking so noble as this Atlantic Telegraph. The stock may go down, under the influence of the disaster, combined with the common panic of the day. But how much lower would have been the Discovery of the New World stock, if that great work had been undertaken by an incorporated company, instead of by one courageous man, aided by royalty. It will be time enough for us to despond, when our sixty-nine days of unknown sailing, of disasters, disappointments and mutinies, are over. It would be unworthy of the people of the world Columbus discovered, if we were to give up our glorious vision before the expiration of the time required to fulfil his.
The Atlantic Telegraph is the greatest experiment of the age, and, like all experiments, it is liable to failures and accidents. There has been no one to dive down and trace every inch of the ocean-bed over which the cable must lie ; no one to tell us of the mountains of rocks, the precipices, the chasms and crevices, over and in which the magical line must be laid. There is no positive assurance that the waters are calm at that great depth, and that there will be nochafing of the cable among the rocks. There is no proof lhe good and Heavenly Pilot, you will be enabled to avoid those rocks, quicksands, and shoals upon which many have been shipwrecked."
He was concerned that the young should be convinced that there was no gloom in religion. "I would hold it up," he says, "as that which is so lovely in itself as to make it attractive and inviting, as something which will enable us to overcome every besetting sin, and elevate our condition step by step in the scale of improvement, until we become united with the inhabitants of that city which needs not the light of the sun nor of the moon to shine in It, 'for the glory of God doth enlighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.'"
He was exercised in regard to a disposition in some to pervert the scriptures of truth, and concerned that a right estimato should be set upon them. His testimony left in writng is, " As we attend to the same principle which inspired holy men of old, who wrote them, our understanding will be opened, and we shall see a beauty and excellency in them which we cannot find by perverting them ; we shall not be undervaluing nor overrating them; we shall consider them as testimonies corroborative of those spiritual truths which are sealed on our minds by the impress of the Divine Spirit."
He was frequently invited to attend funerals of those not in membership with us, and being concerned to improve every right opening, and to fulfil what he believed to be his mission to his fellow men, he frequently found it his duty to go often travelling many miles to accomplish it. Although he often felt the weakness and infirmities of the flesh to be many, and the conflicts of the spirit to be great, yet, at times, he could feelingly rejoice that an interest was mercifully granted through Him " who giveth the victory over all, and that the Lamb Immaculate is still redeeming out of every nation, tongue and people," and adding to his Church Triumphant, those whose names shall be recorded in the book of life, because they submitted to His government.
Some time previous to his last illness he wrote as follows:
"There are many sudden removals, and I am often unwell; if I should be suddenly taken away, I have wished that my family might know the comfortable feelings my mind partakes of. Oh ! how I am filled with the goodness of God to overflowing, so as to raise the sensation of Holy! Holy! Holy! Hallelujah to Israel's Shepherd! Oh ! glorious state! Oh ! blessed abode! When, oh ! when shall I be there? These feelings bring with them a complete surrender of all selfishness. All centres in the Divine Will. Whatever attachment to the world, however strong the family ties, the lovo of the Heavenly Father absorbs them all. His will is bowed to in humble submission of soul, and the acknow
ledgment is, Thou knowest best what to bestow or what to withhold. Thy will be done."
The tender, affectionate solicitude he felt for his children is made manifest by the following, which was written in the 60th year of his age: "It is the desire of your father that you attend to the impressions of the Spirit of God, made upon your minds from time to time; be assured as you attend to these impressions, you will become more and more acquainted with the teachings of the Grace of God, that brings salvation from sin, and the defilements of the human heart. I most tenderly solicit you as a dear father, to yield to its teachings. Be not ashamed to acknowledge yourselves under its government, although it will lead you out of the world's customs, because it stands in opposition to- the spirit of the world—it is to prepare the immortal soul to dwell in the courts of Heaven, through an endless eternity ; and not only to prepare for enjoyment beyond the grave, but to qualify you to live as you ought, while here on earth. It will enable you to love one another, to do good to all men, to be kind to all placed under your care, and increase your desire for the relief of the oppressed. It will increase your love for religious meetings; you will not be ashamed to wear a plain dress; you will be willing to follow the example of the Son of God.
"If you reject the religion which God reveals in the heart, by the teachings of His Spirit, you never can obtain any but that which is the work of the systems of men. These can rise no higher than their fountain, but the teachings of the grace of God will lead to God. Attend to it, and it will lead you from maDy sorrows. Be not deceived. Happiness does not consist in the abundance of the possessions of the things of this world. Therefore, be more concerned to live a life of dedication to your Divine Master, than to get riches. Oh! attend strictly to the injunction,'Seek first the kingdom of God and HiH righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.' Confiding in this promise, and putting you»trust iu the Lord, blessings will descend upon your labors. He who blessed Jacob and Joseph, will most assuredly bless you."
