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same arrangement is often adopted in the warehouses of seaports, the ship's company generally locating themselves as near the water as possible, and the landsmen in the more inland portion of the building.
When rats have once found their way into a ship they are secure as long as the cargo is on board, provided they can command the great necesssary—water. If this is well guarded, they will resort to extraordinary expedients to procure it. In a rainy night they will come on deck to drink, and will even ascend the rigging to sip the moisture which lies in the folds of the sails. When reduced to extremities they will attack the spirit-casks, and get so drunk that they are unable to walk home. The land-rat will, in like manner, gnaw the metal tubes which in public-houses lead from the spirit-store to the tap, and is as convivial on these occasions as his nautical relation. The entire race have a quick ear for running liquid, and they constantly eat j into leaden pipes, and much to their astonishment receive a douche-bath in consequence. It is without doubt the difficulty of obtaining water which causes them in many cases to desert the ship the moment she touches the shore. On such occasions they get, if possible, dry-footed to land, which they generally accomplish by passing in Indian file along the mooring-rope, though, if no other passage is provided for them, they will not hesitate to swim. In the same manner they board ships from the shore, and so we'll are their invading habits known to sailors, that it is common upon coming into port to fill up the hawser holes, or else to run the mooringcable through a broom, the projecting twigs of which effectually stop the ingress of these nautical quadrupeds. Their occupancy of the smaller bird-breeding islands invariably ends in their driving away the feathered inhabitants, for they plunder the nests of their eggs, and devour the young. The puffins have in this way been compelled to relinquish Puffin's Island, off the coast of Caernarvon.
The ship-rat must not be confounded with the water-rat, which is an entirely different species. The latter partakes of the habits of the beaver, and is somewhat like him in appearance. He possesses the same bluff head and long fur, in which are buried his diminutive ears. He dwells in holes, in the banks of rivers, which he constructs with a land and water entrance to provide against destruction by the sudden rising of the stream. This animal lives entirely upon vegetable food, which he will now and then seek at some distance inland, and we suspect that to him may be traced many of the devastations in the fruit and vegetable gardens for which the poor sparrows get the blame. We have seen water-rats cross a wide meadow, climb the stalks of the dwarf beans, and, after detaching the pods with their teeth, shell their contents in the
most workmanlike manner. They will mount vines and feed on the grapes; and a friend informs us that on one occasion he saw a waterrat go up a ladder which was resting against a plum-tree, and attack the fruit. If a garden is near the haunts of water-rats, it is necessary to watch narrowly for the holes underneath the walls, for they will burrow under the foundation with all the vigor of sappers and miners. Such is the cunning with which they drive their shafts that they will ascend beneath a stack of wood, a heap of stones, or any other object which will conceal the passage by which they obtain an entrance.
The water-rat is, however, a rare animal compared with its first-cousin, the common brown or Norway rat, which is likewise, as Lord Bacon says of the ant, " a shrewd thing in a garden." They select, according to Cobbett, the prime of the dessert—melons, strawberries, grapes, and wall-fruit; and though tbey do but taste of each, it is not, as he remarks, very pleasant to eat after them. Not many years since they existed in millions in the drains and sewers of the metropolis. Several causes have been in operation to diminish their numbers, and in some quarters of the town almost wholly to extinguish them. In the first place, the method of flushing the sewers lately adopted is exceedingly fatal to them. When the sluices are opened, go they must with the rush of waters, and they may be seen shot out by hundreds from the mouths of the culverts into the Thames. The fact that rats are : worth three shillings a dozen for spotting purposes proves, however, the most certain means of their destruction, for it insures their ceaseless pursuit by the great hunter, man. The underground city of sewers becomes one vast hunting-ground, in which men regularly gain a livelihood by capturing them. Before entering the subterraneous world the associates generally plan what routes they will take, and at what point they will meet, possibly with the idea of driving their prey towards a central spot. They go in couples, each man carrying a lighted candle with a tin reflector, a bag, a sieve, and a spade; the spade and sieve being used for examining any deposit which promises to contain some article of value. The moment the rat sees the light he runs along the sides of the drain just above the line of the sewage water; the men follow, and speedily overtake the winded animal, which no sooner finds his pursuers gaining upon him than he sets up a shrill squeak, in the midst of which he is seized with the bare hand behind the ears, and deposited in the' bag. In this manner a dozen will sometimes bo captured in as many minutes. When driven to bay at the end of a hlind sewer, they will often fly at the boots of their pursuers in the most determined manner.
(To be continued.)
PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. Flour Awd Meal.—The Flour market continues depressed There is but little inquiry, either for export or home consumption, and only a few hundred bbls. aie daily sold at $6 37* a $6 SO per bbl. for fresh ground from new wheat, and $6 37J for old. Sales to retailers and bakers for fresh ground and fancy brands, from $7 30 up to $9 00. Rye Flour is now selling at $40 50 a $4 62 per bbl., and Corn Meal held at $4 00 per barrel.
Grain—The receipts of Wheat have materially increased, and the market is inactive. Good red is held at $1 45 a $1 47, and $1 50 a $1 55 for good white. Rye is dull at SO a 85 cts. Corn continues in fair request, and good yellow sells at 88 ft, afloat, and 86 cts. in store and in the cars. Oats continue dull; new Southern is selling at from 33 a 36 cents per bushel.
THE NEW LIBRARY ROOM.
Friends' Library, which has been closed for some weeks past to give an opportunity for re-arrangement in the new localian assigned it, will be opened again for visitors, in the third story of the centre of the new Meeting House, on Race Street, on Seventh day afternoon and evening, t/te Fifth of Ninth month) and on each succeeding Seventh day as heretofore.
No expense or laoor has been spared in the fitting up of this large and commodious room, and as the collection of books is select and extensive, it is deemed well worthy the attention ol Friends. J. M. E.
W' ANTED,—A well qualified Female Teacher, to take charge ol the School under the care of Alloway's Creek Prepiiative Meeting of Friends. Application can be made to
THOMAS SHOURDS, or
Hancock's Bridge, Salem County, N. J. 8th mo. 25th, 18S7—4 t.
GVREEN LAWN SEMINARY is situated near f Union-Ville, Chester County, Pa., nine miles south west of West Chester, and sixteen north west lrom Wilmington; daily stages to and from the latter, and tri-weekly lrom the former place. The winter term will commence on the 2d of lllh mo. next, and continue twenty weeks. The course of instruction embraces all the usual branches, comprising a thorough English Education, Drawing included. Terms: $57, including Board, Washing, Tuition, use of Books, Pens, Ink and Lights. The French, Latin and Greek; Languages taught at $5 each, extra, by experienced and competent teachers, one a native of New Hamp- I shire, and a graduate of a popular College in that' State, whose qualifications have gained her a place amongst the highest rank of teachers. The house is large, and in every way calculated to secure health . and comfort to thirty-five or forty pupils. For Circulars, address—
EDITH B. CHALFANT, Principal. Union-Ville, P. O., Chester County, Pa. 9th mo. 5th, 1857.—8 t.
LONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR YOUNG MEN AND BOYS. It is intended to commence the next Session of this Institution on the 2d of 11th mo., 1857. Terms: $05 for twenty weeks. For reierence and further particulars, inquire for circulars of BENJ. SWAYNE, Principal. London Grove, P. O., Chester County, Pa.
i>LDRIDGE HILL BOARDING SCHOOL.—The J Winter session (for the education of young men and boys) of this Institution, will open on the 9th of 11th mo., and continue 20 weeks.
The branches of a liberal English education are thoroughly taught by the most approved methods of teaching founded on expeiience.
Also the elements of the Latin and French languages.
Terms, $70 per session.
Those wishing to enter will please make early application.
For full particulars address the Principal for a circular.
Eldridge Hill, Salem County N. J. 8 mo. 29, 1857—8 w.