His last illness was lingering, but he manifested much patience and resignation throughout, being clothed with love and good will to all.
Under date 4th month 27th, 1856, he addressed his family in writing as follows:
"When I was first taken sick I thought it might be my last sickness. I have given the subject a very careful investigation, and believe an entrance will be mercifully granted me, into that City described as ' having walls of salvation, and whose gates are praise.' I discover nothing in my way. He who is all wisdom, is also all •power. If He has a work for me to perform, He will raise me up for the performance of it, for He knows I am ready and willing. I discover nothing worth living for, but to glorify His blessed name. If I am taken away suddenly, do, not harbor the idea that it was in an unexpected moment, for I have been, and am watching the time as if it were at hand. You have manifested the greatest kindness towards me; you have done all in your power to make me comfortable; for which I trust you will be rewarded. When the time of separation comes, resign me cheerfully, submit to the dispensation as ordered of God, who does all things in his inscrutable wisdom for good." He requested that the testimony to plainness and simplicity should be carried out in his person eveu to the grave; that his coffin should be the natural color of the wood, and not varnished, and that no stone or monument should be placed at his grave.
In a letter to a Friend dated 5th month 7th, . J856, he says, " If any Friends ask concerning me, inform tbem I hold the truth as professed by Fr\ends, as dear as ever; that my desires and prayers ascend for its increase, that it may grow bright through us, as a professing people, and it will shine more and more as we mind the light."
On one of his friends taking leave of him, he said, " Be faithful to the requirings of thy Heavenly Father, for at such a time as this it will afford more peace than all else beside." Being visited by his numerous friends, he continued to bear similar testimonies, while able to write or converse, giving evidence to the last that Divi ie Goodness was his support.
The last three weeks of his life he was nearly deprived of speech by paralysis, yet his last words were, " peace, peaee, sweet peace, ready, waiting," evincing the truth of the declaration, "Blessed is that servant whom, when his Lord eometh, is found ready and waiting."
He died the 28th of 8th month, 1856, in the 72nd year of his age, and we feel an assurance that his immortal spirit is centered in that glorified state, of which he had a foretaste, when he could ascribe hallelujah to Israel's God.
His remains were taken to the Meeting House at Shappaqua and interred, after a»largeand solemn meeting, in which several testimonies were borne to his circumspect life, and'dedication to his Master's cause; and the feeling that we had lost a beloved friend and father in the church seemed to pervade every mind.
Signed by direction of Shappaqua Monthly Meeting, held in New Castle, 8th of 1st month, 1857.
TO W. W. MOORE.
Having in my possession the following letter, I thought it might be interesting to some of the readers of the Intelligencer, who may remember the author in his travels through some parts of Pennsylvania and Maryland, previous to the writing of this letter, which evinces the deep interest he felt for the welfare of those whom he had visited, and his earnest desires for their firm establishment on the sure foundation.
6th mo., 1857. A. K.
Blount Count//, Tennessee, 1812.
Dear and much beloved Friends, inhabitants of the town of Baltimore, and thereaway, my heart salutes you in that wbich I trust proceeds from the Father and fountain of all never-failing love, and I hereby simply inform you that I got well home the 26th of the 11th mo. last, and found my dear wife and all well, and so with them am enabled to rejoice in the Lord. And now, dear friends, having had some time of rest at and in my own habitation, my mind, I think, hath not become idle, but hath often been led back to contemplate on my late journey, and to tbinkof many of my dear friends with whom the Father brought me into an acquaintance; and in this contemplatory review you have often, yea very often, filled my wakeful hours with great desires for your present growth and establishment in the truth, so that indeed you might become pillars in the spiritual building, that should go no more out, but being preserved and supported by the great superintendent of his children, you might be as able props and true supporting pillars in the great cause of righteousness in the earth. Ah! friends, great indeed is the work whereunto we are called, and I think the mighty arm of the Lord by whom this work through your faithfulness is to be carried on, hath been made visible to many of you: therefore, Oh! friends, let us not retard the great work which the Lord by the wooing spirit of his love is designing to bring about to establish tbc mountain of his own house, on top and above all the works of man, aud to exalt it above the imaginations of his heart. And so through the faithfulness of his children to make it visible tha,t nations may draw near and find thattheLamb dwells there by whom thus are we taught of the Lord, for it is the meek that he teaches of his ways, and enables them to walk in his paths, so coming to be rebuked by him, that nature that would lust and war is done away, so that there is no need of carnal and outward weapons. Oh ! this is what the Lord desires to bring about, and tbis is what the faithful ones long to see; so that the declarations which tbe shepherds heard through the sound of the voice of the angels might bo heard sounding from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole, which was glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, and good will towards men. Now, friends, I beseech you put on tho whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand, and