G\ WYNEDD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR YOUNG I" MEN AND BOYS.—The next winter session of this School will commence on 2d day the 9th of lllh month, 1857, and continue Twenty weeks. Terms $70 per session. Those desirous ot entering will please make early application. For circulars giving further information, address either of the undersigned.
DANIEL FOULKE, Principal. HUGH FOULKE, Jr., Teacher. Spring House P. O. Montgomery County, Pa. 8 mo. 22, 1857—8 w.
1FRIENDS' SCHOOLS, (on Meeting House premises, Fourth and Green streets.)—Green Street Grammar School for Girls will re-open on Second day, 31st inst. There will be but one session per day. It is designed to introduce higher branches of study than have hitherto been taught, thus making it a finishing school for those who wish to avail themselves of the opportunity.
During the winter familiar lectures will be given on Philosophy, Chemistry, Physiology, &c, illustrated by appropriate apparatus; and in every particular an effort will be made to meet the wants of those entrusted to my care.
Green Street Grammar School for Boys will re-open on Second day 31st inst., under the care of the undersigned. The higher branches of Mathematics, also more elementary studies will beembraced in the course of instruction in this school; and an effort will be made to render it worthy of patronage.
ANNA MORRIS, Teacher.
The Primary School for Boys and Girls will also re-open under the care of Ann Bailey. Vacancies as they occur, will be filled by " Friends'" children, in ,the order of application.
References,—David Ellis, No. 617, Franklin St. above Green. Jane Johnson, No. 533 N. Fourth St.
Phila. 8th mo. 13th, 1857.
FRANKFORD SELECT SEMINARY.—This Institution, having been in successful operation for the last twenty years, will now receive six or eight female pupils as boarders in the family. Age under thirteen years preferred.
Careful attention will be paid to health, morals,&c and they will be required to attend Friends' Meeting on First days, accompanied by one of their teachers, also mid week meetings if desired by parents or guardians. Terms moderate.
LETITIA MURPHY Principal. SARAH C. WALKER Assistant. No. 158 Frankford St. Frankford., Pa. References. John Child, 510 Arch Street. Thomas T. Child, 452 N. 2d Street below Poplar. Julia Yerkes, 909 N. 4th Street above Poplar. Wm. C. Murphy, 43 S. 4th Street above Chestnut. Charles Murphy, 820 N. 12th Street below Parrish.
Mcrrihew 4 Thompson, Prs., Lodge St., North side Penna. Bank &o., (page 18 of the Journal, page 345 of Friends' Intelligencer,) the people called Quakers were suddenly, and with some surprise, brought to my mind; and so strongly impressed on my remembrance, that thenceforward I had a secret inclination to enquire further concerning them, their way and principles.
It was some time in the Fifth month, in the year 1691, when an opportunity was presented. The occasion of it was some concerns that I had in the west parts of Cumberland, when, lodging at an inn kept by one of that profession, on a seventh-day night, and inquiring of him concerning some points of their religion, I perceived no material difference between his sentiments and mine, in the particulars then asked after; und he also perceived I was nearer them than he (or perhaps any other) had thought, (for I had formerly opposed the same man in some things,) which gave him occasion to inform me of their meeting, to be held the next day, at a country village called Broughton.
And, as I had been desirous to be rightly informed concerning that people, and to see them as in truth they were, I was pleased with the opportunity; and, the next morning, the Friend and I set forward toward the meeting. And he being zealous to have me further informed, and convinced of the truth of their way, spake of many things as we rode along, and with good intent; but my mind being composed, and its attention directed towards God, who knew I wanted only to see the'Truth, and not be deceived, I could not take any distinct notice of what the Friend said; which he perceiving, after some time, desisted, and said no more. And | then we rode some miles together in profound silence; in which my mind enjoyed a gentle rest and consolation, from the divine and holy Pres
And when we came to the meeting, being a little late, it was full gathered; and I went among the throng of the people on the forms, and sat still among them in that inward condition and mental retirement. And though one of their ministers, a stranger, began to speak to j .some points held by them, and declaim against some things held by others, and denied by them; particularly predestination, as asserted by the Presbyterians; yet I took not much notice of it: for as I did not doubt but, like other sects, they might have something to say, both for their own, and against the opinions of others; yet my concern was much rather to know whether they were a people gathered under a sense of the enjoyment of the presence of God in their meetings; or, in other words, whether they worshipped the trae and living God, in the life and nature of Christ, the Son of God, the true and only Saviour: and the Lord answered my desire according to the integrity of my heart.
For, not long after I had sat down among
them, that heavenly and watery cloud overshadowing my mind, brake into a sweet abounding shower of celestial rain, and the greatest part of the meeting was broken together, dissolved and comforted in the same divine and holy presence and influence of the true, holy, and heavenly Lord; which was divers times repeated before the meeting ended. And in the same way, by the same divine and holy power I had been often favored before when alone; and when no eye, but that of heaven, beheld, or any knew, but the Lord himself; who, in infinite mercy, had been pleased to bestow so great a favor.
And, as the many small springs and streams, descending into a proper place, and forming a river, become more deep and weighty; even so, this meeting with a people gathered of the living God, into a sense of the enjoyment of his divine and living presence, through that blessed and holy medium, the mind of Jesus Christ, the son of God and Saviour of the world, I felt an increase of the same joy of the salvation of God; and the more, by how much I now perceived I had been under the like mistake as the prophet of God of old; but now otherwise informed, by a sure evidence and token; by the witness of the divine essential Truth, in which no living soul can err, or be mistaken, or deceived; being selfevident and undeniable in all those who truly know him.
Our joy was mutual and full, though in the efflux of many tears, as in cases of the deepest and most unfeigned love; for the Friends there, being generally sensible I was affected, and tendered with them, by the influence of the divine Truth they knew and made profession of, did conclude, I had been at that time, and not before, convinced, and come to the knowledge, or sense, of the way of Truth among them; and their joy was as of Heaven, at the return of a penitent; and mine as the joy of salvation from God, in view of the work of the Lord, so far carried on in the earth ; when I had thought, not long before, there had scarce been any true and living faith, or knowledge of God in the world.
The meeting being ended, the peace of God, which passeth all the understanding of the natural man, and is inexpressible by any language but itself alone, remained, as a holy canopy over my mind, in a silence out of the reach of all words; and where no idea, but the Word himself, can be conceived. But being invited, together with the ministering Friend, to the house of the ancient widow Hall, I went willingly with them: but the sweet silence commanded in me by Michael, the Prince, Captain-General of the hosts in heaven, still remaining, I had nothing to say to any of them, till he was pleased to draw the curtain, and veil his presence; and then I found my mind pure, and in a well bounded liberty of innocent conversation with them.
(To be continued.)
For Friends' Intelligencer.
Our need answers to our capacity. We might, indeed, construct a scale of existence on this principle of need. The lower the creature, the less his need; for the more feeble his sensibilities, the narrower his powers, and the more torpid his desires. The shell fish needs but to draw in from the beating waves, or through a slender aperture in the muddy bottom of the sea, a little water, and then expel the same through those stony valves, whk-h are at once his defence and his dwelling. His finny, swimming superior, with a more versatile power, needs a somewhat richer nutriment. The insect, with its still finer organization, needs to fly in the air, and to feed on the sweets of flowers. The beast, of structure more complex, and increased capabilities, needs a still greater variety of support; the cravings of each kind of animal nature multiplying exactly according to its additional susceptibilities of sensation, intelligence, and affection, from the creature that is satisfied with a green leaf, and, that consumed, creeps slowly and lazily to another, to the fierce or kingly birdsthat cut the air of a hemisphere, and seek their prey on the far mountain top, or " where the carcase is" in the lonely valley.