having done all to stand, if the language of the times should proclaim to thy tents, Oh! Israel. Oh! then you may gather into the hollow of his holy hand and find a hiding place, while the judgments of the Lord are poured forth against all the workers of iniquity and those that know not the Lord; and while the potsherds of the earth smite one against another, and vex one another, until the inhabitants of the earth learn righteousness, and so come to know the Lord, for when thy judgments, Oh ! Lord, are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousne:-s, for I do believe if the Lord cannot woo the children of men by his holy spirit of love, that he will turn and overturn the powers of the earth until his great day is brought about, for indeed the kingdom of his dear Son is sent and his glorious sceptre is held forth, and they that will not bow in mercy shall bow in judgment, for it is written that every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess to God; yea, for the Lord hath his pure witness in the heart which is to bring salvation or condemnation. So now, dear friends, may I use the words of the beloved disciple, yea, it is the language of my heart at this time. I write to you, dear fathers and beloved mothers, because you have known him who was from the beginning; I write to you, dear young men and precious young women, because you have known something of that power which is strong, where by you may overcome the evil one; and I exhort you, dear youths, to be faithful, so that not only a few but all of you may come to fiy up the place of them that were strong men in Christ, and had overcome the evil one; first a young man, then a strong man in Christ, so being prepared by the growth of the everlasting truth and spirit of the Lord, you may become
• elders and pillars in this the day of your generation, having learned in the school of Christ to rule over and govern yourselves, so that you be by the Holy Ghost made to fill useful stations in the church. Dear young friends, the love that I felt for you when in your town, revives in my heart whilst I thus write, and may I not call you by the endearing name of the children of the kingdom, you who have had a godly education; and also you, dear hearts! who have given up the expected pleasures and vanities of of this world for an inheritance in society; it, I think, is evident that the spirit of the Lord is poured out on all flesh, by which the Lord will bring his sons from far and daughters from the ends of the earth, and cause them to sit down under the calming influence of holy love, with
Abraham in that kingdom that hath no end,
where there is both room and food for them; and you, dear hearts, so hold fast that which you
have received that no man take away your crown; thus pursuing the paths of truth you will feel
yourselves united to all those that come to be
united to God, so that there will be but one shepherd, and one flock, Christ and his gathered Church; gathered from the vain imaginations of man into the holy path of humility; and so according to the language of holy writ, he that humbleth himself shall be exalted and brought to Zion's heights, from whence the Lord alone is praised. William Williams.
BIBLE TESTIMONIES CONCERNING THE NATURE OF MAN.
The inspired writers generally take man as they find him; assume his character as it appears at particular times and in special circumstances. Those passages whose strong language is so eagerly quoted as decisive, are almost always local in their application, and their force definitely restricted by the context.
Siill, not alone for speculative, but practical reasons, we would know, if we may, on divine authority, what our nature is. There are to this end some sentences in the New Testament, whose conclusiveness, I feel there is no way of resisting. Observe, that we wish to know, nor the acquired character, but the original nature of the human soul. This nature exists pure only in the child. This, the advocates of total depravity, I presume, do not all admit; for their language is, that we are born depraved, that sin is innate, hereditary, substantial in the very essence and constitution of the mind. The soul of a child is therefore its absolute principle and embodiment. Now, we have six parallel declarations of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke on this very point, expressing, not what they thought of the child's nature, but what Jesus thought and declared; that is, six passages giving the decision of the highest authority. The burden of these passages is, that of such as little children, is the kingdom of heaven; that to be converted and become like them, is the only and necessary title of entrance into that kingdom; that to be humble as a child makes one the greatest in, that kingdom; that to receive u, child in Christ's name is to receive him ; and, in still another passage, he gives it as a warning against despising one of those little ones, that their angels (by which I think he must meau the spirits of departed children) do always behold the face of his Father in heaven. I know not that there are in the Christian records any other testimonies upon the primary, simple nature of man, and upon those testimonies I decline all reasoning. * * *
If human nature be fatally subjected to the law of tho members—the helpless sport and hapless victim of appetite and passion, then to talk of human sinfulness at all is a fiction of speech. A machine cannot sin. Sin is wicked, unlawful choice. Necessity has no choice nor law, and mankind, instead of being thus convicted of their actual transgressions, are universally absolved, and made as innocent as the animals in obeying their irresistible instincts. Thus, a great objection to the doctrine of total depravity is, that it takes a light view of sin, a technical and negative view from which the sinner easily escapes. Under the semblance of a severe, it is really a licentious doctrine. « C. A. B.