But, from the most sagacious and strongest of the animal tribes, how vast the difference incapacity of intellect and feeling, to man! And no less vast, the difference of need. He draws from the earth, from the water and from the air, to satisfy his appetitites and to satiate his curiosity; he ransacks every kingdom of nature for his comfort and aggrandizement, and is not content. His restless and changeful wishes are ever roaming abroad for something new, something greater. He cannot stay attached to one place, " like the limpet to the rock." He cannot stop with one sort of food, like the bee that lives among the blossoms. He does not, like the ruminating animal, stand still and peaceful in his own reflections. Now, though he should leave his anchorage on the ground, soar into the sky, and for his clumsy balloon, substitute the wings of a dove, could he even then "fly away and be at rest!" He is uneasy, he is needy, he is craving and discontented still. It is because his faculties are so many and so great, because his desires are so ardent and so inliaite, that his supplies must be manifold and huge.
Is there then no satisfaction for a man? Are we alone in the universe, made to be thus uneasy and discontented, like Jewish children, wanting what we cannot have and crying for what is beyond our reach'! No; God has not made his noblest creature for a wretched failure and a miserable want. Let him bring into light all his abilities and desires,—they are not too many or too strong; those of the higher nature as well as the lower; those that tend up to God himself
and heaven and immortality, as well as those that tend downward and abroad to earthly things. Let him unfold them without fear. The vast supplies from the foreseeing Creator, are ready in the treasury of his truth. Let him appropriate them to his need. And the fish that cleaves the liquid sea, the insect that revels in the cup of a flower, the beast that browses in his pasture, or the bird that darts through the yielding air, shall be no more at home or content with its lot, than he, while the lot he is content'with shall be as much superior to theirs, as " the heaven and the heaven of heavens" are above theearth.
GEORGE STEPHENSON, THE RAILWAY ENGINEER. [Continued from page 380.]
"The anticipations of the company as to passenger traffic were in like manner more than realised. At first, passengers were not thought of; and it was only while the works were in progress that the starting of a passenger coach was seriously considered. An old stage coach, called the ' Queen Charlotte,' was purchased at a bargain, and mounted on a wooden frame. This was the entire passenger stock of the Stockton and Darlington line on the day of opening, and for some time afterwards. The number of persons then travelling between the two towns was indeed very inconsiderable, and it was not known whether these might be disposed to entrust their persons on the iron road. Mr. Stephenson, however, urged that the experiment of a stage coach was worthy of a trial; and so the ' Queen Charlotte' was purchased and mounted. The name of the coach was to be altered, and Mr. Stephenson was asked what he thought they should call her. 'The Expurritnent,' said he, in his strong Northumbrian tongue; and the coach was renamed 'The Experiment' accordingly. She had also emblazoned on her panels the company's arms, bearing the motto of 'Periculum privatum utilitas publica.'"
Out of all this sprang the town of Middlesborough-on-Tees. We remember the time, in 1825, when only one farm-house stood upon the spot, around which has spread the future metropolis of Cleveland, with a population already approaching to 20,000.
Then came the renewal of the Manchester and Liverpool project. It was very unacceptable to canal proprietors, some of whom had been annually receiving, for half-a-century, the whole amount of their original investment! Stephenson was at the head of the survey, and he and his men were treated as rogues and vagabonds by resident lords and gentlemen. Pamphlets and prophecies, both of the most alarming nature, were scattered broadcast. They threatened every evil as a consequence of railways, from a general conflagration to the cessation of laying eggs on the part of the hens. And then these interested soothsayers sought comfort hy trying to feel convinced that the whole thing was impracticable. When daily the practicability became more apparent, canal proprietors, so haughty previously, began to offer increased advantages of water carriage to the Liverpool and Manchester merchants; but it was "too late." In spite of tremendous difficulties, the railroad took shape. Very well, said the Quarterly Review, such a road is an absolute necessity; but "we scout the idea of a
general railroad, as altogether impracticable
The gross exaggerations of the powers of the locomotive engine, or, to speak in plain English, the steam-carriage, may delude for a time, but must end in the mortification of those concerned." Stephenson thought that there had been no exaggeration; and, though he was very much concerned, he was never in the slightest degree mortified. On the contrary, they were mortified who saw, and would fain have denied him, his triumph:—
"What [said the Reviewer] can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives travelling twice as fast as stage coaches? We should as soon expect the people of Woolwich to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's ricochet rockets, as trust themselves to the mercy of such a machine going at such a rate. We will back old Father Thames against the Woolwich Railway for any sum. We trust that Parliament will, in all railways it may sanction, limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour, which we entirely agree with Mr. Sylvester is as great as can be ventured on with safety."
Most of the practical and scientific men in the kingdom shared these opinions. George Stephenson smiled good-tcmperedly, and practically proved them to be unfounded. The very Parliamentary Committee before whom he was examined sneered at him as a lunatic when he modestly maintained that he could drive a locomotive at the rate of twelve miles an hour. The world of science shook its solemn head; and even gentle Religion, growing prejudiced, turned upwards her blue eyes, and seemed to ask forgiveness for the blasphemy of this presumptuous mechanic.
"One of the members of the Committee pressed the witness a little further. He put the following case :—' Suppose, now, one of these engines to be going along a railroad at the rate of nine or ten miles an hour, and that a cow were to stray upon the line and get in the way of the engine; would not that, think you, be a very awkward circumstance ?'—' Yes,' replied the witness, with a twinkle in his eye, 'verry awkward indeed— for the coo!'"
When he talked of getting over the difficulties of such an immense mass of pulp as Chat Moss, the opposing counsel pronounced his ignorance inconceivable. So, to them, was his knowledge.
That learned gentleman, Mr. Harrison, was very hilarious indeed at the idea of Irish members flying up to a division in carriages at the rate of twelve miles an hour;—and " Mr. Francis Giles, C. E." affirmed that "no engineer in his senses would go through Chat Moss if he wanted to make a road from Liverpool to Manchester. Mr. Giles said the carriages would all go to the bottom, and that it would be necessary to take this Moss completely out at the bottom, in order to make a solid road." Other C. E.'s designated Stephenson as that unprofessional person; one styled his plans as "very wild," and even the learned counsel, Alderson, declared Stephenson's project, "the most absurd scheme that it ever entered the head of man to conceive."—"I say he never had a plan," said Mr. Alderson; "I do not believe he is capable of making one." More than one such battle as this Stephenson had to fight single-handed; but neither abuse, nor sarcasm, nor cajolery, nor piteous howling, like that of Sir Isaac Coffin, could move him. Parliamentary permission was obtained at last, only at a cost of nearly £80,000, and all the "C. E.'s" bade "that unprofessional person" to go and do what was impossible. And, Jo Pasan '. he went and did it!—not without enormoas difficulty; but after every disappointment and querulous "What next?" his calm observation was "We must persevere." And now Chat Moss forms the very best part of the road between Liverpool and Manchester, and it was accomplished at a cost of £28,000, whereas Mr. Giles. C. E. had set down that the formation of a road there would cost £270,000. "He'll get nothing to run upon it," was a common remark.— "Certainly not at twelve miles an hour," was another.—" Perfectly impossible!" cried a third; "let him try it! Impossible!"—And as wc all know, George Stephenson put the "Rocket" on the line, and drove her at the rate of thirty miles an hour! Then' the greatest sceptics began to conceive that a revolution of an extraordinary nature was about to take place, and while some prophesied a wide extension of civilization, others looked to their Bibles to see if, in this, the end of the world were not foreshadowed ;—but these latter might have found comfort if they had opened at Isaiah, and found that good advice to railway travellers, "Whose strength is in sitting still."
Who, then alive, has forgotten the glory and the sorrow of the opening day, the 15th of Sep
'tember, 1830? The triumph of the "unprofessional person" was complete. It was rather perfected than diminished by the fatal accident
, to Mr. Huskisson.—"The 'Northumbrian' en
I gine conveyed the wouuded body of the unfortunate gentleman a distance of about fifteen miles in twenty-five minutes, or at the rate of thirtysix miles an hour. This incredible speed burst
! upon the world with all the effect of a new and