FRI ENDS' INTELLIG E NC ER.
PHILADELPHIA, NINTH MONTH 5, 1857.
The righteous shall bo had In ovorlasting remembrance."
Diep,—On the 6th of 5th mo., 1857, Mkrcy EBrown, wife of Ira Brown, of Canada West, and daughter of Henry Widdefield. In recording the death of this dear friend, we feel that a bright light has gone from us. She was a woman of sterling worth—little in her own estimation, but careful to occupy the talent committed to her care. Of her, it may truly be said, "she saw well to the ways of her household, and ate not the bread of idleness."
In the early part of her sickness, she gave much excellent counsel to her children, saying she took that opportunity to impart her /eelings of solicitude on their beha'f, not knowing how her illness might terminate. No memoiandum was taken of her exercises, but there are those who will feel the truth of the saying—"she being dead, yet spcaketh."
By her death, society has sustained a great loss. Her weighty deportment in our meetings plainly evidenced that she was holding sweet communion with the divine mind. She sometimes in our assemblies, gave utterance to a few words, which were the " fewwords fitly spoken." Her disorder was ver)' severe; but her sufferings were borne with Christian patience. When near her close, she looked on her husband with serenity and sweetness, and said —" My dear, I believe I am now going;" and to her children who were around her, she said, "Farewell, dear children, and thex.way to fare well is to do well. Put your trust in the Lord, and He will be with you."
Pickering, Canada West, 8th mo., 23d, 1857.
Dietj,—At his residence, in Waynesville, Ohio, on the 9tb of 7th mo., 1857, of paralysia, Ahnold Boone, formerly of Georgetown, D. C, in the 76th year of his age. The deceased was a valuable member of Miami Monthly Meeting of Friends." Being gifted with excellent qualities of head and heart, he was peculiarly qualified to sympathize with the afflicted and oppressed of all classes and conditions in life; but especially were his feelings drawn forth, in great tenderness, towards that portion of the African family who are held in bondage by their fellow men. He was their unflinching advocate whilst residing in a slaveholding community, and for some years past has persisted—through many difficulties—in abstaining Irom using the products of unrequited toil; endeavoring, both by precept and example, to impress this divine injunction upon the minds of those who came within his influence: "Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." Although his death was 5udden, and very unexpected to his friends, it was evidently not so to himself.
He told his aged companion a short time previous thereto, that he believed the time of his departure was at hand, and (to use his own emphatic language) "his peace was made." "Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord: vea, henceforth saith the spirit,—for
they do rest from their labors, and their works do follow them." • R. H. H.
A Stated Meeting of the Committee of Management of the Library Association of Friends, will be held on Fourth day evening the 16th inst., at $ o'clock.
Jacob M. Ellis, Clerk.
Philadelphia, Oth Mo. Oth, 1857.
Vor Frtendrt' Intelligencer.
As he spoke, I observed he was not himself upon the true foundation, nor acquainted with the mind of the Lord on that account; but spoke from his own imagination and partiality to his own sect, as he and they desired it should have been; his mind natural and carnal, and his views outward, toward the power and dominion of this world, as the Jews were at the time of the appearance of Christ among them; and as soon as he came to a period, finding my mind filled with the sweetness and meekness of divine truth, I replied.
"The Divine Providence is indeed great over the children of men, and apparently over this nation and her dependants at this day; and the necessity of a right and thorough reformation is very great, and, in the proper time and way of the Almighty, will be brought to pass. But neither by the means, nor instruments now in your view; for all the contenders, one against another, by destructive force, are of one spirit divided against itself, under different forms and views, in which the strongest will advance themselves and their own way j but cannot, by such means, reform either themselves or others, as they ought to do in the sight of God, who docs not approve orcountenance violence, bloodshed, and unrighteousness in one sect, and condemn the same things in another; and will therefore bring about that right reformation, by instruments of a different kind, and by another means and way: as it is written, Not In/ miyht nor by power; but by my spirit saith the Lord." (Zech. iv. G, Mic. iii. 8.)
Upon this the stranger was much broken in spirit, and the tears ran down his beard, and dropped upon his knee, as he sat by me; and after that, being filled with love, (the same which had reached him from my spirit,) he embraced me in his arms, rejoicing that he had met with me; (with some encomiums I don't think-proper to write) but said no more on any religious subject. Soon after he departed, and I saw him no more. I now proceed with the account of my further progress.
In writing the last paragraph of the foregoing piece, which I inscribed to the saints in Zion,*
1 * They gazed upon me; they said I was mad, distracted and become a fool; they lamented because my freedom came. See note at the bottom of page 345.